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Lebedeva N.M., Tatarko A.N. Basic Values in Russia: Their Dynamics, Ethnocultural Differences, and Relation to Economic Attitudes

Background. This study was carried out using the framework of S. Schwartz’s theory of basic human values. 

Objective. This article examines the dynamics of the basic values of Russians (2008– 2016) and the relationship between value orientations and economic attitudes among Christians and Muslims in Russia. 

Design. The dynamics of values of Russians were analyzed based on the five waves rounds of ESS (2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2016), each of which included around 2,000 respondents. The 2010 sample included ethnic Russians as well as respondents from the North Caucasus (N = 278). 

Results. We found that the most preferred value among Russians is Security. However, the importance of this value decreased over 10 years (2006–2016). Such values as Achievement, Tradition, and Power were relatively stable among Russians during this period. In addition, between 2006 and 2016 we observed the increasing priority of the values of Hedonism and Stimulation. Using our own data set, we examined the relations between values and attitudes toward different types of economic behavior. 

Conclusion. We found that the patterns of the relations between values and attitudes toward different types of economic behavior had similarities as well as differences among Christians (in the Central Federal District and the North Caucasus Federal District) and Muslims (in the North Caucasus Federal District) in Russia. 

About the authorsLebedeva, Nadezhda M.; Tatarko, Alexander N.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  36-52
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0303
Keywords:  culture, values, economic behavior, economic attitudes, cross-cultural comparison

Grigoryan L.K., Kotova M.V. National Identity Management Strategies: Do they Help or Hinder Adoption of Multiculturalism in Russia?

Background. We use Social identity theory as a theoretical framework, specifically focusing on strategies of identity management. The study is based on the following theoretical assumptions. First, identity management strategies might serve as mediators between different identity threats and behavioral patterns in intergroup relations. Second, identity management strategies help to make the shift from the individual to the group level of analysis, allowing us to take the consequences of intergroup behavior for a group entitativity into consideration. Third, identity management strategies strongly depend on the social context of intergroup relations. 

Objective. In the current study, we look into the relationships between identity management strategies of the ethnic Russian majority and their attitudes towards multiculturalism to identify whether certain strategies are helpful or harmful for the acceptance of multiculturalism in Russia. 

Design. We use Russia vs. the West comparison to evoke the perception of identity threat. We measure strategies of identity management based on this comparison, as well as attitudes towards multiculturalism in a survey of 307 Russian participants. 

Results. The findings suggest that identity management strategies are indeed related to attitudes towards cultural diversity and equality in Russia, as well as to acculturation expectations of whether minorities should adopt the mainstream Russian culture or keep their own. We find that strategies of individualization, individual mobility and assimilation have mostly negative consequences for acculturation expectations, as they all show patterns that support assimilation of minorities instead of integration. We also find support for the “scapegoat” hypothesis, showing that choosing the strategy of changing the comparison group results in more negative attitudes toward cultural diversity and equality for all in Russia. The strategies of social creativity (change of the categorization dimension, temporal comparison, comparison with a standard, etc.) seem to be irrelevant for attitudes towards multiculturalism. 

Conclusion. Our findings suggest that none of the strategies of identity management promote acceptance of multiculturalism. However, strategies of social creativity are the only ones that do not have negative consequences for support of multiculturalism. Theoretical and practical implications for multiculturalism policy adoption in Russia are discussed. 

About the authorsGrigoryan, Lusine K.; Kotova, Marina V.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  18-35
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0302
Keywords:  identity management strategies, national identity, multiculturalism, Russia

Asmolov A.G., Schekhter E.D., Chernorizov A.M., Lvova E.N. Prerequisites of Sociality: Historical and Evolutionary Analysis.

Background. Discussion of the social origins of personality formation, based on the biological individual, is a characteristic feature of modern interdisciplinary researches at the junction of natural science and the humanities. At the same time, evolutionary aspects of the relationship between the biological (innate) and the social (acquired) — i.e., the problem of the origin of sociality — come to the forefront. 

Objective. This article presents and discusses the hypothesis that the evolutionary origins of sociality are processes of evolutionary divergence (increasing individual diversity) and convergence (symbiosis) that define two oppositely directed vectors of the development of life from its simplest forms. 

Method and Results. The theoretical and experimental data used to discuss the hypothesis are considered here from the standpoint of the historical evolutionary approach to the processes of formation (evolution) of the uniqueness of the personality and of social interpersonal relations. The approach is based on an understanding of these processes as a special case of the evolution of interacting systems on the basis of two opposing trends — towards preserving and towards changing the system. The hypothesis allows us to answer two questions about the ambivalence of human existence in society: (a) Why do all people, regardless of their social status, find it so difficult to endure loneliness, which is incompatible with both the mental and even physical health of each of us? (b) Why at the same time do all of us involuntarily protect the “boundaries” of our own physical, mental, and social “Me”, the violation of which is as destructive (unacceptable) to us as is loneliness? 

Conclusion. Systematic historical-evolutionary analysis of the sciences of nature, society, and humankind allows us to isolate general patterns of development of complex systems, leading to a more accurate understanding of the phenomenon of personality. Such an interdisciplinary approach was used in this work on the biological roots of sociality and the particular features of individual existence in the external and to some extent social environment that generates unique individuals. 

About the authorsAsmolov, Aleksandr G. ; Schechter, Eugeniya D.; Chernorizov, Alexsander M. ; Lvova, Elena N.
ThemesMethodology of psychology
Pages:  2-17
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0301
Keywords:  systems, social communities, evolution of societies, sociality, symbiosis, indi- vidual diversity, person, historical and evolutionary approach

Zotova O. Yu., Karapetyan L. V. (2018). Psychological security as the foundation of personal psychological wellbeing (analytical review)

Background. Security as a socio-cultural phenomenon requires a comprehensive approach and integrates a multitude of aspects of social reality, each of which is important both for an individual and society as a whole. It has been shown that there are certain universal desires and needs which are valued by all cultures and peoples as essential to providing a high quality of life; one of such universals is the need for security. Consequently, the status of people’s security in a society directly depends on the processes taking place in the society as a whole, and a craving for security and the need for it act as powerful stimulators of social changes.

Aim. A theoretical analysis of studies on psychological security as a socio-cultural phenomenon.

Method. Sources were selected according the following principles of scientific cognition: development, systematicity, and determinism.

Result and discussion. It has been shown that, on the one hand, an individual’s security is the result of an effective political, economic, social, and cultural environment. On the other hand, a society’s security is a combination of individual people’s security. It has been proved that the strengthening of a society’s psychological security is key to achieving the wellbeing of different categories of people.

It has been demonstrated that security is a dynamic process, since at every point in time we are dealing with a new type of danger. As a result, psychological security must constantly be created all over again. The latent character of security is shown by the fact that a person starts to strain after it only when an actual threat to life, health, and wellbeing emerges. What’s more, the use of an interdisciplinary approach (psychological and sociological, in particular) appears to be the most fruitful, especially with regard to such latent phenomena as security and wellbeing.

It has been shown that all aspects of human behavior in all spheres of life can be interpreted in the context of both the sense of security and actual security, and in most cases it is the need for security that guides man’s action. It has also been demonstrated that people’s perceptions and assessment of their state of security are psychological processes, and thus, they are exposed to individual and group differences.

Modern research has shown that, in the modern world, the link between a sense of wellbeing and sense of security is drawing increasing attention. Yet it should be noted that there is a tendency to interpret the concept of security restrictively as protection from harm and satisfaction of basic needs. In other words, the idea that psychological wellbeing and security are complementary and mutually conditioned concepts has not been dealt with so far.

About the authorsZotova, Olga Yu. ; Karapetyan, Larisa V.
ThemesLuria’s Legacy in Cultural-Historical Psychology
Pages:  100-113
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0208
Keywords:  psychological security, psychological wellbeing, “ontological” security, “security theater,” need for security, perception of security.

Solovieva Yu., Quintanar L. (2018). Luria’s syndrome analysis for neuropsychologicalassessment and rehabilitation

Introduction. Neuropsychology, as a science, studies various possible relationships between psychological processes and the brain in cases of both normality and diverse pathologies. Such relationships might be established and understood in different manners. 

Background. A.R. Luria proposed a unique and specific approach by identifying different brain units. His conception is not completely understood, and is even less used in diagnosis and rehabilitation today. His conception of the systemic and dynamic representation of human actions in functional brain systems is the background for our study. Psychological conceptions of the stage-by-stage formation and orientation for action, and their use in rehabilitation, are taken into account.

Objective. The objective of our report is to share our application of Luria’s methodology of syndrome analysis through the presentation of the results of assessment and rehabilitation.

Design. Our study presents a unique case, along with data on the person’s assessment and rehabilitation, specifically, a qualitative assessment of an adolescent patient with severe brain injury.

Results. The assessment identified severe problems in the patient’s programming and self-control functions, together with spatial disorganization. The process of neuropsychological rehabilitation, as applied in two stages, showed positive effects on the activity and personality of the patient. Goals, stages, and examples of formation of actions in rehabilitation, with their results, are described.

Conclusion. We conclude that the systemic and dynamic approach in neuropsychology might be applied to assessment and rehabilitation. We discuss the necessity of establishing bridges between the psychological theory of actions (rather than functions) and the systemic representation of actions by functional brain systems.

About the authorsSolovieva, Yulia; Quintanar, Luis Rojas
ThemesLuria’s Legacy in Cultural-Historical Psychology
Pages:  81-99
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0207
Keywords:  neuropsychological rehabilitation, concepts of neuropsychology, functional diagnosis, qualitative neuropsychology, brain injury rehabilitation.

Nikolaeva E. I., Novikova A. V., Vergunov E. G. (2018). The correlation between intelligence, creativity and the parameters of sensorimotor integration in children of different ages

Introduction. Analysis of the literature suggests that the particular nature of the interplay between a person’s creativity and intelligence is determined not only by the conditions in which a person develops and their personality traits, but also their age.

Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the interaction between the levels of creativity and intelligence of 7 to 8 year-old children and 12 to 13 yearold teenagers, by studying how 7–8 year-old children and young teenagers (12–13 years old) with different levels of intelligence and creativity assimilate stochastic signals.

Design. A total of 160 children took part in the study, 80 first- and secondgraders who were 7–8 years old (37 boys and 43 girls), and 80 fifth-graders, aged 12–13 (40 boys and 40 girls). We used the following procedures: Raven’s Progressive Matrices; a battery of creative thinking tests, amounting to a modification of the Guilford and Torrance’s tests in a Russian adaptation created by E. Tunik; and the computer reflexometric method.

Results. Our findings showed that the relationship between the level of intelligence and the level of creativity is different in the two age groups. With 7–8 year-olds, the two parameters are independent of each other, whereas with 12–13 year-olds, there is a weak but significant link between them. With the 7–8 year-old children, the level of creativity predetermines the child’s ability to detect the structure of a sensory stream that is organized in a complex way. At the ages of 12–13, neither the level of creativity nor the level of intelligence is correlated with the parameters of sensorimotor integration, but the two parameters are interconnected.

About the authorsNikolaeva Elena I.; Novikova, Anastasiya V.; Vergunov, Eugeny G.
ThemesLuria’s Legacy in Cultural-Historical Psychology
Pages:  68-80
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0206
Keywords:  creativity, intelligence, children, teenagers, reaction time, simple and complex sensorimotor reactions

Prokopenko S. V., Bezdenezhnykh A. F., Mozheyko E. U., Petrova M. M. (2018). A comparative clinical study of the effectiveness of computer cognitive training in patients with post-stroke cognitive impairments without dementia

Introduction. A complex of computer neuropsychological programs was developed at KrasSMU, which in several pilot studies has shown effectiveness in cognitive training for patients with vascular cognitive impairments (VCI).

Objectives. The aim of the present study was to compare changes in cognitive status in those patients with post-stroke VCI who worked with neuropsychological computer programs, with those changes experienced by a group of similar patients who played entertaining computer games. 

Methods. Patients in the early recovery period after a hemispheric stroke with VCI without dementia (N=26, age 40-67) were randomized into three groups. All patients underwent conventional treatment in a rehabilitation hospital. Patients in the intervention group had ten daily 40-minute training sessions with neuropsychological computer programs. Participants in the active control group played entertaining computer games, and kept an identical regimen. Patients in the passive control group received only conventional treatment. Cognitive, neurological, affective, and functional states were assessed before and after the training periods. 

Results. Significant improvements were observed in the intervention group as compared to the passive control group on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, p=0.0004), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT, p=0.001), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, p=0.01). Differences between the groups of patients playing neuropsychological and entertaining games were statistically insignificant (Mann-Whitney U test, p>0.05), although in the intervention group there were improvements on every cognitive scale after the training period (Wilcoxon matched pairs test, p<0.05), while in the active control group, enhancements were evident only on some cognitive scales (p<0.05). No changes were observed in the passive control group.

Conclusions. Neuropsychological computer programs enhance cognitive status in patients with post-stroke VCI. It is possible that entertaining computer games can also improve cognitive functions. In all groups, no changes of functional state were observed before and after the training period.

About the authorsProkopenko, Semen V.; Bezdenezhnykh, Anna F.; Mozheyko, Elena U.; Petrova, Marina M.
ThemesLuria’s Legacy in Cultural-Historical Psychology
Pages:  55-67
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0205
Keywords:  Cognitive training, computer cognitive training, stroke, cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological computer programs, vascular cognitive impairments, poststroke cognitive impairments.

Moskaleva P. V., Shilkina O. S., Shnayder N. A. Individual neuropsychological characteristics in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

Background. An association between juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and nonpsychotic psychiatric and cognitive disorders has been described in recent years. Scientists are trying to link JME with certain personality traits marked by emotional instability.

Objective. The goal of our research was to assess the state of cognitive functions in young adult patients with JME–excluding the adverse side effects (ASEs) of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)–and analyze the level of personality and situational anxiety, neuroticism, and depression in young adult patients with JME.

Design. We tested 26 patients with JME and 26 healthy adults with the computer program NS-PsychoTest (Neurosoft Company, RF), a program which is aimed at studying and evaluating neuropsychological characteristics. 

Results. Our study showed that the frequency of depressive symptoms, according to the cognitive-affective subscale (Beck’s Depression Inventory), in patients with JME was statistically significantly higher than among people without epilepsy. Comorbid personality and nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders are common interdisciplinary problems in JME management. Most practitioners pay attention only to the treatment of seizures caused by JME, and their patients, accordingly, do not receive adequate psychotherapeutic help.

Conclusion. Cognitive disorders are often associated with epilepsy, and are a result of a combination of factors. According to our study, in the presence of statistically significant differences in short-term memory and mental performance in patients with JME, compared to healthy young adults, the main indicators of cognitive function in patients with JME generally correspond to the norm. Our findings highlight the etiological heterogeneity of cognitive disorders in JME and the importance of early screening for them.

About the authorsMoskaleva, Polina V.; Shilkina, Olga S.; Shnayder, Natalia A.
ThemesLuria’s Legacy in Cultural-Historical Psychology
Pages:  42-54
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0204
Keywords:  juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), individual neuropsychological characteristics, cognitive functions, anxiety, depression.

Cole M. Editorial.

It is now more than half a century since I spent a year in Moscow as a post-doctoral fellow working under the supervision of Alexander Romanovich Luria. That experience and the 15 years during which we corresponded and organized translations have fundamentally shaped my scientific career. Simultaneously the reach and influence of Luria’s ideas have continued to diffuse throughout modern scientific psychology. The following remarks are intended to suggest some of the recent accomplishments and current issues facing those who have adopted a Lurian approach, which traces its origins back to the 1920’s.

In my view, the development of a cultural-historical psychology will depend greatly on the degree to which it can guide efforts at life-generating, socially sanctioned, new forms of activity in health, in education, in preparation to confront the challenges to human existence posed by human beings themselves.

ThemesLuria’s Legacy in Cultural-Historical Psychology
Pages:  2-6
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0200
Keywords:  Luria’s Legacy in Cultural-Historical Psychology

Pronina E. E. The new media and the evolution of the human psyche

Background. The emergence of the new media — the Internet and social networks — has had a considerable impact not only on media technologies, genres of journalism, and environment the journalist works in, but also on every user of global communication. Ongoing changes are extending their influence to all the media, making it important for researchers to reconsider the role of journalism in modern society and the perspectives of its development in the information age.

Objective. In order to get an adequate picture of the ongoing changes, we need to understand how the new media impact their users. We studied the dependence of people’s self-identification (values) on their Internet activity and use of social networks. Our hypothesis was that use of the new media leads to the formation of a new personality type, among whose most distinct characteristics is a much stronger desire for selfdetermination. 

Design. The characteristic features of respondents’ self-identification were studied by their choosing a reference group. Their desire for self-determination was revealed by giving them ethical dilemmas. A questionnaire was devised to study their communicative preferences and attitudes. Various methods of mathematical analysis were applied. 

Results. Factor analysis revealed two psychological types of people, different from others in how much they use the new media. Statistical analyses of the group comparison data showed that the desire for self-determination is considerably higher for active users, and is especially high for those who adhere to spiritual values (by the Maslow pyramid). A two-way ANOVA confirmed the overall effect of these two factors — spiritual values and the new media — on the desire for self-determination. 

Conclusion. The data obtained show that the new media support people’s desire for self-determination. Using the new media and thereby acquiring the identify of a journalist becomes an important factor of personality development and is in line with the general evolution of the psyche.

About the authorsPronina, Elena E.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  148-160
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.02011
Keywords:  identity of a communicator, media psychology, citizen journalism, self-determination, new media

Dikiy I. S., Dikaya L. A., Karpova V. V., Lavreshina A. Y., Kagramanyan M. R. (2018). Psychological characteristics of art specialists with a highly productive creative imagination.

Background: Notwithstanding all the different forms of art, the source of the creative process, its initial impulse, is an artistic image, and its creation is closely connected with the imagination. L. Vygotsky held the view that artistic creativity has great importance in overall development. In this regard, it is relevant to study the role of personal psychological characteristics that stimulate creativity, determine creative potential, and indicate personal predisposition to artistic activity. 

Objective: to study individual psychological characteristics of art specialists with a highly productive creative imagination. 

Design: There were 240 respondents: art specialists (artists, actors) and specialists who do not work in artistic fields. The empirical research included: assessment of the level of productivity of the creative imagination and psychological testing. All the participants, within the bounds of their profession, were divided into high productivity and low productivity groups. The productivity level of the creative imagination was assessed by expert judgment of art works made by the participants using a monotype technique. For psychological testing, the following methods were used: Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI); Volitional Self-Control Inventory by A. Zverkov and E. Eidman; the “Choose the Side” test by E. Torrance; the “Unfinished Figures” subtest by E. Torrance; and the technique of pair comparisons by V. Skvortsov. Statistical data processing was conducted on the basis of percentage distribution and comparative analysis using the Student parametric t-test. We used STATISTICA 13.0 software. 

Results: We found the following psychological characteristics of art specialists with highly productive creative imagination: high emotionality, inclination to affective reactions, high anxiety and excitability, and need for self-realization. Artists with highly productive creative imagination were characterized by immersion in their own emotions, psychic estrangement, high sensitivity, flexibility, ingenuity, right-hemisphere and combined types of thinking, and a high level of nonverbal creativity. Actors with highly productive creative imagination were characterized by stability, relaxation, selfsatisfaction, and average nonverbal creativity; the mixed type of thinking predominated in this group.

Conclusion: The differences in the intensity of the psychological characteristics of representatives of these different professional groups may be determined by the level of productivity of their creative imagination. We discovered general and specific (depending on professional activity) psychological characteristics of art specialists with a high level of productivity of the creative imagination.

About the authorsDikiy, Igor S.; Dikaya, Liudmila A.; Karpova, Viktorija V.; Lavreshina, Anastasiya Y.; Kagramanyan, Margarita R.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  134-147
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.02010
Keywords:  artists, actors, creative imagination, monotype, volitional regulation, type of thinking, creativity

Kornilova T. V., Chumakova M. A., Krasavtseva Yu. V. Emotional intelligence, patterns for coping with decisional conflict, and academic achievement in cross-cultural perspective (evidence from selective Russian and Azerbaijani student populations)

Background. Choice, under conditions of uncertainty, is mediated by integral dynamic regulatory systems that represent hierarchies of cognitive and personality processes. As such, individual decision-making patterns can be studied in the context of intellectual and personality potential. This article presents the results of a cross-cultural comparison of personality characteristics, such as coping with uncertainty, emotional intelligence, and academic achievement, between Azerbaijani and Russian university students.

Objective. We aimed at establishing metric invariance and at highlighting relationships between emotional intelligence and the scales of the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ).

Design. Azerbaijani and Russian student samples were selected for this study due to the almost identical educational programs offered by Moscow State University to students in Moscow and its branch in Baku. Coping with uncertainty was measured by the MDMQ, emotional intelligence by the EmIn questionnaire, and academic achievement by GPA scores. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify factor structure invariance and congruence.

Results. The congruence of factor structures for both questionnaires was verified. For the MDMQ four-factor structure for both samples was confirmed. For the EmIn questionnaire, invariance for two scales was established — “Understanding other people’s emotions” and “Managing own emotions”. Relationships among personality traits, gender, age, and academic achievements are explained for the Lomonosov Moscow State University students in Moscow (Russia) and its branch in Baku (Azerbaijan). No crosscultural differences were found for emotional intelligence and productive coping (Vigilance). A cultural difference was established in unproductive coping preference for Buck Passing. A similarity between the cultures was captured in the relationship of higher emotional intelligence (EQ) scores to higher Vigilance scores and to lower levels of unproductive coping patterns. Vigilance was a predictor of academic achievement, but only in the Russian sample.

Conclusion. The similarity of the educational systems, as both samples studied similar programs, demonstrates very few cross-cultural differences.

About the authorsKornilova, Tatiana V. ; Chumakova, Maria A.; Krasavtseva, Yulia V.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  114-133
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0209
Keywords:  uncertainty, emotional intelligence, vigilance, buck passing, procrastination, GPA, Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ)

Sultanova A. (2018). Neuropsychological analysis of the features of mental development in school age children with mild perinatal hypoxic damage of the nervous system in their anamnesis. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (2), 25-38.

Background. Perinatal pathology of the nervous system (PPNS) of hypoxic genesis is one of the most significant causes of deviations in mental development. It is necessary to investigate the impact of mild PPNS for the child’s mental ontogenesis, because coarser perinatal lesions, as a rule, lead to significant violations of development and should be analyzed separately. From our point of view, the qualitative neuropsychological syndromic analysis adopted in Russian child neuropsychology is the most productive way to study this problem.

Objective. The purpose of this study was to conduct neuropsychological analysis of the features of mental development of school-age children with mild hypoxic PPNS in their anamnesis.

Design. Our research involved 62 children 10-12.5 years old, who were studying in comprehensive schools in Moscow. The main group was comprised of 42 neurologically healthy children who had hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy of mild severity in their anamnesis. The control group was comprised of 20 neurologically healthy children without indication of pathology of pregnancy and labor in their anamnesis.

Methods. We used neuropsychological Luria tests that have been adapted for children, conducted an interview of parents and teachers about the peculiarities of children’s behavior, and analyzed electroencephalogram reports.

Results. Every child with PPNS exhibited similar features, such as neurodynamic disorders and a lack of voluntary control. We called this symptom complex “subcorticalfrontal” neuropsychological syndrome. In addition, each child in the main group had a failure of at least one neuropsychological factor. The following functions showed insufficiency most often: voluntary attention, speech development, verbal-auditory memory, kinetic and kinesthetic praxis, visual-spatial gnosis, and phonemic hearing. Left hemisphere functions and interhemispheric interaction suffered to a greater degree. The children with PPNS were divided into two subgroups, depending on the severity of the insufficiency of executive functions (EF). Children with severe insufficiency of EF more frequently demonstrated violation of development of verbal-logical thinking, difficulties in social adaptation, emotional disorders, and deviant behavior.

Conclusion. The mental development of school-age children with mild PPNS in their anamnesis differs from the development of their peers. We can talk about the longterm consequences of mild hypoxic perinatal damage of the nervous system.

Abbreviation: PPNS — perinatal pathology of the nervous system; CNS — central nervous system; EEG — electroencephalogram; EF — executive functions.

About the authorsSultanova, Alfiya
ThemesLuria’s Legacy in Cultural-Historical Psychology
Pages:  25-38
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0203
Keywords:  perinatal hypoxic damage of the nervous system; child neuropsychology; cultural-historical concept; neuropsychological analysis; school-age children.

Maslova O.V. (2018). Value shifts in Vietnamese students studying in Russia. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (2), 14-24.

Background. The extension of intercultural contacts in the present-day world calls for a thorough study of what effect these contacts produce on the human personality. When an individual is suddenly immersed in a different culture, his or her consciousness becomes a battlefield where new values conflict with the old. The person experiences an axiological shock, a ``value clash,” which urges him or her to undertake a re-examination of his/ her value system as a whole.

Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the changes occurring in the value system of Vietnamese students obtaining their higher education in Russia.

Design. A longitudinal study was performed involving 100 Vietnamese students in Russian universities. The measurement methods used in the study were: 1) the modified M. Rokeach Value Survey (Rokeach, 1973; Kudrjashov, 1992), in which the original set of values was expanded by 20 additional values typical of the Vietnamese people; and 2) the technique for assessing acculturation strategies developed by J.W. Berry (Strategii mezhkul’turnogo vzaimodejstvija..., 2009).

Results. In the course of a year of residence in Russia, specific changes (or “shifts”) occurred in the value systems of the Vietnamese students which proved to be statistically significant. Among the goal values (the same as terminal values, in the terms of M. Rokeach) which took on more weight were Productive Life and Materially Prosperous Life, while among instrumental values, Tidiness and Frugality became more prominent. A difference between the value dynamics in male and female students was also established, with the value pattern of male students proving to be more dynamic. The next finding was the difference in value dynamics between students coming from urban and rural settlements. There was one more quite unexpected finding: The value pattern changed more noticeably in respondents with an acculturation profile of “Integration and Separation,” than in those with profiles of “Integration and Assimilation” and “Pure Integration.

Conclusion. Therefore we see that factors such as gender, type of environment (rural/urban) the individual comes from, and the strategy of acculturation used by the individual, act as mediators exerting their own influence upon the dynamics of his/her value patterns.

Abbreviation: PF = Preliminary Faculty

About the authorsMaslova, Olga V.
ThemesLuria’s Legacy in Cultural-Historical Psychology
Pages:  14-24
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0202
Keywords:  acculturation, value pattern, value dynamics, Vietnamese students, acculturation strategies, acculturation profile.

Glozman J.M. (2018). A reproduction of Luria’ s expedition to Central Asia. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (2), 4-13.

Background. About 40 years ago, Alexander Luria published in 1974 his world known book “On the historical development of cognitive processes”. It describes the data of an experimental study of mental functions in illiterate people living in the peripheral parts of Uzbekistan (Central Asia). A.R. Luria together with L.S. Vygotsky worked out the design of this study, performed in 1931-1933. The study proved a significant influence of social life and literacy on the structure of logical reasoning. In the conclusion to this book Luria indicates, that his colleagues often advised him to repeat this study in 40 years, but the author did not considered it reasonable, as radical changes in cultural and educational level of Asia population must equalize the differences in cognitive processes with people from central regions. Is it so?

Study design. A group of psychologists from Moscow, Belgorod and Petropavlovsk Kamchatsky performed an integrated study of endogenous populations of the north of Kamchatka peninsula living in regional centers or nomadic herdsmen in tundra. Thirty subjects (17 men and 13 females) all with primary education in Russian schools were assessed using the same tests on classification and generalization, as Luria did, together with Luria neuropsychological battery, and projective drawing on life attitudes.

Conclusion. Life values of endogenous peoples are more nature centered than in Russians from central regions. Nomadic and settled subgroups with the same level of education differed in some neuropsychological tests, revealing the influence of social life conditions. It confirms Luria’s idea about cultural determination of cognitive processes but also shows that life conditions are as important cultural factors as literacy.

About the authorsGlozman, Janna M.
ThemesLuria’s Legacy in Cultural-Historical Psychology
Pages:  4-13
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0201
Keywords:  cultural-historical psychology; social life; cognitive processes; life values.

Zizevskaia E., Shchukina M. (2018). Gender schemas in perception of gender neutral images. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (1), 151-163.

Background: Gender stereotypes are still a social problem. They display themselves in the process of perception by activating a gender schema as well as androcentrism and gender polarization lenses. 

Objective: This paper addresses the dependence of perception on social stereotypes and schemas. e research aimed at understanding how a gender-neutral image of a cat is perceived, and checking such factors as gender schema, gender-stereotyped context, the animal’s weight, the identification of participants with an animal on basis of their own gender. 

Design: A Female Cat or Male Cat Test, consisting of 12 pictures, was constructed for this research. We also used the Masculinity, Femininity and Gender Type of Personality Inventory, the Russian version of the Male Attitude Norms Inventory. Tests were conducted on 197 students in Saint-Petersburg and Moscow. 

Results: A cat was perceived as male 6.4 times more often than as a female, when each case of perception was counted. It was seen as male 7.2 times more often than as a female when we analyzed how the cat was seen in general by each participant. A gender-stereotyped context influenced perception for some participants. There was no influence of the animal’s weight or identification of participants with an animal on basis of their own gender. 

Conclusions: The research supports the hypotheses that perception of a picture of a gender-neutral animal can be explained mainly by gender schema and the interplay between “lenses” of gender polarization and androcentrism. When the last one was activated, the cat was seen as male. Most of cases when the animal was seen as a female can be explained by the influence of polarization lenses (through gender-stereotyped context in the pictures). 

About the authorsZizevskaia Ekaterina; Shchukina Mariia
ThemesPsychology and culture
Pages:  151-163
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0112
Keywords:  gender neutral image, gender schema, androcentrism, polarization lens, male, female, perception

Solovieva Yu., Quintanar L. (2018). Rehabilitation of semantic aphasia in spanish speaking patient. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (1), 137-150.

Background. Aphasia is defined as a language disorder resulting from brain damage. The establishment of the relationship between the assessment and the procedures for rehabilitation is one of fundamental aspects of clinical neuropsychology. 

Objective. The objective of this study is to describe the case of a Spanish-speaking patient with semantic aphasia, along with the strategies used in her neuropsychological assessment, and the procedures and results of her rehabilitation. 

Design. The study method consisted of a clinical “Case Study” through qualitative neuropsychological syndrome analysis during pre- and post-assessment. The program for rehabilitation was designed especially for this case, and applied in individual therapeutic sessions with the patient. The inclusion of different kinds of material, perceptual, and verbal tasks permitted the patient to follow the levels of formation of actions with spatial orientation, starting from the most concrete level, and passing on to a more general, abstract level. The process of rehabilitation was carried out as a joint activity, taking into account the patient’s motivation and personality. 

Results. Important positive changes were obtained by the time of the final assessment. The patient became able to understand complex grammatical structures in sentences and texts, in order to fulfill construction tasks and to express herself correctly both orally and in writing.

Conclusion. The authors conclude that an effective assessment leads directly to the effectiveness of the whole process of elaborating and realizing rehabilitation. Semantic aphasia can be studied in Spanish-speaking patients by using the qualitative methodology of neuropsychological assessment proposed in the works of A.R. Luria. 

About the authorsSolovieva, Yulia; Quintanar, Luis Rojas
ThemesPsychology and culture
Pages:  137-150
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0111
Keywords:  aphasia, semantic aphasia, diagnosis of aphasia, neuropsychological rehabilitation, brain injury

Collings N.Y. (2018). Rudimentary functions: Important reminders of history and relationship. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (1), 125-136.

Background. When Vygotsky suggested the term rudimentary functions for psychological phenomena, he drew a parallel with organismic rudiments that existed and continue to exist in a number of biological species. These rudiments used to play an important role in the life of an organism and allow us to study that life in the process of its development. Vygotsky originally gave three explicit examples of psychological rudimentary functions: 1) attributing an important decision to the result of a solitaire card game, 2) tying a knot in a handkerchief in order to remember and do something later, and 3) counting on one’s fingers. 

Objective. The purpose of this article is to offer a contemporary overview and paths for development of L.S. Vygotsky’s notion of rudimentary function. 

Design. This paper, in the genre of a theoretical article, drew on existing research and theoretical literature to advance a theory. I analyzed Vygotsky’s original example of a solitaire game and similar actions (for example, flipping a coin), arguing that these actions represent key events mediating choice and exercising human will over affect. I then focused on three more psychological functions that fit Vygotsky’s definition of rudiments: 1) photographic memory and déjà vu as instances of historically primitive eidetic memory, 2) talking to one-self aloud as a rudiment of a key event forming the self-regulatory mechanism of inner speech in childhood, and 3) fantasizing, which could remind us of our young age, when imagination readily created what was lacking in external world. 

Results. This analysis allowed me to vividly illustrate the historical and relational focus of Vygotsky’s theories. 

Conclusions. Rudimentary functions, often perceived as mysterious, in their simplicity can be powerful reminders that historically primitive functions do not disappear, but enter complex relationships with other psychological functions, and that many relationships are possible within different cultural-historical formations, with Western civilization being just one example.

About the authorsCollings Natalia Y.
ThemesPsychology and culture
Pages:  125-136
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0110
Keywords:  cultural-historical theory, higher and lower-order psychological functions, doub- le stimulation

Akifyeva R., Alieva A. (2018). The influence of student ethnicity on teacher expectations and teacher 
perceptions of warmth and competence. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (1), 106-124.

Background. Previous research shows that incorrect teacher expectations about students can affect students’ academic success. Moreover, students’ ethnicity was found to be one of the most influential characteristics affecting teacher expectations, which can be based on ethnic stereotypes. Most studies test this relationship by comparing teacher expectations of multiple ethnic groups; however, we propose here another perspective, assuming that the connection between ethnic stereotypes and expectations may be determined by the content of the stereotypes.

Objective. This study examines the influence of students’ ethnicity on teacher expectations and stereotypes, as well as the relationship of teacher expectations and stereotypes toward ethnic minority students, by including the stereotype content model in the analysis.

Design. Thirty-four primary school teachers participated in the experiment in which they analyzed six fictional profiles of students, two of which were experimental. The experimental profiles contained identical information (annual school grade, a teacher testimonial, gender), but differed in names of the students and their parents, and in their migration background. Thus, we manipulated only the information related to ethnicity and migration history of two students.

Results. Teacher expectations about the performance of minority students were al- ways unfavorable compared with expectations about the performance of the majority students, but their expectations about the abilities of minority and majority students, which include teachers’ beliefs about students’ educational skills, attitudes and motivation, and capacity for school work, were mixed. We also discovered that the teacher expectations were positively related to perceptions of competence and not to perceptions of warmth. However, the minority student was evaluated by teachers as just as warm and competent as the majority.

About the authorsAkifyeva Raisa; Alisa Alieva
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  106-124
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0109
Keywords:  teacher expectations, stereotypes, stereotype content model, warmth, competence, ethnic minority students

Kudinov S.I., Kudinov S.S., Kudinova I.B., Belousova S.S. (2018). The axiological orientation of students’ personality. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (1), 95-105.

Background. Our empirical research and analysis revealed characteristics of the axiological orientation of students’ personalities.

Objective. We identified the principal types of orientation, dominant values, and attitudes of the personality in the motivational-needs sphere through a variety of validated and reliable techniques and methods.

Design We understand the axiological orientation of the personality as a relatively stable set of values, motivations, needs, and moral structures produced through the lens of actions, in and through various spheres of social life, which describes complex system of a person’s perception of him-/herself, his or her perceptions of othersand his or her attitude towards work and other activities.

Results. The results of the empirical research demonstrate that a set of axiological, motivational, and need characteristics form pragmatic-professional, social-communicative, or individual-egoistic types of axiological orientation of the personality, which in turn describe the subject’s attitude to the surrounding external reality and to him/herself. e pragmatic-professional type of person is dominated by values such as work, results, money, and process. e least attractive value to this type appears to be power. Respondents with a social-communicative type of axiological orientation have altruism, result and money as their main personal values. Values such as egocentrism, power, money, and freedom are a distinguishing mark of those with the individual-egoistic axiological orientation.

Conclusion. This study also addresses how and through what patterns and mechanisms the axiological orientation of students’ personalities is expressed, which could enable professionals to develop educational programs aimed at harmonizing and aligning societal values and the individual’s attitudes. 

About the authorsKudinov Sergey I.; Kudinov Stanislav S.; Kudinova Irina B.; Belousova Sofia S.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  95-105
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0108
Keywords:  values, axiological orientation, students, personality, attitudes

Podolskaya T.A., Utenkov A.V. (2018). Detecting and overcoming infantilism in students at teachers colleges. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (1), 84-94.

Background. The variety of preschools is one of the primary issues of contemporary early education in Russia. The traditional approach focuses on the transmission of knowledge, patterns of social behavior, and assumes teacher-centered interaction between child and teacher. The developmental approach focuses on developing the child’s abilities and using cultural tools, rather than just transmitting educational content. A comparison of different preschool approaches and outcomes may help in choosing the most suitable one for each child.

Objective. The aim of this study is to identify the connection between approaches in preschool and children’s school readiness.

Our hypothesis is that the traditional approach and the developmental approach provide different school readiness outcomes.

Design. Ninety-two preschool students (51 boys and 41 girls) aged six to seven were involved in this study. These children attended preschools in the western and southwestern districts of Moscow. Six preschool psychologists and teachers were interviewed. The research was conducted between 2011 and 2013.

Results: An empirical study proved that most children achieve a high level of cognitive readiness, can interact with successfully peers, and can control aggression; however, they also have difficulties with cooperative relations with their teacher and with expressing their opinion. A comparison of school readiness outcomes of the traditional and developmental approaches showed that the children who attended a preschool with the developmental approach demonstrated a higher level of school readiness: they are able to ask for help, to coordinate their creative intentions with peers, and to empathize with them. Their self-consciousness is greater than that of their peers who are educated under the traditional approach. Also, they demonstrate a greater voluntary readiness for school. Meanwhile, children who attended preschools with the traditional approach demonstrated а higher level of verbal-logical reasoning. 

About the authorsPodolskaya Tatiana A.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  84-94
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0107
Keywords:  infantilism, overcoming academic and professional infantilism, self-actualization, internality, structural components of infantilism, conditions to overcome infantilism

Orlov A.A., Pazukhina S.V., Yakushin A.V., Ponomareva T.M. (2018). A study of first-year students’ adaptation difficulties as the basis to promote
their personal development in university education. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (1), 71-84.

Background. The relevance of the paper is determined by the study of types, structure of adaptive difficulties and their impact on the student’s personal development in the process of professionalization in the university.

Objective. To examine the psychological characteristics of difficulties that arise in the process of students’ adaptation to university instruction.

Design. The authors divide the difficulty in adaptation into four categories: motivational, communicational, cognitive, and regulatory. For each category, the authors offer pedagogical technologies that promote the personal development of students on the basis of their prevailing difficulties.

Results. Motivational difficulties are related to poor cognitive motivation, poor motivation to master a profession. Communication difficulties are attributed by the authors to poor communication skills. Cognitive difficulties are defined by insufficient general learning skills and a poor capacity for reflection and self-esteem. The source of regulatory difficulties is a lack of self-organization skills and poor self-control.

Conclusion. Correlation analysis confirmed that there are significant connections between, on the one hand, students’ adaptability to the educational process and to their study group, and on the other, the investigated parameters that show their motivational, communicative, cognitive, and regulatory difficulties. Using cluster analysis of the empirical data, the authors identified four main student subgroups with different graphic profiles reflecting their personal difficulties in adaptation to university education; their psychological characteristics are given. Analysis of these difficulties has allowed the authors to offer an optimal psychological and educational strategy for the interactions of each of the subgroups, to optimize their personal development in the educational process.

About the authorsOrlov Aleksandr A.; Pazukhina Svetlana V.; Yakushin Aleksey V.; Ponomareva Tat’yana M.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  71-84
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0106
Keywords:  adaptation, personal development, adaptational difficulties

Bayanova L.F., Chulyukin K.S. (2018). The impact of cultural congruence on the creative thinking of primary school children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (1), 61-70.

Background. There have been many psychological studies, which show what factors enhance creative thinking in childhood, including studies on the impact of intelligence, personality, self-esteem, and other characteristics. But little is known of the impact of cultural congruence on the enhancement of creative thinking in childhood. In that regard, it would be interesting to explore whether cultural congruence influences the enhancement of the creative thinking of primary school students.

Objective. This study is aimed at examining the impact of cultural congruence on enhancing the creative thinking of primary school students. Cultural congruence can be described as a personality trait based on compliance with the rules which a society determines appropriate according to age and culture. 303 respondents participated in this study, of which 293 were primary school students aged 8-10 years (M=9, σ±0.5), and 10 were primary school teachers who worked with these children.

Results. The results of this study indicate that children’s compliance with the rules of age-specific normative situations — i.e. the level of cultural congruence– correlate, albeit negatively, with expressions of creative thinking.

Conclusion. The findings in this study provide further evidence of reasons for enhancing creative thinking in childhood, where cultural congruence and its factors defining the preschool child’s compliance with the rules in a normative situation influence the enhancement of the creative thinking of primary school students. This paper is aimed at identifying the impact of cultural congruence and its factors on the creative thinking of primary school students. The previously highlighted fact that cultural congruence has an impact on creative thinking of primary school students may be ascribed to various causes. First of all, it is noteworthy that there are no typical invariable rules within the factors making up cultural congruence which would enhance a child’s creative thinking. This provision defines the essence of the cultural context and the culturally shaped rules regulating the child’s behavior. Thus, the impact of cultural congruence is that it limits creative thinking. This tendency is noticeable in elementary school. The impact of cultural congruence on creative thinking also deals with the fact that socially accepted conventions limit children’s spontaneous activity, since the rules impose particular behavioral patterns on them. Therefore, children focus more on imitation than on finding their own solutions. Not coincidentally, cultural congruence had an impact on subtests, which measured creative thinking through non-verbal materials. These materials dealt with the child’s ability to find unusual ways to use everyday objects, to forecast different consequences of a hypothetical situation, to make specific objects with a set of shapes, to create new drawings from identical figures, and to find figures hidden in poorly structured images.

About the authorsBayanova, Larisa F.; Chulyukin, Kirill S.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  61-70
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0105
Keywords:  creative thinking, cultural congruence, normative situations, rules, norms, behavior, primary school student

Nisskaya A.K. (2018). School readiness outcomes of different preschool educational approaches. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (1), 43-60.

Background. The variety of preschools is one of the primary issues of contemporary early education in Russia. The traditional approach focuses on the transmission of knowledge, patterns of social behavior, and assumes teacher-centered interaction between child and teacher. The developmental approach focuses on developing the child’s abilities and using cultural tools, rather than just transmitting educational content. A comparison of different preschool approaches and outcomes may help in choosing the most suitable one for each child.

Objective. The aim of this study is to identify the connection between approaches in preschool and children’s school readiness.

Our hypothesis is that the traditional approach and the developmental approach provide different school readiness outcomes.

Design. Ninety-two preschool students (51 boys and 41 girls) aged six to seven were involved in this study. These children attended preschools in the western and southwestern districts of Moscow. Six preschool psychologists and teachers were interviewed. The research was conducted between 2011 and 2013.

Results: An empirical study proved that most children achieve a high level of cognitive readiness, can interact with successfully peers, and can control aggression; however, they also have difficulties with cooperative relations with their teacher and with expressing their opinion. A comparison of school readiness outcomes of the traditional and developmental approaches showed that the children who attended a preschool with the developmental approach demonstrated a higher level of school readiness: they are able to ask for help, to coordinate their creative intentions with peers, and to empathize with them. Their self-consciousness is greater than that of their peers who are educated under the traditional approach. Also, they demonstrate a greater voluntary readiness for school. Meanwhile, children who attended preschools with the traditional approach demonstrated а higher level of verbal-logical reasoning. 

About the authorsNisskaya, Anastasia K.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  43-60
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0104
Keywords:  school readiness, traditional preschool approach, developmental preschool approach

Ermakov P.N., Abakumova I.V., Kovsh E.M. (2018). Psychophysiological traits of men with several genotypes in polymorphic locus Val158Met COMT and different levels of aggressiveness. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (1), 32-44.

Background. The catechol-O-methyl transferase gene influences the reuptake of monoamines (dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline) from the synaptic space. The structural peculiarities of this gene are linked with the duration of stay of neurotransmitters in the synaptic gap and the emergence and duration of emotional reactions, which may considerably affect a person’s level of aggressiveness; these peculiarities may manifest as psychophysiological characteristics.

Objective and design. This study investigated the amplitude, spatio-temporal traits and sources of evoked brain activity in men with several genotypes in the polymorphic locus Val158Met in the COMT (Catechol-O-methyl transferase) gene, levels of aggressiveness using the Buss-Darkee inventory, proneness to various types of deviant and addictive behaviors in accordance with the methods of A.N. Oryol and the preferred strategies of behavior during conflict in accordance with the methods of Kenneth Thomas. Statistical processing of psychodiagnostic data included dispersive (ANOVA) and discriminative analyses.

Results. This study found significant differences in the parameters of evoked brain activity components in responses to emotionally charged stimuli (“aggression”, “positive”, “tolerance”, “extremism, terrorism”) compared with neutral images. Student’s t-test (Holms- corrected for multiple comparisons) was used to analyze the EEG-VEP data.

Conclusion. This study confirmed the hypothesis of differences in spatio-temporal and amplitude parameters of evoked brain potentials in young men exhibiting differing levels of aggressiveness. The sources of evoked brain activity determined using sLORETA (Standardized Low-resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) were different between carriers of different genotypes.

About the authorsErmakov, Pavel N. ; Abakumova, Irina V.; Kovsh Ekaterina M.
Pages:  32-44
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0103
Keywords:  aggressiveness, visual-evoked potentials, COMT, neurotransmitters, emotionally charged stimuli

Menshikova G.Ya., Saveleva O.A., Zinchenko Yu.P. (2018). The study of ethnic attitudes during interactions with avatars in virtual environments. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (1), 20-31.

Background. Modern technologies provide a wide range of opportunities for studying different types of social processes and phenomena. Currently many original social studies have been done with the use of virtual reality technologies. The effectiveness of their application has been shown for the study of verbal and nonverbal communication; the processes of ethno-cultural identity; and for teaching social skills, as well as correcting social anxiety and ethnic attitudes. One of the very real question concerning spatial behavior during communication with partners from other ethnic groups, however, has not been studied very much.

Objective. In our study we explored proxemic behavior in subjects’ face-to-face interactions with avatars of in-group and out-group ethnic appearance. Using the CAVE virtual reality system, we studied preferred interpersonal distances in carrying out memory tasks during interaction with the avatars.

Design. Three virtual environments with avatars of different ethnic appearance were developed. Each virtual scene represented a room where three avatars of the same ethnicity were standing. Their appearance was associable with one of three ethnic groups– the Slavic, North Caucasian, or the Central Asian. The participants (all of whom identified themselves as Russians) were immersed in the virtual scenes with the help of the CAVE virtual reality system. They were instructed to keep in mind as many details of the avatars’ appearance as they could. 

During the task’s execution the interpersonal distances between the participants and the avatars were registered. After leaving the CAVE, the participants were asked to answer questions about the details of avatars’ appearance, and to fill out a questionnaire assessing the Presence Effect in virtual environments. The identification accuracy of the avatars’ appearance details and the Presence effect were measured. The interpersonal distances were analyzed for the area around the direction of mutual gaze.

Results. The results showed that participants preferred to keep closer interpersonal distances from the avatars of the same ethnic group as their own. During interaction with avatars belonging to another ethnic group, significantly larger interpersonal distances were preferred. A significant correlation between the interpersonal distance and the Presence Effect was also revealed.

Conclusion. Virtual reality technology provides a unique and valuable tool for social researchers, including in ethnic attitude studies. A complex method of measuring interpersonal distances and the Presence Effect allows us to assess the main variables during social interaction with high accuracy. The virtual environments designed for this study can be applied successfully not only for studying proxemic behavior, but also for accomplishing other tasks, such as developing communication skills and forming positive attitudes towards ethnic out-groups.

About the authorsMenshikova, G.Ya.; Zinchenko, Yury P. ; Saveleva Olga A.
Pages:  20-31
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0102
Keywords:  interethnic attitudes, proxemics, nonverbal communication, compensation effect, mutual gaze, CAVE virtual reality technology, avatar, Presence Effect

Isaichev S.A., Chernorizov A.M., Adamovich T.V., Isaichev E.S (2018). Psychophysiological indicators of the human functional state in the process of socio-psychological testing ethnic and religious... Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 11 (1), 4-19.

Background. To assess the structure of inter-ethnic attitudes and the risks of ethnoreligious tension, psychologists mostly use questionnaires, interviews, subjective scaling, content analysis, and special tests. One possible approach to increasing the validity and reliability of these explicit methods is the use of the registration of psychophysiological indicators while a recipient completes the questionnaire or test forms.

Objective. The results of a pilot psychophysiological research are presented, which focus on the study of human psycho-emotional states during socio-psychological testing to identify attitudes in the field of interethnic and interfaith relations.

Design. The essence of the applied experimental approach is to control the functional (psycho-emotional) state of a respondent using the registration of complex psychophysiological (physiological and behavioral) responses in the process of completing the socio-psychological questionnaire.

Results. It was shown that the rhythmic brain activity (ratio of the power indexes of alpha and beta rhythms), the amplitude of the systolic wave (photoplethysmogram) (ASW PhPG) and the magnitude (length) of the ‘circumflex line of the Galvanic Skin Response’ (GSR-L) may be the complex of indicators that possess sufficiently high selective sensitivity to differentiate nonspecific reactions of the human nervous system to personally important (emotiogenic, stressful) questions in the questionnaire.

Conclusion. The proposed approach may help to identify stressful (emotiogenic) issues (questions) in socio-psychological tests and questionnaires that are of the greatest interest to the subject and, as a result, most adequately reflect individual and population attitudes in the field of social relations.

About the authorsIsaychev, Sergey A. ; Chernorizov, Alexsander M. ; Isaychev, Evgenij S. ; Adamovich, Timofei V.
Pages:  4-19
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2018.0101
Keywords:  socio-psychological testing, ethnic and religious attitudes, psycho-emotional states, psychophysiological diagnostics

Morosanova V.I., Gaidamashko I.V., Chistyakova S.N., Кondratyuk, A.V. Burmistrova-Sa (2017). Regulatory and personality predictors of the reliability of professional actions. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 195-208

Background. The present research is carried out in the context of the conscious self-regulation of professional activity.

Objective. It investigates the regulatory and personality predictors of reliability in rescue operations under stressful conditions.

Design. The research sample includes 87 rescuers (72 men and 15 women aged from 25 to 50 years). Respondents were asked to complete the Morosanova’s Self-Regulation Profile Questionnaire – SRPQM, the Eysenck Personality Profile - Short (EPP-S), and the expert questionnaire “Professional Reliability of Rescue Operation” designed for this particular study.

Results. On the basis of a correlation analysis, the structural model of the predictors of action reliability was constructed using the maximum likelihood method. Consistency indices showed a good agreement between the model and empirical data. The model contains three latent factors: “Self-regulation”, “Neuroticism” and “Reliability of actions”. As the model displays, the “Self-regulation” factor is a significant predictor of professional action reliability. There are two indicator variables for the factor “Self-regulation”: the self-regulation reliability considered as its stability in the stressful situations, and the rescuers’ levels of development of professionally critical regulatory features - modeling of conditions significant for the achievement of goals and the programming of actions. The study results also show that personality dispositions (by Eysenck) have only indirect influence on action reliability. As the structural model reveals, the conscious self-regulation is a mediator in the relationship of neuroticism traits and action reliability.

Conclusion. The conscious self-regulation is a significant predictor of professional action reliability under stressful conditions. It is also the mediator of the effects of personality dispositions on the reliability of action.

About the authorsMorosanova, Varvara I. ; Gaidamashko, Igor V.; Chistyakova Svetlana N.; Burmistrova-Savenkova Angelika V.; Кondratyuk Nailia G.
Pages:  195-208
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0417
Keywords:  professional activity, reliability, conscious self-regulation, personality traits, structural model

Perelygina E.B., Rikel A.M., Dontsov A.I. (2017). The subjective well-being of a person as a prism of personal and socio-psychological characteristics. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 185-194

Objective. This article examines the concept of subjective well-being and the approaches to researching it and its qualities; it also attempts to create a reticulated personal and socio-psychological portrait of a person who sustains a certain level of subjective wellbeing.

Design. To accomplish this objective, we conducted a meta-analysis of modern empirical studies of those personal traits and socio-psychological aspects of a person’s existence which are “responsible” for the person’s interaction with a complex changing world. They included: personal self-perception, including issues of identity; the person’s defense mechanisms and reactions to stress, including the stress of others (characteristics of empathy); self-attitudes; will power; conscious setting of goals; interpersonal relationships; and ability to deliberately regulate one’s personality.

Results. The results of different Russian and international empirical studies are analyzed. We concluded that subjective well-being is the result of the interaction of internal powers (conventionally, personal factors) with social context (conventionally, objective external aspects).

Conclusion. Based on this finding, the most insightful and timely method for studying subjective well-being can be the creation of models which involve the double correlation of “internal” and “external” sides of the process of achieving subjective well-being.

About the authorsPerelygina, Elena B. ; Dontsov, Aleksander I. ; Rikel Alexander M.
Pages:  185-194
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0416
Keywords:  subjective well-being, objective well-being, social problems

Nikolaeva E.I., Merenkova V.S. (2017). An inner picture of health as a factor in changing a child’s behavior to health-promoting behavior. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 162-171

Background. An inner health picture (IPH) includes a person’s image of him- or herself as healthy, and knowledge of the methods needed to achieve the behavior necessary to maintain his (her) health. The IPH of a preschooler is formed by his (her) parents, and the high level of physical activity which is needed for supporting his (her) IPH could change a child’s capacity to orient in sensory flow.

Objectives. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to compare the children’s IPH with that of their parents, and 2) to study the connection between a child’s IPH with his (her) capacity to recognize consistent patterns in the structure of a stream of sensory signals.

Design. 82 primary school children and their mothers participated in the study. The study was conducted in two stages. During the first stage, the internal picture of health (IPH) of the children and their parents was evaluated by means of a questionnaire. To describe a child’s ability to discern some kind of order in a stream of sensory signals, the models of simple and complex sensorimotor reactions were used.

Results. Parents whose children have a well-developed IPH steer their children toward a healthy lifestyle, whereas they themselves do not do what is necessary to maintain their own health. The process of developing an IPH is accompanied by an increase in control during performance of a serial reaction task, which is reflected in a decrease in the number of lapses or missed stimuli.

Conclusion. An IPH is an internal mental model that not only predetermines a child’s notion of themselves as a healthy person; it also has a psychological basis in the form of a system that strengthens the child’s control over his (her) own actions.

About the authorsNikolaeva Elena I.; Merenkova Vera S.
Pages:  162-171
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0414
Keywords:  an internal picture of health, simple and complex sensorimotor reactions, primary school children

Solovieva Yu., Rojas L.Q. (2017). Syndromic analysis in child neuropsychology: A case study. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 172-184

Background. Neuropsychology is a science with its own specific concepts, terms, and methods of analysis of disturbances in psychological development. One of the essential concepts of neuropsychological methodology, according to A.R. Luria, is that of a neuropsychological syndrome, which takes into account both the functional organization of the brain and the behavioral system. However, this concept isn’t mentioned in the majority of his publications, and thus is not well known by neuropsychologists. There is no clear understanding of this concept within the works of modern neuropsychologists. This omission has a strong influence on the way analysis and interpretation of developmental difficulties is carried out today.

Objective. The objective of this study is to present an example of the successful application of qualitative syndromic analysis to the case of a Mexican preschool child with developmental problems and learning disabilities.

Design. The clinical analysis was applied to the case of a 6 year old girl with learning disabilities, whose difficulties had been attributed primarily to a low level of general brain activation.

Results. The authors assert that the advantages of A.R. Luria’s syndromic approach to clinical cases of difficulties in development and learning disabilities, are that it opens up the potential for finding the general causes on different levels: neuronal maturation, brain mechanisms, activity and personality.

Conclusion. The authors conclude that the topic of syndromic analysis in child neuropsychology requires further scientific discussion. The necessity for revising levels of analysis of clinical cases should be taken in account.

About the authorsSolovieva, Yulia; Quintanar, Luis Rojas
Pages:  172-184
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0415
Keywords:  neuropsychological syndrome, child neuropsychology, assessment of development, qualitative assessment, Luria’s approach, developmental problems, subcortical levels

Voiskounsky A.E., Yermolova T.D., Yagolkovskiy S.R., Khromova V.M. (2017). Creativity in online gaming: Individual and dyadic performance in Minecraft. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 144-161

Objective: This study was designed to examine possible new aspects of creative activity related to virtual environments.

Design: The online gaming interface Minecraft was used to construct (on computer screens) complex structures such as buildings from ready-made blocks. Two modes were used: individual and dyadic. Participants (N=49, 29 males and 20 females, 18 to 29 years old, recruited on a snow-ball basis) were required to build staying at a distance two complex structures — a ship and a house; each structure was required to be highly creative, i.e. unusual and never seen before. Creativity was evaluated not by the final structure but by the number of ideas generated by the participants and produced either in practice or verbally. Each participant participated once in an individual and once in a dyadic session; the partners were selected randomly. The participants’ verbal activity and digital operations with the Minecraft interface were recorded using the FastStone Capture software package. All the ideas produced by participants were classified in accordance with the following criteria: type (conceptual, functional, selective, corrective, and intentional); level of the structure which the ideas referred to (the whole structure, a particular component of the structure, or an element of the structure); and the status of the verbalized ideas (implemented or unimplemented).

Results and Conclusion: The results show that participants produced significantly more ideas and took significantly less time to build the prescribed structure (a house or a ship) within the individual session compared to the dyadic session. The originality of their ideas was measured by two psychologists independently: the two measures turned out to be close (r=0.876); the number of original ideas produced during individual and dyadic sessions do not differ significantly. Analysis of the implementation of the ideas showed that, within the dyadic sessions, participants produced significantly fewer ideas which were subsequently implemented. For the most part they frequently dropped and left unimplemented ideas referring to the levels of either components or elements of the structure. The results also showed that intentions were the only type of ideas which, after being generated equally often in the individual and dyadic sessions, were more often left unimplemented in the group sessions, compared to the individual sessions.

About the authorsVoiskounsky, Alexander E. ; Yermolova Tatiana D.; Yagolkovskiy Sergey R.; Khromova Valeria M.
Pages:  144-161
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0413
Keywords:  creativity, online gaming, dyadic vs. individual activity, idea generation, Minecraft

Puchkova E.B., Sukhovershina Yu.V., Temnova L.V. (2017). A study of Generation Z’s involvement in virtual reality. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 134-143

Background. This study analyzes the characteristics of modern teenagers’ involvement in virtual reality (VR). It also examines various approaches to VR in Russian science. In the current study the concept of virtual reality is defined as a particular informational environment in which a person can exist and develop. It is created by a special class of technical systems, formed on the basis of computer hypertext technology, and has a number of social and psychological characteristics. We pay special attention to the significance of virtual space for generation Z (according to the William Strauss and Neil Howe generational theory). The main factor determining the unique psychological features of the generation Z is its active involvement in virtual reality from the moment of birth. Involvement in a virtual reality is measurable by a teenager’s activity on the Internet.

Objective. Our study set out to determine the level of Russian generation Z’s involvement in virtual reality.

Design. We analyzed the results of a survey conducted among Moscow adolescents using multivariate profiles. Two hundred fifty-four teenagers 12-14 years old were interviewed during the study.

Results and conclusion. Analysis of the data revealed the following: Modern teenagers are involved in VR with varying degrees of depth; their main type of activity on the Internet is searching for educational information and news; and no significant differences by gender in the purposes of using the Internet were found. However, it was also determined that girls’ activity in VR is more related to communication and interpersonal interaction, even though it’s indirect via the Internet, while boys prefer the “gaming” possibilities of VR; that teenagers are rather critical of the information they obtain by the Internet, and that their level of trust in the online information is low. The same trend is evident in the fact that students prefer not to make new friends in virtual reality.

About the authorsPuchkova Elena B.; Sukhovershina Yulia V.; Temnova Larisa V.
Pages:  134-143
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0412
Keywords:  virtual reality (VR), generation Z, involvement, Internet, socialization

Eritsyan K.Yu., Kolpakova O.I. (2017). Runaway behavior among children in residential care in St. Petersburg: A qualitative study. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 124-133

Background. Runaway behavior among children in residential care is a serious social problem in all countries of the world. Existing scientific data on risk factors and motives of runaway from out-of-home care may not be absolutely relevant to the Russian cultural context.

Objective. To describe risk factors and the motives that cause children to runaway from residential care.

Design. A qualitative study that included 2 focus groups with staff and graduates of residential care supplemented by the analysis of 23 cases of child runaways from residential care in St. Petersburg.

Results. The study revealed the following runaway risk factors and motives: 1) running to parents or relatives, 2) romantic and/or sexual relations, 3) interaction with peers, 4) psychiatric problems, 5) addictive behavior, 6) avoidance of conflicts, 7) physical or emotional violence, 8) unmotivated runaways for entertainment, 9) problems adapting to the care institution, 10) dissatisfaction with the conditions at the care institution. Moreover, in this study, two different types of runaways have been identified, including relatively “true” runaways and those who are not psychologically experienced as such, but are only disobeying the formal rules of the care institution.

Conclusions. Runaways of children from residential care are extremely heterogeneous in nature. In further empirical studies, it should be taken into account that runaways may be true and formal. There can be multiple reasons for running away: the care institution itself, a child’s personality, or his or her social network outside of the care institution.

About the authorsEritsyan, Ksenia Y.; Kolpakova Olga I.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  124-133
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0411
Keywords:  runaway, residential care, children, orphanage, focus group, motives

Dzherelievskaya M.A., Vizgina A.V. (2017). Socio-cultural differences in the self-descriptions of two groups of Azerbaijanian students learning in the Russian and Azerbaijani languages. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 107-123

<b>Background</b>: The dimension of individualism-collectivism is regarded as one of the most important cultural factors that influence a person’s self-consciousness, and help shape his/her sense of self as independent or interdependent. Moreover, studies support the conclusion that the salience of both tendencies may vary not only within a single national culture (depending on the place of residence, language environment, etc.), but also on the level of the individual self (depending on the current situation). In our research we have assumed that the language environment (receiving education in one’s native or a foreign language) acts as a socio-cultural factor affecting the self-concept of students of the same nationality–more specifically, the intensity of their individualistic and collectivistic characteristics.
<b>Objective</b>: Finding socio-cultural differences in self-image between two groups of Azerbaijanian students (learning in Russian and Azerbaijanian, respectively).
<b>Design</b>: The sample included one hundred students from Baku colleges and universities equally divided into two groups. Participants in the first group were studying in Azerbaijani while those in the second group were learning in Russian. We collected data in the form of open-ended self-descriptions. We examined these texts using contentanalysis procedures. Then we calculated correlations between certain defined characteristics for each group.
<b>Results</b>: The self-descriptions produced by students learning in Azerbaijanian contained the following features: norm compliance as a significant factor in emotional wellbeing; self-criticism related to negative feelings and expectation of outside criticism; the prevalence of self-justification and bravado as basic forms of psychological defense, combined with the lack of self-enhancement; and focus on society and interpersonal relations affecting the respondents’ inner feelings. The second group’s (those learning in Russian) self-descriptions featured positive self-esteem as an important component of emotional well-being. Self-criticism was not associated with negative feelings and others’ judgments. In the texts of Russian-speaking students there was a tendency to use self-embellishment as a way of self-enhancement. This group was less inclined to focus on society.
<b>Conclusions</b>: The characteristics of these two groups’ self-depictions gravitated toward two different self-constructs: independent (for those learning in Russian) and interdependent (for the participants learning in Azerbaijanian), the division being in line with the individualistic and collectivistic culture, respectively.

About the authorsDzherelievskaya, Maria A.; Vizgina, Anna V.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  107-123
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0410
Keywords:  Self-attitude, self-consciousness, open-ended self-descriptions, psychological defense strategies, socio-cultural differences in self-descriptions

Novikova I.A., Vorobyeva A.A. (2017). Big Five Factors and academic achievement in Russian students. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 93-106

Background: The Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits is one of the most comprehensive personality models in modern psychology. The traits, or domains, of the model, provide an extensive framework, which allows researchers to analyse the correlation between the aspects of personality and various aspects of social behaviour. Academic achievement is a key factor in a subject’s success, and a more comprehensive understanding of its potential factors could improve educational programs and teaching strategies. Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to consider the correlations between the FFM (Big Five) personality traits and the academic achievement of university students in various fields of study.

Design: This study has adopted a descriptive analytic approach by exploring previous research data. In the present empirical research, the Big Five factors were measured with the Russian NEO Five-Factor Inventory adaptation by S. Biryukov and M. Bodunov. Academic achievement was defined as the average value of the semester final grades. The Spearman correlation analysis was used for statistical analysis. The sample includes 207 first- and second-year university students in the Linguistics Department.

Results: The analysis of the published data revealed that Western psychological studies show that consciousness and openness, two values in the model, are more closely connected with the peculiarities of the students’ academic achievement in different fields of study, but similar studies conducted in Russian universities do not fully confirm this data. Findings of our research proved that consciousness is more associated with greater academic achievement of Russian linguistics students in most fields of study compared to the other FFM traits, while other traits showed more specific correlations with particular fields of study.

Conclusions: The data suggests that both environmental and internal psychological factors, such as motivation, intelligence, inclinations, abilities, etc. affect academic achievement. However, further research suggests that volitional and cognitive personality traits considered in the framework of various models of personality may have a great influence on academic achievement and should also be taken into consideration. Personality traits, especially consciousness and openness of the FFM, are significant factors of academic achievement. The associations between academic achievement and FFM traits are more prominent in those fields of study that include such features as their relative novelty, difficulty or interest for students (Second Foreign Language, Special Disciplines, and Psychology & Pedagogics).

About the authorsNovikova Irina A.; Vorobyeva Alexandra A.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  93-106
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0409
Keywords:  Five-Factor Model (FFM), academic achievement, personality traits, linguistics students; Russian NEO Five-Factor Inventory

Liutsko L., Veraksa A.N., Yakupova V.A. (2017). Embodied finger counting in children with different cultural backgrounds and hand dominance. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 86-92

Background. Embodied finger counting has been shown to have cross-cultural differences in previous studies (Lindemann, Alipour, & Fisher, 2011; Soto & Lalain, 2008). However, their results were contradictory in reference to Western populations with regard to the hand preferred: The first study showed that in Western countries — Europe and the United States — participants preferred to start with the left hand (whereas in the Middle East — Iran — they used the right hand); the second study showed that participants in France preferred the right hand.

Objective. Our study aimed to observe these differences in two countries, Spain (Western Europe) and Russia (Eastern Europe part), although taking into account the variety of cultural or ethnic groups who live there.

Design. The observational/descriptive study, together with correlational analysis of the finger-counting pattern (from 1 to 10) used by children aged 10 to 12 who had not been taught to use their fingers for counting, considered factors of cultural origin and hand dominance. The possible effects of this action on cognition — in our case, math achievement — were considered also.

Results and conclusion. The differences in the frequency of the finger-counting patterns might suggest cultural-individual differences in performance; however, the correlational analysis did not reveal that these differences were statistically significant, either for gender or for mark in math. However, hand dominance was a significant predictor of the preferred hand with which to start counting.

About the authorsLiutsko, Liudmila N.; Veraksa, Aleksandr N. ; Yakupova, Vera A.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  86-92
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0408
Keywords:  embodied numerosity, finger counting, cross-cultural research, individual differences, hand dominance

Kyuchukov H., Samko M., Kopcanova D. (2017). Knowledge of Romani language grammar. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 76-85

Objective. The paper examines knowledge of Romani grammatical categories among Roma children from Bulgaria and Slovakia between the ages of 3 and 6 years.

Design. Roma children from Bulgaria and from Slovakia completed a psycholinguistic test in the Romani language. The test was developed for the first time in Europe to measure an individual’s knowledge of the Romani language (comprehension and production). The newly developed test measured comprehension of categories such as wh questions, wh complements, passive verbs and possessiveness.

Results and discussion. The children’s knowledge is associated with two theories: the ecological theory of Ogbu (1978) and the integrative theory of child development (García Coll et al. 1996). Ogbu’s theory stresses the importance of children’s home culture in their development. According to the theory of García Coll and her collaborators, the family’s home environment and SES are important predictors of language development.

About the authorsKyuchukov Hristo; Samko Milan; Kopcanova Dagmar
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  76-85
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0407
Keywords:  Roma children, language assessment test, integrative theory

Kostromina S.N., Mkrtychian N.A., Kurmakaeva D.M., Gnedykh D.S. (2017). The interrelationship between cognitive control and academic success of first-year students: An interdisciplinary study. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 60-75

Background. Though many Russian and foreign studies have been devoted to the study of self-control in educational activity, most of the research has been limited to the use of questionnaires or psychodiagnostic methods. The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the process of cognitive control in the context of learning have still not been sufficiently understood, despite the obvious significance of controlling action for academic success.

Objective. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychological and neurophysiological features of cognitive control in the process of learning activity, for students with different levels of academic success.

Design. This study investigates the control function in first-year students who have varying degrees of academic success. The research design is interdisciplinary and integrates three different approaches: the neurophysiological, psychological, and pedagogical. In the empirical part, 31 first-year students at Saint Petersburg State University (SPbSU) participated in the research. We measured the personal characteristics of the subjects (using the five-factor personality questionnaire as modified by A.B. Khromov), their self-management ability (Peysakhov’s SMA test), characteristics of the event-related potentials of the brain in response to presentation of stimuli in the solving of problems that require searching for an error in a word (electroencephalographic method), response time, and number of errors and corrections. Four types of stimuli were used: the correct spelling of a word, the replacement of a letter with one that is written similarly or sounds similar, or by one that is not similar. The indicators used to measure academic success were the results of the Unified State Examination (USE) and the first (winter) term of the 2016–17 academic year. The data were analyzed by correlation analysis and analysis of variance.

Results. Comparison of groups of students with lower and higher levels of academic success showed significant differences in all the measured groups of variables — personality traits (Emotionality–Restraint factor), components of the system of self-management (Goal-Setting and Forecasting scales), behavioral data from the experiment (number of corrections), and neurophysiological indicators of cognitive control (the components P200, N200, P300, and N400). The results of the study revealed that students with greater academic success are characterized by less emotionality, a higher capability for goal-setting, and a lower capability for forecasting, as well as greater attention and greater engagement in solving the task of finding mistakes. Such students flexibly distribute their efforts depending on the difficulty of the task and are less likely than the less successful students to change their initial answer to the experimental task.

Conclusion. A high level of development of the self-regulation and self-management system potentially improves the process of finding an error which is necessary for better academic success.

About the authorsKostromina, Svetlana N.; Mkrtychian Nadezhda A.; Kurmakaeva Diana M.; Gnedykh Daria S.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  60-75
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0406
Keywords:  cognitive control, self-control, event-related potentials, academic success

Gladkova A.A. (2017). Psychological and socio-cultural adaptation of international journalism students in Russia: The role of communication skills in the adaptation process. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 45-59

Background. The study of both Russian and international publications issued in the last twenty years revealed a significant gap in the number of studies examining adaptation (general living, psychological, socio-cultural, etc.) in general, i.e., without regard to specific characteristics of the audience, and those describing adaptation of a particular group of people (specific age, ethnic, professional groups, etc.).

Objective. The current paper aims to overcome this gap by offering a closer look at the adaptation processes of international journalism students at Russian universities, in particular, their psychological and socio-cultural types of adaptation. The question that interests us the most is how psychological and socio-cultural adaptation of international journalists to-be can be made easier and whether communication-oriented techniques can somehow facilitate this process.

Design. In this paper, we provide an overview of current research analyzing adaptation from different angles, which is essential for creating a context for further narrower studies.

Results. We discuss adaptation of journalism students in Russia, suggesting ways to make their adaptation in a host country easier and arguing that the development of communication skills can be important for successful adaptation to new living and learning conditions.

Conclusion. We argue that there is a need for more detailed, narrow-focused research discussing the specifics of adaptation of different groups of people to a new environment (since we believe different people tend to adapt to new conditions in different ways) as well as research outlining the role of communication competences in their adaptation processes.

About the authorsGladkova, Anna A.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  45-59
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0405
Keywords:  psychological and socio-cultural adaptation, international students, journalism, communication skills, communication competence

Gjems L. (2017). Learning about concepts through everyday language interactions in preschools. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 33-44.

Background. In several Nordic countries, the pedagogy in preschools has a social pedagogical ideal. The focus is on development of social competence, aiming to empower children. There is only minimal focus on teaching and academic learning. The aim of this study is to investigate what kind of support children’s concept formation can receive when children are engaged in everyday language interactions with preschool teachers in Norway. Theoretically, the article is based on theories developed from Vygotsky’s (1987) perspectives on language as a mediating tool.

Design. Two classrooms with two preschool teachers and 18 children in each class participated in the study. The preschool was chosen because it especially focused on children’s language learning.

Method. This study is a qualitative study based on video-taped observations in one preschool, and the data are video-taped observations of language interactions between two preschool teachers and children in two preschool classrooms. Most language interactions in Norway occur in everyday conversations such as play, art activities and meals.

Results. The teachers interacted with the children around topics that engage the children and topics they took initiative to talk about. The teachers invited the children in warm ways to use language to make meaning of the shared topic. However, they seldom presented supplementary concepts or expanded the children’s concept understanding with their own knowledge.

Conclusion. The social pedagogical ideal may have made them associate such sharing of knowledge with teaching.

About the authorsGjems, Liv
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  33-44
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0404
Keywords:  everyday language interactions, learning words and concepts, cognition, preschool

Eliseeva N.N., Guts E.N., Marini A. (2017). Comprehension of idiomatic expressions by Russian speaking typically developing children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 22-32.

Background. The ability to understand idiomatic expressions begins to develop at an early age. However, such skill is not achieved within the same age and at the same pace in children speaking di erent languages.

Objective. This study assesses comprehension of idiomatic expressions by Russian-speaking monolingual children aged 4 to 12 and monitoring the age dynamics of gurative language understanding.

Design. 80 children were split in 4 age groups balanced for gender and level of formal education. e participants were asked to identify the correct non-literal meaning of 10 idioms. For each idiomatic expression, children heard three potential interpretations (one correct, and two incorrect ones of which one was literal while the other was overtly wrong).

Results. Age-related di erences were analysed by performing a series of univariate ANOVAs. ese analyses showed that already at preschool age children begin to understand some kinds of idiomatic expressions and that such ability slowly develops throughout childhood. Interestingly, until the age of 6 children predominantly interpreted idioms literally. By the age of 7 their ability to correctly understand the non-literal meanings of idiomatic expressions enhanced signi cantly until it reached a plateau around the age of 12.

Conclusion. The results of the study are in line with those found for children speaking other languages. The findings are interpreted in light of recent theories of language and cognitive development. Potential limitations of the study are also discussed.

About the authorsEliseeva Nadezda N.; Guts Elena N.; Marini Andrea
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  22-32
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0403
Keywords:  Russian language, children, language acquisition, idioms

Bicherova E.N. (2017). Dependence of success in foreign language acquisition at primary school age on reaction type and cognitive control. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 10-21.

Background. This article reveals the importance of studying the problem of success in foreign language acquisition during the rst stage of study in the modern educational environment. Particular attention is paid to factors of successful foreign language acquisition during the primary-school ages, which depends on cognitive style features, such as reaction type and cognitive control. e content and characteristics of cognitive styles as individual styles of foreign language acquisition are analyzed in the context of a leading activity of primary school students.

Objective. A hypothesis of this research was that success in foreign language acquisition depends on reaction type and cognitive control, particularly the extent of the cognitive styles of impulsivity, re exivity, rigidity and exibility in primary-school students.

Design. To implement the proposed empirical tasks, the author organized and conducted research using a combination of methods intended to study the correlation between success in foreign language acquisition by primary-school students and reaction type as well as the features of cognitive control. A total of 74 elementary-school pupils aged 8-11 years were studied. A direct connection between success in foreign language acquisition and the indicators of the cognitive style “impulsivity — re exivity” was iden- ti ed using mathematical statistics methods.

Results. This study found no statistically signi cant correlation between success in foreign language acquisition and the indicators of the cognitive style “rigidity — exibility”. erefore, the results con rm that success in foreign language acquisition at prima- ry-school ages is determined more by reaction type (impulsive or re exive) than by the features of cognitive control (rigidity or exibility).

Conclusion: The practical significance of the study is that the obtained results can be used in the work of teachers and psychologists to improve the educational process in primary school and to promote the e ective study of foreign language by students.

About the authorsBicherova Elena N.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  10-21
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0402
Keywords:  cognitive style, reaction type, cognitive control, impulsivity, re exivity, rigid- ity, exibility, success in foreign language acquisition, primary-school age

Koller S.H. (2017). Making human beings human: A tribute to Bronfenbrenner’s centennial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 4-9.

I was given the honor of making a tribute to Bronfenbrenner during the VI Inter- national Conference “Early Childhood Care and Education” (ECCE 2017) held on May 10-13th, 2017, in Moscow, Russia. I opened countless les on my computer, started texts, and wrote a paragraph or two, but no more. It was a very challenging invitation for many reasons. Bronfenbrenner was a pioneer of translational and positive Psychology and inspired many environmental intervention programs around the world related to family support services, home visits, and education for parent- hood, especially for low-income families and communities.

About the authorsKoller, Silvia H.
Pages:  4-9
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0401
Keywords:  Early Childhood Care and Education, ECCE 2017, Bronfenbrenner

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2017). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 2-4.

This special issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” — “Contemporary childhood research” — is devoted to the VI International Conference “Early Child- hood Care and Education” (ECCE 2017) that was held on May, 10–13 2017, in Moscow, Russia. It includes conference participants’ articles as well as regular sub- missions.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-4
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0400
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 10, Issue 4, 2017, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Dolina I.A., Efimova O.I..., Velichkovsky B.M. (2017). Exploring terra incognita of cognitive science: Lateralization of gene expression at the frontal pole of the human brain. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 231-247

Background. Rostral prefrontal cortex, or frontopolar cortex (FPC), also known as Brodmann area 10 (BA10), is the most anterior part of the human brain. It is one of the largest cytoarchitectonic areas of the human brain that has significantly increased its volume during evolution. Anatomically the le (BA10L) and right (BA10R) parts of FPC show slight asymmetries and they may have distinctive cognitive functions. Objective. In the present study, we investigated differential expression of the transcriptome in the le and right parts of BA10.

Design. Postmortem samples of human brain tissue from fourteen donors (male/ female without history of psychiatric and neurological diseases, mean age 39.79±3.23 years old, mean postmortem interval 12.10±1.76 h) were obtained using the resources of three institutions: the Partner Institute of Computational Biology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, and NIH Neuro-BioBank.

Results. By using a standard RNA-sequencing followed by bioinformatic analysis, we identified 61 genes with differential expression in the le and right FPC. In general, gene expression was increased in BA10R relative to BA10L: 40 vs. 21 genes, respectively. According to gene ontology analysis, the majority of up-regulated genes in BA10R be- longed to the protein-coding category, whereas protein-coding and non-coding genes were equally up-expressed in BA10L. Most of the up-regulated genes in BA10R were involved in brain plasticity and activity-dependent mechanisms also known for their role in the hippocampus. 24 out of 30 mental disorder-related genes in the dataset were disrupted in schizophrenia. No such a wide association with other mental disorders was found.

Conclusion. Discovered differences point at possible causes of hemispheric asymmetries in the human frontal lobes and at the molecular base of higher-order cognitive processes in health and disease.

About the authorsVelichkovsky, Boris M. ; Dolina Irina A.; Efimova Olga I.; Kildyushov Evgeniy M.; Sokolov Aleksey S.; Khaitovich Philipp E.; Nedoluzhko Artem V.; Sharko Fyodor S.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  231-247
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0316
Keywords:  neuropsychology, frontopolar cortex, human cerebral asymmetry, yakovlevian torque, RNA transcriptome, sequencing, schizophrenia, attention

Kozlovskiy S. A., Shirenova S. D., Neklyudova A. K., Vartanov A. V.(2017). Brain mechanisms of the Tip-of-the-Tongue state:An electroencephalography-based source localization study. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 218-230

Background. The Tip-Of-the-Tongue (TOT) state occurs when a person fails to retrieve a familiar word, e.g., a name, from long-term memory, while knowing perfectly well that the forgotten word exists in memory and being able to report some information about it (semantic associations, the first letter, the number of syllables, etc.).

Objective and method. In the present work, we studied the activation of brain structures during the TOT state. The participants (N = 20; age 21.5 ± 4.1) viewed portraits of movie stars whose names they were asked to remember. Event related potentials (ERP) were registered in three conditions: 1) the participant remembered the name; 2) the participant did not know the name; 3) the participant knew the name but could not remember it (TOT-state). The sources of cortical activation were computed (DSPM algorithm).

Results. Time intervals demonstrating significant differences (t-test) in activation among the three conditions were calculated for each activated area, so that up to four different stages of processing could be delineated. According to our analysis, face perception involves activation of the visual cortex (left cuneus and right precuneus cortices), banks of the superior temporal sulci, poles of frontal and temporal lobes, and fusiform gyrus. The early activation does not depend on the successful retrieval of the name. A second increase in activation of the visual cortex is present at a later stage of processing, when name retrieval fails or if it is impeded.

Conclusion. We have shown that successful face recognition involves activation of the posterior cingulate cortex and the isthmus of the cingulate cortex in both hemi- spheres. Additionally, the parahippocampal gyrus is less active at the early stages and more active at the later stages of processing in the TOT-state, when name retrieval from the long-term memory fails.

About the authorsKozlovskiy, Stanislav A. ; Vartanov, Alexsander V. ; Shirenova Sophie D.; Neklyudova Anastasia K.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  218-230
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0315
Keywords:  tip-of-the-tongue (TOT), memory retrieval, verbatim recollection, electro- encephalography (EEG), source localization, event related potentials (ERP), posterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, isthmus of cingulate gyrus

Sedov A. S., Popov V.A., Filyushkina V.I., Semenova U.N., Orlov V.A., Velichkovsky B. M...(2017). Cognitive aspects of human motor activity: Contribution of right hemisphere and cerebellum. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 206-217

Background. Concepts of movement and action are not completely synonymous, but what distinguishes one from the other? Movement may be defined as stimulus- driven motor acts, while action implies realization of a specific motor goal, essential for cognitively driven behavior. Although recent clinical and neuroimaging studies have revealed some areas of the brain that mediate cognitive aspects of human motor behavior, the identification of the basic neural circuit underlying the interaction between cognitive and motor functions remains a challenge for neurophysiology and psychology.

Objective. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate elementary cognitive aspects of human motor behavior.

Design. Twenty healthy right-handed volunteers were asked to perform stimulus-driven and goal-directed movements by clenching the right hand into a fist (7 times). The cognitive component lay in anticipation of simple stimuli signals. In order to disentangle the purely motor component of stimulus-driven movements, we used the event-related (ER) paradigm. FMRI was performed on a 3 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Verio MR-scanner with 32-channel head coil.

Results. We have shown differences in the localization of brain activity depending on the involvement of cognitive functions. These differences testify to the role of the cerebellum and the right hemisphere in motor cognition. In particular, our results suggest that right associative cortical areas, together with the right posterolateral cerebellum (Crus I and lobule VI) and basal ganglia, de ne cognitive control of motor activity, promoting a shift from a stimulus-driven to a goal-directed mode.

Conclusion. These results, along with recent data from research on cerebro-cerebellar circuitry, redefine the scope of tasks for exploring the contribution of the cerebellum to diverse aspects of human motor behavior and cognition.

About the authorsVelichkovsky, Boris M. ; Ushakov, Vadim L.; Sedov Aleksei S.; Popov Valentin A.; Filyushkina Veronika I.; Semenova Ulia N.; Orlov Viacheslav A.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  206-217
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0314
Keywords:  action, movement, fMRI, lateralization, motor behavior, voluntary movement, cognition, cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia

Pavlova A. A., Butorina A. V., Nikolaeva A. Y., Prokofyev A. O., Ulanov M. A., Stroganova T. A.(2017). Not all reading is alike: Task modulation of magnetic evoked response to visual word. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 190-205

Background. Previous studies have shown that brain response to a written word depends on the task: whether the word is a target in a version of lexical decision task or should be read silently. Although this effect has been interpreted as an evidence for an interaction between word recognition processes and task demands, it also may be caused by greater attention allocation to the target word.

Objective. We aimed to examine the task effect on brain response evoked by non- target written words.

Design. Using MEG and magnetic source imaging, we compared spatial-temporal pattern of brain response elicited by a noun cue when it was read silently either without additional task (SR) or with a requirement to produce an associated verb (VG).

Results.The task demands penetrated into early (200-300 ms) and late (500-800 ms) stages of a word processing by enhancing brain response under VG versus SR condition. The cortical sources of the early response were localized to bilateral inferior occipitotemporal and anterior temporal cortex suggesting that more demanding VG task required elaborated lexical-semantic analysis. The late effect was observed in the associative auditory areas in middle and superior temporal gyri and in motor representation of articulators. Our results suggest that a remote goal plays a pivotal role in enhanced recruitment of cortical structures underlying orthographic, semantic and sensorimotor dimensions of written word perception from the early processing stages. Surprisingly, we found that to fulfil a more challenging goal the brain progressively engaged resources of the right hemisphere throughout all stages of silent reading.

Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that a deeper processing of linguistic input amplifies activation of brain areas involved in integration of speech perception and production. This is consistent with theories that emphasize the role of sensorimotor integration in speech understanding. 

About the authorsPavlova Anna A.; Butorina Anna V.; Nikolaeva Anastasia Y.; Prokofyev Andrey O.; Ulanov Maxim A.; Stroganova Tatiana A.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  190-205
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0313
Keywords:  visual word recognition, top-down modulations, sensorimotor transformation, speech lateralization, magnetoencephalography (MEG)

Emelin V. A., Rasskazova E.I., Tkhostov A.Sh.(2017). Technology-related transformations of imaginary body boundaries: Psychopathology of the everyday excessive Internet and mobile phone use. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 177-189

Background. In line with the approach of Larkin et al. (2006), we consider technological dependence in the context of the interaction between personality, environment, and culture.

Objective. The aim of this study is to discover technology-related changes in psycho- logical needs and boundaries that could mediate the relationship between psychopathological symptoms and indicators of excessive use of info-communication technologies (ICT). The application of the Body Function Regulation Model to the use of ICT suggests that technology-related changes in the system of an individual’s needs and psychological boundaries mediate the relationship between a sense of poor psychological well-being and the risk of technology dependence.

Design. The study of a normative sample (N = 275) using two technologies–mobile phones and the Internet–was performed.

Results and Discussion. We demonstrated that the relationship between the general level of psychopathological symptoms and excessive use of technology (subjective dependence and inability to refrain from use of mobile phones and the Internet) is indeed mediated by the perception of their indispensability for extension of psychological boundaries, and (for the Internet) its use in image-making.

About the authorsEmelin, Vadim A.; Rasskazova, Elena I.; Tkhostov, Alexander Sh.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  177-189
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0312
Keywords:  Body function regulation model, psychological consequences of technologies, psychopathological complaints, the revised version of the Technology-Related Psychological Consequences Questionnaire, excessive use of technologies

Velichkovsky B. B.(2017). The relationship between interference control and sense of presence in virtual environments. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 165-176.

Background. The sense of presence is an important aspect of interaction with virtual reality applications. Earlier we suggested that presence can depend on cognitive control. The latter is a set of meta-cognitive processes which are responsible for configuring the cognitive system for the accomplishment of specific tasks with respect to a given context. In particular, cognitive control helps in preventing interference from the task-irrelevant variables.

Objective. is study aimed at investigation of the possible relationship between interference control and aspects of presence.

Design. Thirty-nine subjects (32 female and 7 male, aged 18 to 27 years) participated in the study. The subjects were assessed via a battery of interference control tasks (Flanker Task, Go/No Go task, antisaccade task) and performed a virtual scenario (navigating within an array of randomly placed virtual digits in correct numerical order) in high-immersion (CAVE) and low-immersion (standard computer display) virtual environments. Afterwards, the subjects completed a Russian version of the ITC-Sense of Presence inventory.

Results. We found that interference control is generally related to the sense of presence, especially in the CAVE (high-immersion) environment. Sensory interference control was most strongly associated with various aspects of presence (overall presence score, spatial presence, and emotional involvement). Motor interference control was associated with spatial presence and emotional involvement, but this relationship was weaker than was the case with sensory interference control. Low-immersion virtual environments attenuate some of these links between interference control and presence so that only sensory interference control remains a notable predictor of presence.

Conclusion. Interference control is positively associated with presence in virtual environments with varying immersion levels. is may reflect a more general cause-and-effect relationship between cognitive control and the feeling of presence in virtual reality.

About the authorsVelichkovsky, Boris B.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  165-176
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0311
Keywords:  virtual reality, presence, interference, cognitive control, attention, anker task, antisaccade task, Go/No Go task

Menshikova G. Ya., Kovalev A. I., Klimova O. A., Barabanschikova V. V.(2017). The application of virtual reality technology to testing resistance to motion sickness. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 151-164.

Background. Prolonged exposure to moving images in virtual reality systems can cause virtual reality induced motion sickness (VIMS). The ability to resist motion sickness may be associated with the level of vestibular function development. objective. The aim of the present research is to study the oculomotor characteristics of individuals whose observation of moving virtual environments causes the VIMS effect. We hypothesized that people who have a robust vestibular function as a result of their professional activity, are less susceptible to VIMS than people who have no such professional abilities. The differences in people’s abilities to resist the effects of the virtual environment may be revealed in the oculomotor characteristics registered during their interaction with a virtual environment.

Design. Figure skaters, football players, wushu fighters, and non-trained people were tested. e CAVE virtual reality system was used to initiate the VIMS effect. three virtual scenes were constructed consisting of many bright balls moving as a whole around the observer. e scenes differed in the width of the visual field; all balls subtended either 45°, 90° or 180°.

Results. The results showed more active eye movements for athletes compared to non-trained people, i.e. an increase in blink, fixation, and saccade counts. A decrease in saccadic amplitudes was revealed for figure skaters. These characteristics were considered specific indicators of the athletes’ ability to resist motion sickness.

Conclusions. It was found that the strength of the VIMS effect increased with the increasing width of the visual field. The effectiveness of virtual reality and eye-tracking technologies to test the VIMS effect was demonstrated.

About the authorsMenshikova, G.Ya.; Kovalev, Artem I.; Barabanshchikova, Valentina V. ; Klimova Oxana A.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  151-164
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0310
Keywords:  virtual reality technology, motion sickness, vestibular dysfunction, vection illusion, eye movement characteristics, professional abilities of athletes

Oboznov A. A., Chernetskaya E. D., Bessonova Yu. V.(2017). Structure of conceptual models in the senior operating staff of nuclear power plants. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 138-150.

Background. The relationships between conceptual model structures and an operator’s professional efficiency are of direct practical importance, particularly in the case of large-scale industrial complexes combining several human-machine systems. A typical example is the power unit of a nuclear power plant (NPP).

Objective and methods. The purpose of this study was to explore the conceptual models of senior reactor operators (SROs) of NPPs. The study involved 64 men working as SRO at five NPPs in Russia. The methods included: structured interviews, expert estimations, multidimensional scaling (ALSCAL), the K-means clustering algorithm, and frequency analysis. The procedure was as follows: 32 key characteristics of the power unit were defined, including shift operators’ jobs and duties, technical subsystems, types of equipment, and the crucial power unit parameters. The participants were offered a 32×32 matrix for pair-wise estimation of the strength of the links between these key characteristics on a seven-point scale (496 links in total).

Results. A general scheme of key characteristics in the conceptual models was defined. is scheme was displayed in the operators regardless of their employment history. Within the scheme, however, two types of conceptual models were identified, which could be distinguished by the relative number of strong links between the key characteristics. With respect to intersystem links including key characteristics of the reactor and turbine NPP departments, this number was significantly higher in models of Type 1 than in those of Type 2. A positive correlation between the number of these links and the professional efficiency indicators was also established. Operators with Type 1 models were able to more predictably represent the power unit operation.

Conclusion. The main role in creating predictable and efficient conceptual models was played by strong intersystem links in mental representations of workflow.

About the authorsOboznov Aleksandr A.; Chernetskaya Elena D.; Bessonova Yulia V.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  138-150
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0309
Keywords:  Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) senior reactor operator (SRO), conceptual model, mental image, multidimensional scaling, workflow, subjective strength of links, professional efficiency

Shishkin S. L., Zhao D. G., Isachenko A. V., Velichkovsky B. M.(2017). Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 120-137.

Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research.

Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction.

Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones.

Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI) interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the effortless interaction with machines in various fields of application.

About the authorsShishkin Sergei L.; Zhao Darisii G.; Velichkovsky, Boris M. ; Isachenko Andrei V.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  120-137
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0308
Keywords:  attention, eye-to-eye contact, eye movements, brain-computer interface (BCI), eye-brain-computer interface (EBCI), electroencephalography (EEG), expectancy wave (E-wave), human-robot interaction, brain output pathways

Lebed A. A., Korovkin S. Y.(2017). The unconscious nature of insight: A dual-task paradigm investigation. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 107-119.

Background. Insight is a specific part of the thinking process during creative problem solving. The experience of a sudden unexpected solution of the problem makes it distinct from other problem solving. Though the insight problem solving process is hidden from the observer and the solver himself, it is possible to study working memory changes during the problem-solving process in order to observe the tracks of insight.

Objective. A critical experiment was carried out to determine whether it is legitimate to measure insight-problem-solving dynamics within a dual-task paradigm and working memory model. Also a verification was conducted of the hypothesis of whether insight problem solving competes for cognitive resources with unconscious processes.

Design. We designed a special procedure based on Kahneman’s (1973) modified dual-task paradigm, allowing simultaneous performance of the problem-solving process and probe tasks of different types. The reaction time was measured for the probe task. ere were two problems conditions (insight and regular), and two probe tasks conditions (implicit and explicit). Participants: 32 participants, aged from 18 to 32 years (M = 19.81; σ = 2.51).

Results. Significant differences in implicit probe reaction time were found between the dual-task condition (implicit categorization and insight problem solving) and solo implicit probe condition (t(15) = –3.21, p = .006, d = –.76). A joint effect of problem type and probe type was found (F(1, 60)= 4.85, p = .035, ηp2 = .07).

Conclusion. The results support the idea that information processing of conscious and of unconscious processes are separate. Unconscious processing capacity is limited. Implicit skill seems to be operated by the same mechanisms as insight problem solving, therefore competing for a common resource. It was also shown that such hidden creative unconscious processes as insight can be tracked via working memory load. 

About the authorsLebed Anton A.; Korovkin Sergei Y.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  107-119
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0307
Keywords:  insight, thinking, dual-task, implicit learning, working memory, problem solving

Voronin A. N., Kochkina O. M. (2017). Discourse abilities in the structure of intelligence. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 93-106.

Background. This article is devoted to empirical research on discourse abilities within the structure of cognitive abilities. Discourse abilities, as well as linguistic abilities, are part of language abilities, but they are directly linked with discourse practices and a certain communicative situation. Discourse abilities allow a person to effectively initiate, keep, expand, and complete the process of communication, using language appropriate to any given situation. These abilities contribute to making communication more effective and achieving mutual understanding between partners, while at the same time they speed up the process of forming an interaction strategy. the empirical verification of the construct “discourse abilities,” and the design of original diagnostic tests on them, led us to differentiate linguistic and discourse abilities.

Objective. However, it is not yet clear what place discourse abilities occupy in the structure of cognitive abilities. This is the primary goal of our research.

Method. The design of the study involved group testing (in groups of 15-35 people) using the following methods: a discourse abilities test; a short selection test; a social intelligence test, and short variations of Torrance’s and Mednick’s tests. In total, 208 people (133 women and 75 men, ages 17 to 21 years) participated in the study, all of them either first year humanities students or high school students from Moscow.

Results and Discussion. The research results revealed that discourse abilities relevantly correlate with the majority of indicators of general and social intelligence and creativity (except non-verbal intelligence). Discourse abilities as part of the structure of cognitive capabilities form a discrete factor, and include relevant components such as verbal and general intelligence and indicators of social intelligence, such as the ability to group expressions. Structures indicative of cognitive abilities varied within the study group, which included people with different levels of discourse abilities. A data structure which conformed to an a priori structure of cognitive abilities was observed only in the group with the medium level of discourse abilities. The group with a low level of discourse abilities mostly showed the aggregation of various indicators of intelligence and creativity, while the group with a high level of discourse abilities showed further differentiation of intelligence types, and the evolution of discourse abilities into a separate factor. 

About the authorsVoronin Anatoly N.; Kochkina Olga M.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  93-106
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0306
Keywords:  human cognition, structure of intelligence, psychometrics, creativity, dis- course, discourse abilities, communication, complex span task, updating task

Velichkovsky B. B.(2017). The concentric model of human working memory: A validation study using complex span and updating tasks. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 74-92.

Background. Working memory (WM) seems to be central to most forms of high-level cognition. This fact is fueling the growing interest in studying its structure and functional organization. The influential “concentric model” (Oberauer, 2002) suggests that WM contains a processing component and two storage components with different capacity limitations and sensitivity to interference. There is, to date, only limited support for the concentric model in the research literature, and it is limited to a number of specially designed tasks.

Objective. In the present paper, we attempted to validate the concentric model by testing its major predictions using complex span and updating tasks in a number of experimental paradigms.

Method. The model predictions were tested with the help of review of data obtained primarily in our own experiments in several research domains, including Sternberg’s additive factors method; factor structure of WM; serial position effects in WM; and WM performance in a sample with episodic long-term memory deficits.

Results. Predictions generated by the concentric model were shown to hold in all these domains. In addition, several new properties of WM were identified. In particular, we recently found that WM indeed contains a processing component which functions independent of storage components. In turn, the latter were found to form a storage hierarchy which balances fast access to selected items, with the storing of large amounts of potentially relevant information. Processing and storage in WM were found to be dependent on shared cognitive resources which are dynamically allocated between WM components according to actual task requirements. e implications of these findings for the theory of WM are discussed.

Conclusion. The concentric model was shown to be valid with respect to standard WM tasks. The concentric model others promising research perspectives for the study of higher- order cognition, including underlying neurobiological mechanisms. 

About the authorsVelichkovsky, Boris B.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  74-92
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0305
Keywords:  working memory, concentric model, focus of attention (FA), storage, processing, interference, long-term memory (LTM), serial position e ects, complex span task, updating task

Téllez A., Juárez-García D. M., Jaime-Bernal L., Medina De la Garza C. E., Sánchez T. (2017). The effect of hypnotherapy on the quality of life in women with breast cancer. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 228-240.

Background. Cancer is a chronic disease that significantly affects the quality of life of patients who suffer from it, because they must face stressful situations, including their diagnosis, surgical procedures, and the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 

Objective. To evaluate the effects of hypnotherapy on breast cancer patients’ quality of life during chemotherapy. 

Design. A quasi-experimental design was used with a convenience sample. Method. Two groups of patients with early breast cancer diagnoses were assigned to either a control group that received standard medical care (n = 20), or a hypnotherapy group (n = 20) that received 12 intensive sessions over the course of 1 month, and 12 additional sessions over the course of 6 months. The patients’ quality of life was evaluated using the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). 

Results. The hypnotherapy group showed a statistically significant improvement and a large effect size on the cognitive functioning and social functioning scales compared to the control group. The physical functioning, role functioning, and quality of life scales showed improvement with a medium effect size, but the changes were not statistically significant. 

Conclusion. The improvement observed in the cognitive functioning and social functioning scales allows us to suggest that hypnotherapy improves the quality of life of breast cancer patients during chemotherapy.

About the authorsTéllez Arnoldo ; Sánchez, Teresa J.; Juárez-García Dehisy M.; Jaime-Bernal Leticia; Medina De la Garza Carlos E.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  228-240
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0216
Keywords:  hypnotherapy, quality of life, breast cancer, cognitive functioning and social functioning

Kislyakov P. A. (2017). Risk factors related to antisocial behavior in teenagers with intellectual disabilities. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 215-227.

Background. Throughout the ontogenic development period and life journey, everyone faces numerous threats and challenges. Certain of these challenges are beyond the individual’s control and are caused by social and environmental factors, but others, conversely, are provoked by the individual’s own lifestyle and mental and/or physical health condition. This paper considers how the social adaptation of children with intellectual developmental disorders affects the development of various forms of socially dangerous behavior. 

Objective. The primary goal of the study described in the article is to identify and analyze the potential risk factors related to antisocial behavior among teenagers with intellectual disabilities (mental retardation) based on a survey of teachers in special (correctional) schools. 

The methodological basis of our research uses the provisions of Lev Vygotsky’s theory of socialization among children with intellectual disabilities. This article shows the importance of implementing Lev Vygotsky’s doctrine of correction and compensation of disturbed psychological, emotional and social development of schoolchildren with intellectual disabilities. 

Design. To achieve this purpose, the following methods were used: interviews, questionnaires, and factor analysis. In the first stage of the study, interviews were conducted with teachers working in special (correctional) schools (teachers, child and youth counselors, school psychologists, developmental pediatricians) — of 108 teachers from 10 schools. Analysis of the interviews revealed a list of risk factors related to antisocial behavior among teenagers with intellectual disabilities (only 35 points). The collected data formed the basis for a questionnaire, “Social Safety for Children with Intellectual Disabilities”. In the second stage, 83 teachers working in the special (correctional) schools were surveyed. The survey was completed by teachers of children (12-13 years old) who had a diagnosis of F70 (Mild mental retardation) or F71 (Moderate mental retardation). To determine the significance of risk factors, the respondents were asked to assess children’s exposure to risk factors on a 5-point scale. In the third stage, the results of the risk factor assessment conducted in relation to socially dangerous behavior of adolescents with intellectual disabilities were processed using the factor analysis. 

Results. From the factor analysis of the data collected, as well as an analysis of the relevant theoretical and methodological materials, the following risk factors (with load factors) of socially dangerous behavior among teenagers with intellectual disabilities were identified: antisocial behavior (violation of generally accepted societal norms) (48.7 %); asociality (the lack of motivation to engage in social interaction) (7.96 %); infantilism (5.9 %); social mistrust in the world (4.86 %); propensity for victimizing behavior (4.18 %); virtual addiction (3.98 %); and high self-concept discrepancies (3.14 %). 

Conclusions. The results of our research may be used to prevent antisocial behavior in teenagers with intellectual disabilities through the implementation of psychological and pedagogical follow-up programs aimed at preventing antisocial and asocial behavior, overcoming infantilism and victimization, forming adequate self-esteem, and forming personality-trusting relationships with significant adults and peers.

About the authorsKislyakov, Pavel A.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  215-227
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0215
Keywords:  intellectual disabilities, teenagers, socialization, social safety, risk factors, antisocial behavior, psychological and pedagogical support

Eremina D. A., Shchelkova O. Yu. (2017). The dynamics of the cognitive functioning and emotional state of cardiac patients during rehabilitation after coronary revascularization. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 201-214.

Background. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been one of the most performed surgical procedures for more than 30 years. Recent research has shown severe cognitive disorders accompanying cardiac surgery. However, mild cognitive dysfunction, which is more amenable to prevention and correction, has been less studied because of difficulties in diagnosing it. 

Objective. For this reason, we set out to analyze the dynamics of cognitive functioning in CHD patients undergoing CABG. Our study focuses on the main indicators of cognitive functioning and on comparing cognitive functioning with normative data, as well as on the emotional state which accompanies cardiac surgery. 

Methods. The present study enrolled 70 patients (of average age 59.71 ± 7.32 years) who underwent CABG with the standard cardiopulmonary bypass technique. Our examination used a pathopsychological test battery (including the WAIS, TMT, Stroop test, TAS, Benton test, etc.), and was performed in three stages: two days before, and both 12–14 days and three months after the surgery. 

Results. The results obtained suggest that the majority of cognitive complaints are connected with memory decline after CABG. Patients with CHD experience significant postoperative cognitive decline mostly in verbal memory and attention. A significant cognitive improvement three months after the operation occurred in the following cognitive domains: visual memory, logical memory, and spatial thinking. An analysis of the patients’ trait anxiety leads to the conclusion that the highest intensity of anxiety was observed in relation to the following indicators: “emotional discomfort,” “asthenic component,” and “anxious assessment of the future.” 

Conclusion. Our research demonstrates negative changes in both short- and longterm memory. Possible reasons for postoperative cognitive decline include the conditions and consequences of the surgery, normal aging, brain injury at the time of coronary surgery, and the emotional state of the patients. A positive trend was discovered in the visual and logical memory, active attention, and thinking activity.

About the authorsShchelkova, Olga Yu. ; Eremina Daria A.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  201-214
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0214
Keywords:  cognitive functions, emotional state, coronary heart disease, rehabilitation, cardiac surgery

Pogontseva D. V. (2017). Female attitudes towards women in hijabs in South Russia. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 192-200.

Background. This article sets forth the problem of attitudes towards women in connection with the ethno-religious characteristics of their appearance (for example, the hijab [Islamic headscarf]). 

Design. There were 200 subjects: at the first stage 50 women and 50 men aged 22 to 30 (mean age 25); at the second stage 100 females, residents of Rostov-on-Don, Russia. 

Method. The study used the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (translated and adapted by Yu.A. Mendzheritskaya), as well as the author’s questionnaire, which consisted of stimulus material (two sets of photos of five girls; in the first set, a portrait shot from the front with natural make-up, in the second set, the same girls, but wearing a black hijab). Respondents were asked to rank the girls in the photographs on a scale from friendly to hostile. At the second stage, we added questions about the respondents’ religious beliefs and their assumptions about the religious beliefs of the girls with and without the hijab. 

Results. The results show that the respondent’s level of aggression can lead to a negative, hostile attitude towards a Muslim girl (based only on her external appearance), and more men evaluate the girls wearing the hijab as hostile. We also noted that the color of eyes and hair (even if only the eyelashes and eyebrows could be seen) can form an idea about religious beliefs. 

Conclusion. Based on the received data, we can talk about the role of appearance. In the future, we plan to study specific features of the perception of appearance and discrimination against girls with a different appearance, in particular ethno-cultural clothing, because appearance is one of the most important triggers of discriminatory behavior.

About the authorsPogontseva Daria V.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  192-200
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0213
Keywords:  hijab, female, attitude, clothing, religious beliefs, Islam, Christianity

Pavlova T. S. , Kholmogorova A. B. (2017). Psychological factors of social anxiety in Russian adolescents. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 179-191.

Background. Social anxiety is one of the most common and disturbing conditions of childhood and adolescence. It is defined as an excessive fear of embarrassment or humiliation in social performance situations. Recent studies have identified a number of psychological factors that could explain the maintenance of the condition. 

Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate psychological factors of social anxiety in adolescents with a multifactor psychosocial model. 

Design: The study population comprised 183 Russian-speaking adolescents from Moscow secondary schools, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years. Self-report measures were used to access social anxiety, symptoms of depression, gender role identification, perfectionism, hostility, family emotional communications, and social support. 

Results. The results indicate that social anxiety was positively correlated with symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts. No quantitative differences in social anxiety between girls and boys were found, while masculinity and undifferentiated gender identification had a strong association with social anxiety. A positive correlation was found between “concern over mistakes” (fear of making a mistake and being negatively compared with peers) and “overdoing” (spending too much time doing homework and too little or none communicating with peers), using the Child Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ) subscales and Social Anxiety and Distress Scale (SADS) total score. Positive correlations were found between social anxiety and suppression of emotions and outward well-being subscales, as well in as the Family Emotional Communication (FEC) total score. It is not common to discuss emotions and feelings; it is difficult to share negative experiences; and it is important for the families of socially anxious adolescents to put up a good front. Analysis revealed significant negative correlations between the SADS total score (as well its subscales) and the Social Support scale total score and emotional support subscale; the Practical Support scale negatively correlated with the SADS total score. 

Conclusion. These findings confirm our hypothesis that social anxiety has a complex nature and can be dealt with by a multifactor psychosocial model.

About the authorsPavlova Tatiana S.; Kholmogorova Alla B.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  179-191
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0212
Keywords:  social anxiety, adolescents, gender, perfectionism, family

Leonov N. I., Glavatskikh M. M. (2017). Changing the image of a conflict situation while training school students in mediation skills. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 165-178.

Background. This paper analyzes students’ changing perceptions of conflict after training them in mediation skills. The theoretical basis of this paper is an ontological approach of studying conflict, in which the image of the conflict situation determines the specific behavior. This allowed for the development a training program aimed at changing conceptual structures. The processes of constructing conceptual structures are understood not only as explanatory models that are used for the construction of the outer world in social cognition but also as a manifestation of the internal picture of the world and an inducement to control this world as well as certain actions in the conflict. Our training program was designed by considering ontological mechanisms of conflict behavior regulation. Consequently, the most important result of the program efficiency assessment is the change in participants’ image of the conflict situation. 

Objective. This study aims to change the images of the conflict situation in school students learning the basics of mediation. 

Design. This study involved 360 students (grades 7-9; average age of 14 years and 8 months). During the preparatory stage, we tried to identify the characteristics of a conflict situation in 360 school children using the association experiment, which used the word “conflict” as a stimulus. To study the structure of the conflict situation image, we used Kelly’s repertory. The method of the training program regarding the basics of mediation was based on communication techniques used to resolve complex issues, including the involvement of students, a free personal statement, problem discussion and a joint search for solutions. 

Results. We recorded significant changes in all of the structural components of the conflict situation image before and after training, as well as in their interrelated underlying categorization. One of the results of the program was an increase in the variability of behaviors in conflict. Before the program began, teenagers considered themselves and other conflict participants to be oriented to only meet their own interests. Upon completion of training, they developed an efficient model of behavior in conflict that included various forms of behavior, such as agreement, concession and withdrawal. The teenagers saw good reason to take a qualitatively new, organizational position in the conflict. In this regard, they described themselves as being more active in conflict and as initiating conflict resolution more often than before the training program. Educational videos and the experience of being involved in the conflict as a third party made the teenagers believe in the possibility of constructive conflict resolution based on having respect for the other participant. 

Conclusion. Analysis of structural changes in the conflict situation image during the learning process demonstrated the effectiveness of training students in mediation skills. This study contributes to the better understanding of conflictological competence in general and that of school students in particular. This study describes the mechanism of conflictological competence development.

About the authorsLeonov Nikolay I.; Glavatskikh Marianna M.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  165-178
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0211
Keywords:  mediation, person’s conceptual structures, constructive behavior in conflict, image of conflict situation, training in constructive behavior in conflict

Budyakova T. P. (2017). Psychological and legal aspects of the offensiveness of male and female cartoons and collages. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 149-164.

Background. This study addresses a current problem relating to trust and the identification of gender differences in trust/mistrust manifestation. Gender identity is associated with cultural stereotypes and social roles, which facilitate the formation of trust in people. It acts as a significant integral meaning-based component of an individual’s “I”- conception, which contributes to the formation of trust in himself and the world around him. 

Objective. To study features of trust/mistrust towards others in young people with different gender identities. 

Design. The cross-gender-typical sample consisted of 179 representatives, 83 males and 96 females, ages 17 to 23 (M = 19.34 and SD = 1.79). The techniques for collecting data included the MMPI, the Sex-Role Inventory by S. Bem, and the Trust/Mistrust towards Others questionnaire by A. Kupreychenko. The results were processed via the Mann-Whitney U Test, the Kruskal-Wallis H criterion, and cluster analysis. 

Results. Criteria of trust/mistrust among the youth with different gender identities were identified, and basic types of trust — categoric, irrational–emotional, ambivalent– contradictory, and non-differentiated — were singled out. Irrespective of biological sex, bearers of different gender identities do not exhibit the same criteria to determine trust/ mistrust. 

Conclusion. This study makes it possible to enrich our understanding of the role of social gender in the formation of interpersonal trust and differences in the foundations of trust toward others, in people with different gender identities. The empirical typology of trust in youth with different gender identities allows for using the typology in organizing psychological diagnostics, and for support and improvement of their interpersonal relations.

About the authorsBudyakova Tatyana P.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  149-164
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0210
Keywords:  forensic, psychological, expert opinion, insult, cartoon, collage, politics, social status, gender

Zinchenko Yu. P., Zotova O. Yu., Tarasova L. V. (2017). Specifics of interpersonal trust among people with different gender identities. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 134-148.

Background. This study addresses a current problem relating to trust and the identification of gender differences in trust/mistrust manifestation. Gender identity is associated with cultural stereotypes and social roles, which facilitate the formation of trust in people. It acts as a significant integral meaning-based component of an individual’s “I”- conception, which contributes to the formation of trust in himself and the world around him. 

Objective. To study features of trust/mistrust towards others in young people with different gender identities. 

Design. The cross-gender-typical sample consisted of 179 representatives, 83 males and 96 females, ages 17 to 23 (M = 19.34 and SD = 1.79). The techniques for collecting data included the MMPI, the Sex-Role Inventory by S. Bem, and the Trust/Mistrust towards Others questionnaire by A. Kupreychenko. The results were processed via the Mann-Whitney U Test, the Kruskal-Wallis H criterion, and cluster analysis. 

Results. Criteria of trust/mistrust among the youth with different gender identities were identified, and basic types of trust — categoric, irrational–emotional, ambivalent– contradictory, and non-differentiated — were singled out. Irrespective of biological sex, bearers of different gender identities do not exhibit the same criteria to determine trust/ mistrust. 

Conclusion. This study makes it possible to enrich our understanding of the role of social gender in the formation of interpersonal trust and differences in the foundations of trust toward others, in people with different gender identities. The empirical typology of trust in youth with different gender identities allows for using the typology in organizing psychological diagnostics, and for support and improvement of their interpersonal relations.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Zotova, Olga Yu. ; Tarasova, Lyudmila V.
ThemesGender-related individual differences
Pages:  134-148
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0209
Keywords:  gender identity, trust, trust/mistrust identity, gender differences, social roles

Nikolaev E. L., Hartfelder D. V., Baranova E. A. (2017). Androgyny in dentists: The contribution of masculinity and femininity to mental health and well-being. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 117-133.

Background. A dentist’s professional activity requires a high level of personality traits that are usually regarded as a combination of both female and male traits. Androgynous gender identity corresponds to dentists’ professional requirements and allows the dentists to retain mental stability and psychological well-being. 

Objective. The goal of this study is to determine the specificity of the androgynous identity in dentists in the context of gender differences as indicators of mental health and subjective well-being. 

Design. The first stage of the research covered 129 dentists of both sexes to reveal their androgynous gender type using the Bem Sex Role Inventory. During the second stage, 117 androgynous dentists were studied using the SCL-90-R and Brief Subjective Well-being Questionnaire in an effort to reveal the specificity of the dentists’ mental health and self-esteem. 

Results. According to the results, individuals with an androgynous type of gender identity constitute the largest part of dentists (90.70 %), regardless of their biological sex. The expression of masculinity does not statistically differ from the expression of femininity within the androgynous sample. Regardless of their sex, these dentists are characterized by a higher level of mental health. No significant differences were revealed between androgynous men and androgynous women in their subjective well-being indicators — self-estimation of health, satisfaction with material status and success motivation. 

Conclusion. We concluded that androgyny is the most common type of gender identity in the men and women engaged in dentistry. The basic gender characteristic in the structure of androgynous identity in dentists is masculinity, which is closely interrelated with mental health and subjective well-being regardless of biological sex.

About the authorsNikolaev, Evgeni L.; Baranova, Elvira A.; Hartfelder Denis V.
ThemesGender-related individual differences
Pages:  117-133
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0208
Keywords:  gender identity, androgyny, masculinity, femininity, mental health, well-being, dentists

Yanykin A. A., Nasledov A. D. (2017). Internalized homophobia in Russia. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 103-116.

Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. 

Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001). Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96) and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88). The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. 

Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 %) had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 %) was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. 

Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

About the authorsYanykin Alexander A.; Nasledov Andrej D.
ThemesPsychology of sexual and gender identity
Pages:  103-116
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0207
Keywords:  homonegativity, personal homonegativity, standardization, adaptation, homophobia

Victor C. J., Nel J. A. (2017). Developing an affirmative position statement on sexual and gender diversity for psychology professionals in South Africa. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 87-102.

Background. Against the background of the dominance of patriarchy and heteronormativity in Africa and the resultant stigma, discrimination and victimisation of sexually and gender-diverse people, this article reports on the development of an affirmative position statement by the Psychological Society of South Africa (PsySSA) for psychology professionals working with sexually and gender-diverse people. The position statement is an attempt to contribute positively to the de-stigmatisation, amongst psychology professionals, of all people with diverse sexual and gender identities. 

Objective. In documenting and reflecting on the process of developing the statement — a first on the African continent — the article aims to contribute to the potential resources available to others in their work on similar projects around the world. 

Design. Although initially intended to be relevant to the African continent, the position statement is appropriate to the South African context specifically, but developed in consultation with a range of stakeholders, also from other African countries. 

Results. Concerns expressed during stakeholder consultations, and thus taken into account in the development of the statement, include relevance to other African countries, negotiating the politics of representation and language, the importance of including gender and biological variance in addition to sexuality, and the need to be sensitive to how Western influence is constructed in some African contexts. 

Conclusion. Other national psychology organisations stand to benefit by ‘lessons learned’ during this country-specific process with global implications, especially with respect to broadening the lens from lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) to sexual and gender diversity, as well as an acknowledgement of the multiple and fluid developmental pathways around sexuality and gender, in general.

About the authorsVictor Cornelius J.; Nel Juan A.
ThemesPsychology of sexual and gender identity
Pages:  87-102
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0206
Keywords:  affirmative stance, LGBTI psychology, position statement, PsySSA, sexual and gender diversity

Omurov N. (2017). Identity disclosure as a securityscape for LGBT people. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 63-86.

Background. The concept of a securityscape is an emerging approach to understanding human (in)securities. It derives from the concept of scapes that was initially proposed by anthropologist and cultural theorist Arjun Appadurai in 1996. Securityscapes are imagined individual perceptions of safety motivated by existential contingencies or otherwise theorized as givens of existence, according to psychotherapist Irvin Yalom: death, freedom, existential isolation, and meaningfulness. A recent study on securityscapes in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan described different securityscapes among selected socially and politically vulnerable communities, including the LGBT community. It listed securityscapes of LGBT people but did not provide details as to how such securityscapes are formed. Disclosure of a stigmatized identity was one such securityscape. 

Objective. This article elaborates on research on how LGBT people consider disclosure of their stigmatized identity a securityscape. 

Design. This study was conducted using a semistructured biographical interview with LGBT people in Kyrgyzstan. 

Results. It found that both voluntary identity disclosure and the decision to conceal the stigmatized identity are considered contrasting securityscapes by LGBT people, depending on how central the stigmatized identity is to their self-conception. 

Conclusion. The study concludes that identity disclosure as a securityscape should be considered on a continuum, with identity concealment as a securityscape on one end and complete identity disclosure as a securityscape on the other.

About the authorsOmurov Nurbek
ThemesPsychology of sexual and gender identity
Pages:  63-86
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0205
Keywords:  LGBT, securityscape, stigmatized identity, identity disclosure, givens of existence

Nourkova V. V., Ivanova A. A. (2017). Autobiographical memory in transsexual individuals who have undergone genderaffirming surgery: Vivid, self-focused, but not so happy childhood memories. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 42-62.

Background. Whereas reciprocal relationships between autobiographical memory and self are broadly emphasized, there is no empirical research that examines how major life changing transitions affect the graphically expressed life story. 

Objective. The paper focuses on the novel topic of autobiographical memory in transsexual individuals. 

Design. Twenty-eight volunteers who had undergone gender-affirming surgery and 28 non-transgender participants were asked to produce a Life Line which required them to identify the most memorable events in their lives. The level of acquisition of affirmed gender-typed traits was measured by the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI). 

Results. Compared to cisgender individuals, transsexual participants have self-focused Life Lines with a high proportion of vivid flashbulb-like memories and unhappy recollections of childhood. The emotional profile of autobiographical memory addressing childhood was more negative in transsexual participants who deviate from BSRI norms reflecting derogation of past gender category in favour of affirmed gender identity. Those with high acquisition of affirming gender-typed traits assigned more space on the timeline for childhood, revealing the process of self-continuity restoration that leads to an increase in the proportion of positive memories. Accordingly, transsexuals recollected fewer events relevant to their gender identity performing a psychological defence toward the topic of gender. 

Conclusion. We interpreted the results by focusing on the utility of autobiographical memories as a cognitive resource for filling the gap between past and current selves and maintaining self-continuity across the lifespan.

About the authorsNourkova, Veronika V. ; Ivanova Anna A.
ThemesPsychology of sexual and gender identity
Pages:  42-62
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0204
Keywords:  autobiographical memory, transsexualism, gender identity, self-continuity, Life Line, life story

Lunin I. I. (2017). Striving for LGBTQ rights in Russian psychology and society: A personal narrative. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 35-41.

Background. Based on a long personal story of dealing with LGBTQ rights in Russia, the author reviews several transformations in the psychological approach and research to gender and sexual identity. The author describes his professional growth as a psychologist. First his interest was in child sex-role development and then transformed to prevention of sexual crimes, AIDS prevention and sexual education among adolescents. The author shows how his area of expertise in human sexuality brought him to professional ethics for psychologists. 

Discussion. In the second part of the article the author reviews changes in social attitudes towards same sex- relationships from their criminalization and medicalization to acceptance and respect. The author emphasizes the pioneering role of Professor Igor Kon in changes of mass attitudes towards sexuality and same sex relationships. The author sees Kon’s legacy in his statement that “As long as gays and lesbians are objects of bullying and discrimination, everybody who considers himself/herself as a thinking person must support LGBTQ people’s fight for their human rights.” At the end of this part of the article, the author describes a recent hate crime based in homophobia, and its victim, the talented St. Petersburg journalist, Dmitry Tsilikin. Tsilikin was involved in sex education in the 1990s and published a book about these issues. His murder was not considered by the court to be a hate crime against an LGBTQ person, despite enormous protest from progressive-minded people all over Russia. 

Conclusion. The author recommends the Russian Psychological Ethics Code as a way to help psychologists support and advocate for people regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity.

About the authorsLunin, Igor I.
ThemesPsychology of sexual and gender identity
Pages:  35-41
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0203
Keywords:  Russia; LGBTQ; Ethics Code; Kon; Tsilikin; psychology

Horne Sh.G., Maroney M.R., Zagryazhskaya E.A., Koven J. (2017). Attitudes toward gay and lesbian individuals in Russia: An exploration of the interpersonal contact hypothesis and personality factor. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 21-34.

Background. Negative attitudes toward Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual people in Russia are common, and may have become more prevalent due to recent policy changes. 

Objective. This study explored whether interpersonal contact and personality characteristics predicted Hateful Attitudes Toward GLB people and Endorsement of GLB Rights. 

Design. The design of the study included 154 heterosexual undergraduate students in Moscow and Volgodonsk who were surveyed about their attitudes toward GLB people as well as their personality characteristics assessed with the NEO-FFI. Results. Results suggested that Moscow students held less hateful attitudes and endorsed greater GLB Rights than Volgodonsk students. Women were also more favorable toward GLB Rights than men. In terms of Hateful Attitudes, having GLB friends or acquaintances was a negative predictor of Hateful Attitudes, while neuroticism and conscientiousness were positive predictors. In conclusion, living in a large urban area, knowing GLB individuals, and low levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness appear to be associated with positive attitudes toward GLB people in Russia, however, personality characteristics and knowing GLB people did not appear to relate to endorsement of GLB Civil Rights. 

Conclusion. Current sociopolitical policies such as the propaganda ban, and historical censure of GLB rights during the Soviet era, may impact how “out” GLB Russian people can be, particularly outside of large urban centers, and may reinforce general lack of support for GLB Civil Rights in the Russian population.

About the authorsHorne, Sharon G.; Maroney Meredith R.; Zagryazhskaya, Elizaveta A.; Koven, Julie
ThemesPsychology of sexual and gender identity
Pages:  21-34
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0202
Keywords:  attitudes, gay, lesbian, bisexual, GLB Rights, personality characteristics, NEO-FFI, interpersonal contact

Horne Sh. G., Maroney M. R., Geiss M. L., Dunnavant B. R. (2017). The reliability and validity of a Russian version of the Lesbian Internalized Homophobia Scale. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (2), 5-20.

Background. Validated measures of sexual minority stress (Meyer, 2003), including that caused by experiences of discrimination directed toward gay, lesbian and bisexual (GLB) people, GLB-related stigma, and internalized homonegativity, are not readily available in Russia. Given the particular context of Russia with respect to GLB rights, it is to be expected that there would be cross-cultural variations in dimensions of minority stress, including internalized homo-negativity. 

Objective. For the present study, we aimed to back and forward translate the commonly used Szymanski and Chung’s (2001) Lesbian Internalized Homonegativity Scale (LIHS), and explore its cross-language validity. 

Design. Our design consisted of a completion of the adapted LIHS by a sample of 74 Russian lesbian-identified women; participants were asked about their age of coming out to self, friends, and family. 

Results. Based upon an examination of construct validity and internal consistency, the results suggest support for a modified four-component, 24-item Russian version of the LIH (R-LIH).The components were: Connection with Lesbian Communities (9 items); Public Identification as a Lesbian (7); Public Visibility as a Lesbian (5); and Cultural Awareness of Lesbian Communities (3). From the original LIHS scale, Personal Feelings about Being a Lesbian, Moral and Religious Attitudes toward Lesbians, and Attitudes toward Other Lesbians failed to demonstrate cross-cultural validity. 

Conclusion. The adapted R-LIH scale suggests there are some constructs of internalized homonegativity that are salient in both U.S. and Russian communities, however, there are others (i.e., Moral and Religious Attitudes, Attitudes Toward Other Lesbians) that may not be relevant in Russian lesbian communities. The implications for the use of the translated version are described.

About the authorsHorne, Sharon G.; Maroney Meredith R.; Geiss, Meghan L.; Dunnavant Bridget R.
ThemesPsychology of sexual and gender identity
Pages:  5-20
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0201
Keywords:  lesbian, measurement, Russia, internalized homo-negativity, internalized heterosexism, cross-cultural

Horne Sh. G., Zinchenko Yu. P. (2017). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (2), 2-4.

This issue of "Psychology in Russia: State of the Art", focused on sexual orientation and gender identity, is a step toward meeting that obligation of contributing to the welfare of a stigmatized population, through highlighting current research and theory related to LGBT concerns.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Horne, Sharon G.
Pages:  2-4
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0200
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 10, Issue 2, 2017, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Channa M.A., Nordina Z.S., Simming I.A., Buriro G.S. (2017). Lenses on metacognition: Teachers’ perceptions toward strategies in reading in a Pakistani context. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 34-48.

The research in the field of metacognition for developing reading is not new; metacognition has been used for many years to identify ways to develop students’ reading comprehension. Most previous research has addressed either primary or secondary level students. However, notably few studies have been conducted at the undergraduate level. This study has attempted to initiate strategies to assist first-year engineering students in developing their reading abilities within a Pakistani context. The primary objective of this research was to identify what strategies first-year engineering students use in developing their reading at Quaid-e-Awam University of engineering science and technology in Pakistan. This study used qualitative instruments that included semi-structured interviews with teachers and classroom observations during read-aloud sessions. The data were organized through NVivo version 8 for obtaining nodes, codes, and main themes for interpreting the results. The results of this study demonstrated that teachers should use metacognitive strategies for developing students’ reading abilities. Findings also revealed that reading strategies, such as text scanning, guesses from contextual clues, drawing on prior knowledge, and using a dictionary, are the most important strategies to use for developing the reading skills and comprehension of engineering students. This study has suggested metacognitive strategies be used for promoting students’ reading abilities and that teachers should design and develop more courses using these strategies to enhance the reading and listening skills of engineering students.

About the authorsChanna, Mansoor A.; Nordina, Zaimuariffudin S.; Simming, Insaf A.; Buriro, Ghulam S.
ThemesEducational psychology; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  34-48
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0103
Keywords:  metacognitive, reading strategies, comprehension development, cognitive

Bordovskaia N. V., Koshkina E. A. (2017). The influence of psychology on Russian didactic terminology (early 18th century — first half of 20th century). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 18-33.

Success in the development of cross-disciplinary connections between psychology and pedagogy in today’s Russia depends on many factors, including understanding the historical traditions of theoretical comprehension of educational innovations. To identify the specific influence of psychology on didactic terminology from the early 18th century through the first half of the 20th century. The study was designed based on historiographic, diachronic, and synchronic methods, and context and content analysis of 129 texts (105 words with general usage frequency of 81,397 units were analyzed). It was found reasonable to split the development of psychological-didactic terminology into two stages: the instrumental stage (early 18th century — first half of 19th century) and the reference stage (second half of 19th century — first half of 20th century). The first stage was found to be characterized by psychological terms performing predominantly an instrumental function, that is, describing psychological factors that affect the effectiveness of training. The second stage featured the growing significance of psychological knowledge, not only in solving educational tasks, but also in explaining didactic patterns. During the first stage of development of psychological-didactic terminology, teachers frequently used the psychological terms “teaching”, “ability”, and “diligence”; during the second stage — “teaching”, “senses”, and “development”. Statistical methods were used to prove stable conceptual and terminological connections between psychology and pedagogy.

About the authorsBordovskaia, Nina V. ; Koshkina, Elena A.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  18-33
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0102
Keywords:  psychological-didactic terminology and its structural organization, stages and tendencies of its development in Russia

Baranova E. A., Nikolaev E. L. (2017). Question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity in primary school children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 4-17.

Children’s questions are an indicator of active cognitive perception of reality. Questions but not answers are relevant in revealing a child’s mental life, consciousness and thinking. The lack of question-asking skills can hinder learning, searching and exploration in children. To determine in 7- and 8-year-old school children the common and variable peculiarities of designing a search process for necessary information concerning an unknown object by volitionally formulated questions, as well as the dynamics of the questioning process throughout a school year. The study was based on an experimental methodology, codenamed Guess what there is in the box, and was conducted in four schools in Cheboksary. The sample comprised 158 primary school first-graders who took part in a confirmatory experiment twice, once in September and once in May. The research showed that 96.3% of the questions asked were search questions. Only 30% of the first-graders initiated their searching activities of their own will without having to resort to the given search algorithm, while 70% did not begin asking questions without outside stimulation. The analysis of the dynamics of children’s question-asking behavior exhibited a tendency to decrease in a number of questions asked over the course of the school year. Primary school children need psychological and pedagogical scaffolding aimed at developing a question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity to achieve a possible age potential in development.

About the authorsBaranova, Elvira A.; Nikolaev, Evgeni L.
ThemesEducational psychology; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  4-17
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0101
Keywords:  cognitive activity, question-asking behavior, primary school children, types of children’s questions

Lovakov A.V., Agadullina E.R., Schaufeli W.B. (2017). Psychometric properties of the Russian version of the utrecht Work engagement scale (UWES-9). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 145-162.

This article aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Russian version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) by using a sample of 1783 employees of a large Russian organization. We conducted a series of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) tests of the factorial structure and the configural, metric, scalar, factor variance, factor covariance, and factor means invariances of the model across gender and age groups. The validity of the Russian version of the UWES-9 was investigated by study- ing its relationship with burnout, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and turnover inten- tion. The CFA showed that both the 1-factor and the 3-factor models of the UWES-9 fit well with the data, but the 3-factor model demonstrates a significantly better fit. however, the differences are minor; therefore, in practical terms, the models are iden- tical. Thus the Russian version of the UWES-9 can be used both as a three-scale mea- surement and as a single scale of work engagement. Results from the multi-group CFA provided evidence of factorial invariance of the 3-factor model across gender and age groups. Internal consistencies of the vigor, dedication, and absorption subscales are acceptable. The results also suggested the convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the UWES-9, as shown by its relationship with burnout, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and turnover intention. The article also discusses the differences in levels of work engagement within different gender and age groups. Overall, the results show that the Russian version of the UWES-9 demonstrates acceptable psychometric properties comparable with the original version and those in other languages. The Russian version of the UWES-9 can therefore be recommended for use in research and practice. 

About the authorsLovakov Andrey V.; Agadullina Elena R.; Wilmar B. Schaufeli
ThemesSocial psychology; Psychological assessment
Pages:  145-162
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0111
Keywords:  work engagement, UWES, burnout, positive organizational behavior, mea- surement

Deyneka O.S., Isaeva E.R. (2017). Adaptation resources in subjects with social and psychosomatic disadaptation: a comparative analysis. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 130-144.

In this article the features of social-relationship systems are analyzed based on the data from a sociopsychological empirical study conducted in two stages (2002 and 2014) on a large sample with the help of g. Kelly’s Repertory grid Technique. A. V. Petrovsky’s three-factor interpersonal-relationships model as interpreted for closed groups by M. Yu. Kondratev and the concept of the closed society as described by Karl Popper provide the foundation for the theoretical hypothesis we tested. The empirical data obtained in 2002 came from 391 participants of different ages who were living in provincial towns in the Nizhny Novgorod region. The elderly respondents (232 people) had lived almost all their lives under the Soviet regime; the middle-aged respondents (159 people) got their education and started their careers in the USSR. Soviet society is considered to be closed because of its authoritarian and collectivist nature, static social structure, and dogmatic ideology. It is argued that both closed societies and closed groups are characterized by a rigid hierarchical social structure, isolation from other systems, and depersonalization of social relations. We have proved that members of a closed group and citizens of a closed society have similar social-relationship matrices. 

About the authorsDeyneka Olga S. ; Isaeva Elena R.
ThemesSocial psychology; Clinical psychology
Pages:  130-144
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0110
Keywords:  adaptation resources, defense, coping, value system, disadaptation, unem- ployed, psychosomatic patients

Radina N.K., Koskina M.V. (2017). Power, attraction, and reference in macrolevel social relations: An analysis of closed groups and closed societies based on the psychology of the “Soviet person”. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 117-129.

In this article the features of social-relationship systems are analyzed based on the data from a sociopsychological empirical study conducted in two stages (2002 and 2014) on a large sample with the help of g. Kelly’s Repertory grid Technique. A. V. Petrovsky’s three-factor interpersonal-relationships model as interpreted for closed groups by M. Yu. Kondratev and the concept of the closed society as described by Karl Popper provide the foundation for the theoretical hypothesis we tested. The empirical data obtained in 2002 came from 391 participants of different ages who were living in provincial towns in the Nizhny Novgorod region. The elderly respondents (232 people) had lived almost all their lives under the Soviet regime; the middle-aged respondents (159 people) got their education and started their careers in the USSR. Soviet society is considered to be closed because of its authoritarian and collectivist nature, static social structure, and dogmatic ideology. It is argued that both closed societies and closed groups are characterized by a rigid hierarchical social structure, isolation from other systems, and depersonalization of social relations. We have proved that members of a closed group and citizens of a closed society have similar social-relationship matrices.

About the authorsRadina Nadezhda K. ; Koskina Mariia V.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  117-129
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0109
Keywords:  closed group, closed society, Soviet society, post-Soviet society, Repertory grid Technique, Petrovsky’s three-factor model, interpersonal relations, social structure

Fedotova V.A. (2017). Age-related differences in values and economic attitudes among Russians. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 105-116

Analyses of the connection between cultural values and economic development have changed many times in different countries and in different periods. In Russia, which is constantly undergoing economic and social transformations, this issue is especially rel- evant. One can say that culture, to some extent, bears responsibility for economic devel- opment, and so it is to be expected that different generations of the Russian people would perceive questions related to the connection of cultural values and economic attitudes in different ways. This article presents the results of research dedicated to revealing the correlation between cultural values and economic attitudes among different generations of Russians (N = 110 people). The participants were youth (18–25 years old) and adults (37–63 years). I found that, for the adult generation, the “power-distance” index (a mea- sure of the level of dependence on power structures) was positively correlated with eco- nomic self-determination and the desire to have money. For the younger generation, nei- ther the power-distance index nor the “masculinity” index was associated with economic autonomy, while the “uncertainty-avoidance” index encouraged economic autonomy but did not create additional opportunities for increasing personal income. In the study eco- nomic paternalism was expressed more by the younger generation; they were also more ready to invest energy in business, but they were not as interested as the adult generation in the state of the economy. 

About the authorsFedotova Vera A.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  105-116
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0108
Keywords:  culture, values, economic attitudes, intergenerational differences

Shadrikov V.D., Kurginyan S.S. (2017). Propositions toward the development of a psychological theory of thought. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 211-224.

Thought is considered a psychological concept associated with an individual’s mental ex- istence. It is apparent that a great deal of research has been focused on thought as an area of study. however, there is no psychological theory of thought which provides an expla- nation for its nature and structural organization. So far, researchers have mainly looked at the ways this concept is expressed, rather than investigating what it actually is. In this study, however, based on studies of the functions of the psyche, mental processes, and the neurophysiological bases of mental activity, thought is identified as a need-emotion- intentional substance existing in the human being’s inner world. In keeping with this understanding of thought, the hypothesis that thought generation is caused by desire and experience (feeling and emotion) is put forward. An individual’s thought is linked to his behavior or motivation for activity, and is followed by an emotional experience. The process of thought generation is regarded through the mechanism of behavioral motiva- tion. The primary purpose of this mechanism is to define the qualities of the external objects that serve for need satisfaction and functionality in individuals. The ability to generate thoughts is a feature of thinking related to an individual’s mental ability or frame of mind. From this standpoint, a person’s mentality is considered to be the capacity of the individual to generate thoughts and work through thoughts. It is shown that the abil- ity to generate thoughts and establish relationships within a stream of consciousness is characteristic of human intelligence. Some basic propositions toward a development of a psychological theory of thought are introduced. 

About the authorsShadrikov, Vladimir D. ; Kurginyan Sergey S.
ThemesTheories and approaches; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  211-224
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0115
Keywords:  mental processes, function of the psyche, substantial thought, thinking onto- logy, thought

Mazilov V.A., Kostrigin A.A. (2017). The work of V.A. Snegirev: an historical and psychological study. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 198-210.

In the history of psychology there are many scientists whose names and contributions have been forgotten. One poorly studied area in the history of psychology is the psychological views of theologians. Among these is Veniamin Alekseevich Snegirev, a psychologist and theologian at Kazan Theological Academy, whose contributions are not fully appreciated today. The authors identify V.A. Snegirev’s contribution to several fields of psychological science at the end of the 19th century: methodology, theory, general psychology, and the psychology of dreams. The research is based on archival materials, encyclopedia articles, reviews of the activity of Kazan Theological Academy in the 19th century, works of Snegirev and other researchers who have studied his contributions. The authors describe the scientist’s childhood, his student period, and work as a professor. his work at the Kazan Theological Academy and the University of Kazan is discussed in detail: he taught courses on psychology, logic, and metaphysics, was a member of the Academy Council, took part in the functioning of the library, was recognized with several awards and honors. Snegirev’s teaching activity is described by the recollections of his student, the famous philosopher Viktor I. Nesmelov. Snegirev considered psychology to be based in philosophy, because philosophical problems represent the content of human consciousness. A bibliography of Snegirev’s scientific works is provided. The psychological and philosophical views of the Russian scientist are signifi- cant: his main points are to recognize the object of science – the human being – as a “living person”, thinking, feeling, and exercising his will; and the rejection of the idea that a person can be reduced to a sum of mental phenomena. There are several common concepts in the works of Snegirev and European and American philosophers, such as Wilhelm Dilthey and William James. Snegirev participated in the international philosophical and scientific discus- sion, which underlines the importance of studying his work. 

ThemesTheories and approaches
Pages:  198-210
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0114
Keywords:  history of psychology, biography, V.A. Snegirev, religious and philosophical psy- chology, Theological Academy of Kazan, V.I. Nesmelov, psychology of the living personality

Eritsyan K.Y., Antonova N.A., Tsvetkova L.A. (2017). Studying anti-vaccination behavior and attitudes: A systematic review of methods. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 178-197.

Immunization is one of the most significant achievements of public health over the last 100 years. Recently, however, people have been increasingly refusing to vaccinate. There are a large number of separate studies on how pervasive this behavior is and what fac- tors influence it, but no systematic review has been undertaken so far that looked at these studies as a whole. To conduct an analysis of studies that examine vaccine refusal and negative attitudes towards vaccination, focusing on the methodological approaches to the study of these problems and evaluation of their quality. A systematic review of English-language studies published between 1980 and 2015, using the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection database. The final review dealt with 31 papers. The studies in question were mainly conducted in North America and Western Europe. They were published three years after conclusion, on average. We have identified five different approaches to the study of these problems: 1) studies of parents’ attitudes and behavior; 2) analysis of vaccination records; 3) studies of attitudes and behavior among the general population; 4) studies of medical professionals’ attitudes, behavior, and experience; and 5) others. We found that theoretical models were not commonly used at the planning stage, while the studies also lacked a common approach to the operationalization of vaccine refusal, as well as of negative attitudes towards vaccination. Several promising directions have been identified for future studies on vaccine refusal and negative attitudes towards vac- cination. 

About the authorsEritsyan, Ksenia Y.; Antonova, Natalia A.; Tsvetkova, Larissa A.
ThemesPsychology and bioethics; Clinical psychology
Pages:  178-197
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0113
Keywords:  vaccination, vaccine refusal, attitudes towards vaccination, systematic review

Bryzgalina E.V., Ryzhov A.L., Tikhomandritskaya O.A., Tkhostov A.S., Zinchenko Yu. P..(2017).Biobanking — a new environment for psychological research and applications. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 163-177.

Biobanking is an emerging medical, research, and social institution that has many im- plications for psychological science and practice. The bibliographic study of abstracts and full text articles retrieved from major databases (PsycInfo, PubMed, EBSCO, SAgE) indicates that the role of psychology in the establishment and functioning of biobanks is not well articulated. Two promising directions of biobank-based studies are concerned with studies of risk factors for various disorders and with genetic and epigenetic mecha- nisms of psychological and behavioral trait development, and are closely tied to a devel- oping model of a new “personalized” medicine. It is important to carefully select the psy- chological variables and measurements, with consideration of their suitability for genetic studies, possibilities for networking and sharing of results, economic limitations, and biobank purposes. Of special importance is a systemic foundation of mental functions that requires not only the assessment of efficacy, but also the search for simple, natural, and objectively observable components. Applied tasks of professional psychologists in the field of biobanking can be defined, such as donor selection and management of ethi- cal issues. As a new technology, biobanking poses several challenges to society and the individual that need to be studied in order to prevent misuse and to earn the public trust. The hidden dangers of eugenics-like ideas, of consumer practices with genetic products, and of over-emphasis on human enhancement are particularly stressed. We conclude that while biobanks represent a promising and fertile ground for psychological research and applications, there is a need for a comprehensive psychology of biobanking to make them fruitful. 

About the authorsTkhostov, Alexander Sh. ; Zinchenko, Yury P. ; Bryzgalina Elena V.; Ryzhov Andrey L. ; Tikhomandritskaya Olga A.
ThemesPsychology and bioethics; Clinical psychology
Pages:  163-177
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0112
Keywords:  biobank, depositories of human biological samples, personalized medicine, molecular genetics of human behavior, phenotype description

Tikhomirova T.N., Misozhnikova E.B., Malykh A.S., Gaydamashko I.V., Malykh S.B. (2017). Mathematical fluency in high school students. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 95-104.

This article presents the results of a study of mathematical fluency in high school students. We provide a definition of mathematical fluency and illustrate the relevance of the research by presenting an overview of studies examining mathematical fluency development and its relationship with success in mathematical disciplines.

A computerized test “Problem Verification Task” (Tosto et al., 2013) was administered to 692 high school students from one public secondary school (grades 9/10/11: n = 336/210/146) in the Moscow region. The stimuli consisted of 48 elementary arithmetic equations along with answer options. To indicate a correct answer, participants were instructed to press the corresponding key on the keyboard as quickly as possible.

Two-way ANOVA was used to estimate grade and sex similarities and differences in mathematical fluency at the high school level.

The current study has two primary findings: (1) students differed in math fluency across grades, and (2) there were no sex differences in mathematical fluency at the high school level. ANOVA exhibited significant differences in mathematical fluency among all three groups of students at grades 9, 10 and 11 with a 19% effect size. These results may be associated with the accumulating effects of the educational process: high school students in each subsequent year of schooling demonstrate a higher level of mathematical fluency on average compared to the previous year. At the same time, we observed no sex differences in mathematical fluency at the high school level. The results are discussed in terms of educational effects.

About the authorsTikhomirova, Tatiana N.; Malykh, Sergey B.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  95-104
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0107
Keywords:  mathematical fluency, mathematical achievement, education, high school age, sex differences

Kashapov M.M., Serafimovich I.V., Poshekhonova Yu.V. (2017). Components of metacognition and metacognitive properties of forecasting as determinants of supra-situational pedagogical thinking. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 80-94.

This article describes the functions of metacognition and the role of these functions in professional pedagogical thinking (PPT): the discovery of the emergence of a problemacy, the organization of cognition processes, and the management of the comprehension and resolution of the problem situation. Thinking is related to the metacognitive activity of a subject. Components and strategies of metacognition are included in the PPT process and define (by means of conscious or unconscious regulation) the efficiency of discovering and solving problems in an interpersonal interaction situation that must be comprehended and transformed. One of the conditions providing for realization of the supra-situational thinking of professionals is a high level of metacognitive activity, although the level of the pronouncedness of metacognitive activity does not depend on the subject’s possessing basic professional education.

We have created and tested new psychodiagnostic techniques aimed at defining the level of forecasting in problem (conflict) situations and at evaluating metacognitive knowledge and activity. The sample group included about 800 people (university lecturers, school teachers, and teachers who train college students). It was proved that the metacognitive focus of forecasting stimulates the formation and development of various forecasting types: proactive, retroactive, and interactive. Forecasting is viewed as a metacognitive component of supra-situational thinking and a component of the cognitive side of communication. Situational and supra- situational types of pedagogical thinking are shown to have different properties and different orientations toward forecasting activity; these properties and orientations determine the differentiation and hierarchization of these types of thinking. It was discovered that the metacognitive properties of supra-situational thinking are achieved through a high degree of integration of all basic forecasting qualities (analyticity, depth, awareness, flexibility, prospectiveness, and validity).

The efficiency of our devised and tested program aimed at perfecting PPT is evident in the dynamics of its objective and subjective properties (an increased level of suprasituativity of thinking among the program participants and the participants’ subjective evaluations of transformation in coping with difficulties in conflict situations). The formation of supra-situational thinking—in particular, of components such as forecasting (in both a narrow and a broad context)—is closely connected with envisaging prospects, including those for one’s own professional and personality development.

About the authorsKashapov, Mergalуаs M. ; Serafimovich, Irina V.; Poshekhonova, Yulia V.
ThemesEducational psychology; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  80-94
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0106
Keywords:  metacognition, metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive activity, forecasting, supra-situativity of professional thinking

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2017). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (1), 2-3.

This issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” is focused on the topic of psychology and education. It also introduces a new section on psychology and bioethics, and we hope to start a meaningful discussion in this proliferating field of research.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0100
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 10, Issue 1, 2017, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Ilyushin L.S., Azbel A.A. (2017). The modern Russian teacher: Studying awareness with the use of the semi-structured interview. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 49-66.

This research is based on the ideas of Humanistic-Existential Psychology, a positive approach to personal growth, and modern educational concepts concerning the dynamics of professional and social identity in the stratum of secondary and primary school teachers. The goal of the study is to get an objective picture of the professional and personal changes among Russian teachers under the conditions of school modernization. We offer a detailed model of the semi-structured interview with modern teachers, in combination with observation. The interview consists of 63 questions divided into 9 topics, and deals with issues related to what their professional activities mean to the teachers; the teachers’ evaluation of professional dynamics; their attitude toward various aspects of professional life; and their general world outlook and values. We also briefly describe a pre-interview “warm-up” strategy. This stage of the research resulted in the successful pilot use of the research methodology, and data sufficient to evaluate the initial trends of the analysis of all the data. The study’s main conclusions concern the observation technique, which offers a significant increase in the potential of the interview method, mainly through providing the ability to interpret non-verbal reactions, the level of openness, and the teacher’s trust in the dialogue. Moreover, we must note that, when we asked teachers to answer complicated written questions, their answers, judgments, and arguments varied greatly, regardless of their professional and personal characteristics (employment history, qualification category, the subject they teach, type of school, etc.)

About the authorsIlyushin, Leonid S.; Azbel, Anastasia A.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  49-66
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0104
Keywords:  awareness, personal meaning of professional activities, semi-structured interview, modern Russian teacher

Karpov A.A., Karpov A.V., Karabushchenko N.B., Ivashchenko A.V. (2017). The interconnection of learning ability and the organization of metacognitive processes and traits of personality. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 67-79.

Patterns of the relationship between the development of learning ability as one of the general abilities and metacognitive traits of personality are considered in the article. The necessity of appeal to this issue arises from the peculiarities of the current state of research in the theory of abilities and modern metacognitivism. Despite the ever-increasing number of studies in the field of general abilities and learning ability in particular and in the field of metacognitive processes of the personality, the possible interconnection of this class of processes and the level of learning ability and, therefore, the interpretation of this interconnection are rarely considered. To date these crucial areas are not in sufficient contact with each other. The purpose of this study is to identify and interpret the possible relationship of the level of learning ability with metacognitive processes and qualities of the individual and their organization. The research procedure was based on a comparison of the individual measures of the development of learning ability as a general ability with the diagnostics of the main parameters of the metacognitive sphere of personality, including features of its organization and implementation in relation to the methodology of structural-psychological analysis. This procedure is based on the determination of matrices of intercorrelation and the subsequent interpretation of correlograms of the metacognitive parameters of a person. The main result is that there exists a mutual dependence of characteristics of the level of learning ability and basic parameters of the metacognitive sphere of personality (metacognitive processes and traits). This dependence lies in the fact that an increase in the level of development of learning ability increases the intensity of separate metacognitive personal qualities and the general level of their structural organization. An interpretation of the data is presented. According to it, learning ability, as a significant factor in the level of development of metacognitive processes and personality traits, acquires an additional and quite powerful resource to enhance at the same time its own level because of the organization of these processes and traits.

About the authorsKarpov, Anatoly V. ; Karpov, Alexander A.; Karabushchenko, Natalia B.; Ivashchenko, Aleksandr V.
ThemesEducational psychology; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  67-79
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0105
Keywords:  metacognitive processes, structural organization, learning ability, reflexivity, metaprocesses, integration of structures, dependence, resource approach

Tkhostov A. Sh. (2016). Prospect of development of L.S. Vygotsky’s ideas in clinical psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 205-2014.

This work is dedicated to the development of L.S. Vygotsky’s ideas in clinical psychology and the clarification of some basic points of the cultural-historical concept. The paper presents a thesis about the development of man in ontogeny as the result of his interaction with the cultural environment, which transforms natural mental functions into higher mental functions. This process can be attended by a whole range of psychopathologies. The issues discussed include voluntary regulation of higher mental functions, determination of the involuntariness and “post-voluntariness” of functions, the internalization of actions, the differentiation of affect and emotion (including as higher mental functions), the “cultural” socialization of non-mental functions (sex, sleep, excretion), and the discord between natural and “cultural” entities in a person. The basis for the ontological development of man is the genesis of “subjectness”, like all the forms of higher activity that emerge when encountering cultural restrictions and requirements causing specific mental disorders. The supposition is made that there are no significant restrictions to explaining either mental or non-mental functions with the cultural-historical approach. Recommendations for further research are suggested.

About the authorsTkhostov, Alexander Sh.
ThemesClinical psychology; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky; Theories and approaches
Pages:  205-2014
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0415
Keywords:  cultural-historical concept, development in ontogeny, voluntary regulation, internalization, higher mental functions, a “cultural” body

Saraiva A. B., Ferreira J. (2016). Personality attributes of children with behavior problems. An exploratory analysis with the Exner Comprehensive System of the Rorschach Inkblot Test and implications for the socio-historical clinical practice approach.

From a Relational-Historical theoretical framework applied to clinical psychological practice, this study examines the data set underlying the personality attributes of different groups of children with behavior problems as demonstrated on the Rorschach Inkblot Test. To define the groups, categories were established from parents’ descriptions of their own children. This procedure allowed for the formation of three major psychological profiles: hyperkinetic, oppositional defiant, and antisocial (Saraiva & Ferreira, 2016). The major goal of this study is data exploration in a clinical setting, in order to investigate whether and in what ways groups of hyperkinetic, oppositional defiant, and antisocial children differ. These profile characteristics are important issues embraced by both psychodiagnosis and psychotherapy. The participants for this study were 39 Portuguese children, who were private clinic clients; there were 24 boys and 15 girls between the ages of 6 and 14. Their personality attributes were measured using the Rorschach Inkblot Test (Rorschach, 1994), and the Comprehensive System developed by Exner (1991, 1993, 2000) was applied, with the support of the clinical interpretation provided by Quintino-Aires (1999; 2009; 2012; 2014). Comparison of the three profiles showed four common aspects of personality structure: a deficit in cognitive perceptual skills, lack of self-control, limited relational skills, and low self-esteem. Differences in the three profiles revealed factors related to the functional characteristics of specific behavior patterns. Children with the hyperkinetic psychological profile show factors of difficulty in controlling their activity, impulsivity, and overlapping emotions about conscious action. Those with the oppositional defiant profile revealed factors of low self-confidence, low trust in others, high pessimism, loneliness, and structural stress. Finally, those with the antisocial profile had factors of a deficit in coping skills, lack of verbalization of affects and emotions, and egotism.

About the authorsSaraiva, Ana Beatriz; Ferreira, Jorge
ThemesClinical psychology; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky
Pages:  193-204
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0414
Keywords:  hyperkinetic, oppositional, antisocial, Exner Comprehensive System for the Rorschach Inkblot Test, postnonclassical psychology

Rodrigues T. F., Alves P. U. M., Tirone C., Prade D. (2016). A new perspective on autism: Rita Leal School. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 163-192.

Guided by the principle that scientific knowledge should serve to transform reality and create suitable conditions of life for all, the Portuguese Association for Relational-Historical Psychology (APPRH) founded a school named RITA LEAL (RLS), with a therapeutic purpose based on new perspectives for treating autism — perspectives quite different from instrumental and behavioral learning programs. The Rita Leal School (Leal, 1975/2004, 1997, 2005, 2010) is rooted in the theory that mental development is based on a mutually contingent emotional relationship, while it underwrites Vygotsky’s concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) and Mediation (1930/2004, 1934/2009). Learning to read is a complex process which individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) master slowly and with difficulty. We analyzed the process of learning to read of two ASD children accompanied by peers without special educational needs, aiming to pinpoint distinct aspects of their progress. We used the Observer Software Program to collect and analyze observations of their performance, which were understood as data to be classified according to previously specified codes. We believed we could demonstrate that, especially in the case of ASD children, learning is dependent on contingent responses and adequate levels of mediation. The technical team at the RLS has continuous clinical supervision. That is because we believe this supervision is what permits the team to undergo a process of de-centering, becoming more empathic and accessible to the autists. This makes the team’s intervention more efficient, because it becomes more aware of each autist’s individual characteristics, and therefore more available to respond to the autist’s needs.

About the authorsAlves, Pedro Ferreira ; Rodrigues, Tâmara Ferreira ; Prade, Diego; Tirone, Claudia
ThemesClinical psychology; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky
Pages:  163-192
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0413
Keywords:  autism, contingent emotional development, mediation, zone of proximal development

González H. J. P., Solovieva Yu., Quintanar L., Meza V. R., Arce R. M. J. (2016). Proposal for psychomotor development in newborns with low weight according to A.R. Luria’s conception. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 152-162.

Low birth weight has a negative impact on psychomotor development, specifically on motor and perceptual functions. In order to prevent this effect, neurodevelopmental diagnosis should be supplemented by an effective therapeutic system. The aim of this work was to test a program for psychomotor development based on A.R. Luria’s concept of three functional brain units or blocks and the necessity of stimulation of the first functional unit in early childhood. Stimulation of subcortical systems associated with psychomotor and cognitive regulation may help to set the basis for positive functioning of the cerebral cortex in the coming years. Vestibular exercises and proprioceptive stimulation were used. All exercises included significant communicative activity as described by Vygotsky and Lisina, which provided positive direct emotional contact between adult and child. Twenty-five babies with low birth weight were included in the study, along with their parents. After 250 days in the program, all the underweight children presented positive functional development. We conclude that positive effects of these programs for correction and psychological development may be achieved during the first year of life. The methods for sensitive diagnosis and correction should be considered by all specialists involved in topics of early development.

About the authorsSolovieva, Yulia; Quintanar, Luis Rojas; González, Héctor Juan Pelayo; Meza, Verónica Reyes; Arce, Ricardo Marcelo Jimeno
ThemesClinical psychology; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky
Pages:  152-162
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0412
Keywords:  low birth weight, psychomotor development, subcortical systems, joint activity, early childhood

Fatikhova L. F., Sayfutdiyarova E. F. (2016). Understanding of unsafe situations by children with intellectual disabilities. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 138-151.

This article deals with vital questions of the health and safety of children with intellectual disability (mental disability and mixed specific disorders). Theoretical analysis has demonstrated insufficient study of the problem, both in national and foreign psychological and pedagogical studies, although a number of approaches exist. Researchers agree that development of these children is an important condition for the existence of both individual and society at large. At the contemporary stage of development of our society, the safety of the children is all the more relevant since the degree of their development is an important condition of socialization and normal interaction with the environment. Diagnostic tools to estimate the comprehension and recognition of unsafe situations by children with these disorders are still insufficiently developed.

This paper describes the application of a technique called “Recognition of Unsafe Situations”, which was designed to study the ability of children with intellectual disability to recognize potentially life-threatening situations (handling household appliances, electricity, medicine, hot or sharp objects, behavior at heights and with stray animals) and to predict the consequences of their actions in such situations. The results of this study allow us to determine the differences in recognizing unsafe situations by children with mental disability and children with mixed specific developmental disorders. We show that children with mixed specific developmental disorders have a certain ability to identify potentially unsafe situations, and with support provided by adults, they are able to predict the consequences of their actions. Children with mental disability, however, have insufficient knowledge of safe behavior; but special activities that take into account these children’s ability to compensate enable them to develop the essential skills for behavior in potentially life-threatening situations.

About the authorsFatikhova, Lidia F.; Sayfutdiyarova, Elena F.
ThemesClinical psychology; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky
Pages:  138-151
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0411
Keywords:  children with intellectual disabilities, children with mixed specific developmental disorders, health and safety, understanding of dangerous situations

Solovieva Yu., Quintanar L. (2016). The zone of proximal development during assessment of intellectual development in pre-school children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 123-137.

The zone of proximal development is a well-known and frequently referenced term within cultural historical psychology. Nevertheless, it is rarely used in the concrete practice of assessing intellectual development. The majority of proposals for such assessment are based on a behavioral and psychometric conception of development. This study presents a Scheme for Evaluation of Intellectual Development based on the concept of the zone of proximal development and on gradual intellectual development. The Scheme was applied to 160 Mexican pre-school children from rural, suburban, official, and private kindergartens. The Scheme permitted us to determine the zone of proximal development by evaluating the children’s level of external orientation during the solution of new intellectual tasks. Three levels of orientation through external help were established. The results showed that the majority of children from all groups managed to fulfil new tasks after receiving external help, which indicated the existence of their zone of proximal development. Differences were detected in the use of the level of help in all groups. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the level of helping received, the degree of fulfilment of the task, and the children’s socio-cultural group. The results permitted us to establish more precisely the zone of proximal development at pre-school age. We discuss how the concept of the zone of proximal development might be used in concrete psychological practice and research, instead of being only a well-known term at a declarative level.

About the authorsSolovieva, Yulia; Quintanar, Luis Rojas
ThemesEducational psychology; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky
Pages:  123-137
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0410
Keywords:  intellectual development, zone of proximal development, level of development, preschool development, assessment of intellect, assessment of development, intellectual actions

Sobkin V. S., Veraksa A. N., Bukhalenkova D. A., Fedotova A. V., Khalutina U. A., Yakupova V. A. (2016). The connection of socio-demographic factors and child-parent relationships to the psychological aspects of children’s development.

Preschool childhood is a time of rapid development. During this period a child`s interaction with significant adults plays a very important role. The parent, as a mediator, defines the “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky, 1984). The common assumption is that to determine a parent’s position, it is important to acknowledge both socio-demographic factors and the parameters which define the socio-psychological aspects of parent-child relationship. Hence, the type of research where a child’s psychological development is studied in the context of the socio-demographic and socio-psychological factors which determine the social situation of development, is very promising.

Based on our previous research (Sobkin, Marich, 2002; Cheie, Veraksa, 2015), a program of experimental research intended to determine the interconnections between the socio-demographic and socio-psychological parameters of parent-child relationships, and the level of a child’s psychic development, was designed. The research was based upon the material obtained through testing 59 children between 5 and 7 years old with specially collected psychological testing methods (Veraksa A.N. etc), as well as from the results of a special sociological questionnaire presented to their mothers (Sobkin V.S. etc). The research was carried out in 2014-2015 in municipal kindergartens of Moscow.

Among the socio-demographic factors analyzed, the most significant results were related to the child’s gender, the family structure, and the mother’s education. Thus, boys showed higher results on visual memory tests, and girls scored better on tests for self-control and social intelligence (higher ability to detect the reason for someone else’s negative emotions). Children from single-parent families had better results on verbal memory tests, but scored lower on those for self-control. Also they had less ability for decentration. The differences in mothers’ educational levels influenced the number and intensity of children’s fears, as well as their inclinations to avoid fearsome situations.

The analysis of features of the parenting position (such as attitude toward one’s future, positive/negative emotional state during the interaction with the child, authoritative/ democratic approach to upbringing) revealed two different strategies which children used to perform executive tasks.

Thus, the present research showed a significant degree of essential connections between socio-demographic factors and parent-child relationships to the specifics of a child’s mental development.

About the authorsSobkin, Vladimir S.; Veraksa, Aleksandr N. ; Yakupova, Vera A. ; Bukhalenkova, Darya A.; Fedotova, Aleksandra V.; Khalutina, Ulia A.
ThemesEducational psychology; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky; Family psychology
Pages:  106-122
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0409
Keywords:  child development, preschool age, social situation of development, parentchild relationships, executive functions, social intelligence

Bayanova L. F., Tsivilskaya E. A., Bayramyan R. M., Chulyukin K. S. (2016). A cultural congruence test for primary school students. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 94-105.

The study presented in this article relies on the principles of the cultural-historical theory, which defines cultural impact as the main driving force behind psychological development. Based on the assumption that culture is a set of normative situations, the study identifies rules that are typical for primary school students in big Russian cities. These rules are grouped into what we refer to as factors of cultural compliance, which ultimately can be seen as indicators of pupils’ cultural congruence. In specifying the cultural congruence of primary school students, we take into account not only the rules of school life but also the whole range of stable rules for children 7- to 10-years-old. Researchers at the Psychology Institute of the Higher University of the Chinese Academy of Science (Wang, Zhu, & Shi, 2011) call such rules usual or contextually usual. We include rules that govern the behavior of children who have cultural differences, so in this article we are talking about the rules that are typical for children of this age in Russia.

The goal of the study was to develop a test to diagnose the level of cultural congruence. The test was exposed to psychometric evaluation for validity, reliability, and discriminatory power. Factor analysis by means of varimax rotation provided for calibration of the rules by consolidating them into factors. These factors underpin the test and include the categories social interaction, academic competence, regulation, obedience, self-service, and self-control. In accordance with the principles employed in psychology, the factors confirm the construct validity of the test in relation to children’s development when they are between 7 and 10 years old. The study confirms that learning is the main activity at this age by introducing a factor that brings together rules inherent in normative situations in the education process. The social setting for psychological development, viewed as a specific relationship between a child at the given age and the environment, is determined by the child’s interaction with an adult. The factor of obedience is the key parameter for children of the age under consideration. New at this age are arbitrariness, self-regulation, self-analysis, and an internal action plan. Self-control is also conceptually linked to these factors.

The study offers a new look at the cultural determination of psychological development in ontogenesis. Validated in the course of the investigations, the test can be used to diagnose cultural congruence — that is, the compliance of a primary school student with rules inherent in normative situations.

About the authorsBayanova, Larisa F.; Tsivilskaya, Ekaterina A.; Bayramyan, Roksana M.; Chulyukin, Kirill S.
ThemesEducational psychology; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky
Pages:  94-105
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0408
Keywords:  primary school student, cultural congruence, normative situation, validity, reliability, discriminatory power

Téllez A., Sánchez T. (2016). Luria’s model of the functional units of the brain and the neuropsychology of dreaming. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 80-93.

Traditionally, neuropsychology has focused on identifying the brain mechanisms of specific psychological processes, such as attention, motor skills, perception, memory, language, and consciousness, as well as their corresponding disorders. However, there are psychological processes that have received little attention in this field, such as dreaming. This study examined the clinical and experimental neuropsychological research relevant to dreaming, ranging from sleep disorders in patients with brain damage, to brain functioning during REM sleep, using different methods of brain imaging. These findings were analyzed within the framework of Luria’s Three Functional Unit Model of the Brain, and a proposal was made to explain certain of the essential characteristics of dreaming. This explanation describes how, during dreaming, an activation of the First Functional Unit occurs, comprising the reticular formation of the brainstem; this activates, in turn, the Second Functional Unit — which is formed by the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes and Unit L, which is comprised of the limbic system, as well as simultaneous hypo-functioning of the Third Functional Unit (frontal lobe). This activity produces a perception of hallucinatory images of various sensory modes, as well as a lack of inhibition, a non-selfreflexive thought process, and a lack of planning and direction of such oneiric images. Dreaming is considered a type of natural confabulation, similar to the one that occurs in patients with frontal lobe damage or schizophrenia. The study also suggests that the confabulatory, bizarre, and impulsive nature of dreaming has a function in the cognitiveemotional homeostasis that aids proper brain function throughout the day.

About the authorsTéllez Arnoldo ; Sánchez, Teresa J.
ThemesNeuropsychology; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky
Pages:  80-93
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0407
Keywords:  dreaming, brain, neuropsychology, functional units, Luria´s model

Glozman J. M. (2016). Vygotsky in applied neuropsychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 73-79.

The aims of this paper are: 1) to show the role of clinical experience for the theoretical contributions of L.S. Vygotsky, and 2) to analyze the development of these theories in contemporary applied neuropsychology. An analysis of disturbances of mental functioning is impossible without a systemic approach to the evidence observed. Therefore, medical psychology is fundamental for forming a systemic approach to psychology. The assessment of neurological patients at the neurological hospital of Moscow University permitted L.S. Vygotsky to create, in collaboration with A.R. Luria, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions and their relationship to cultural conditions. In his studies of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Vygotsky also set out 3 steps of systemic development: interpsychological, then extrapsychological, then intrapsychological. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria in the late 1920s created a program to compensate for the motor subcortical disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD) through a cortical (visual) mediation of movements. We propose to distinguish the objective mediating factors — like teaching techniques and modalities — from subjective mediating factors, like the individual’s internal representation of his/her own disease. The cultural-historical approach in contemporary neuropsychology forces neuropsychologists to re-analyze and re-interpret the classic neuropsychological syndromes; to develop new assessment procedures more in accordance with the patient’s conditions of life; and to reconsider the concept of the social brain as a social and cultural determinant and regulator of brain functioning. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria proved that a defect interferes with a child’s appropriation of his/her culture, but cultural means can help the child overcome the defect. In this way, the cultural-historical approach became, and still is, a methodological basis for remedial education.

About the authorsGlozman, Janna M.
ThemesNeuropsychology; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky
Pages:  73-79
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0406
Keywords:  psychological theory and clinical practice, Vygotsky and Luria, Parkinson’s disease, mediation, cultural-historical approach

Dikaya L. A., Dikiy I. S., Karpova V. V., Lavreshina A. Yu. (2016). Neurophysiological correlates of artistic image creation by representatives of artistic professions. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 51-72.

The steadily increasing demand for artistic professions brings to the fore the task of studying the phenomenon of art by researching the unique capacity of the human brain to create works of art in different spheres of creative activity. So far, only a few studies have investigated creativity-related brain activity in representatives of the creative professions. The aim of the empirical research was to study the neurophysiological correlates of artistic image creation by representatives of the artistic professions. The participants were 60 right-handed females aged 23-27, divided into three groups— artists (23 people), actors (17 people), and specialists who do not work in an artistic field (20 people). The mono-typing technique was used to model the creative artistic process. EEG signals were recorded in a resting state, and during four stages of the creation of an artistic image (viewing of monotypes, frustration, image creation, and thinking over the details) from 21 electrodes set on the scalp according to the International 10-20 System. We analyzed EEG coherence for each functional trial at theta (4.00–8.00 Hz), alpha1 (8.00–10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5–13.00 Hz), and beta (13.00– 35.00 Hz) frequency bands. For statistical analysis, we used MANOVA and post hoc analysis. We found that the neurophysiological correlates of creating an artistic image are different at different stages of the creative process, and have different features for artists and actors. The actors primarily show dominance of right hemisphere activity, while close interaction of the hemispheres distinguishes the brains of the artists. The differences revealed in brain cortex functioning when artists or actors create an artistic image reflect different strategies of imaginative creative work by representatives of these professions.

About the authorsDikaya, Liudmila A.; Dikiy, Igor S.; Karpova, Viktorija V.; Lavreshina, Anastasiya Y.
ThemesNeuropsychology; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky
Pages:  51-72
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0405
Keywords:  brain hemispheres, cortex, EEG, coherence, frequency band, art, artistic image

Chernorizov A. M., Zhong-qing J., Petrakova A. V., Zinchenko Yu. P. (2016). Face cognition in humans: Psychophysiological, developmental, and cross-cultural aspects. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 37-50.

Investigators are finding increasing evidence for cross-cultural specificity in face cognition along with individual characteristics. The functions on which face cognition is based not only are types of general cognitive functions (perception, memory) but are elements of specific mental processes. Face perception, memorization, correct recognition of faces, and understanding the information that faces provide are essential skills for humans as a social species and can be considered as facets of social (cultural) intelligence. Face cognition is a difficult, multifaceted set of processes. The systems and processes involved in perceiving and recognizing faces are captured by several models focusing on the pertinent functions or including the presumably underlying neuroanatomical substrates. Thus, the study of face-cognition mechanisms is a cross-disciplinary topic. In Russia, Germany, and China there are plans to organize an interdisciplinary crosscultural study of face cognition. The first step of this scientific interaction is conducting psychological and psychophysiological studies of face cognition in multinational Russia within the frame of a grant supported by the Russian Science Foundation and devoted to “cross-cultural tolerance”. For that reason and in the presence of the huge diversity of data concerning face cognition, we suggest for discussion, specifically within the psychological scientific community, three aspects of face cognition: (1) psychophysiological (quantitative data), (2) developmental (qualitative data from developmental psychology), and (3) cross-cultural (qualitative data from cross-cultural studies). These three aspects reflect the different levels of investigations and constitute a comprehensive, multilateral approach to the problem. Unfortunately, as a rule, neuropsychological and psychological investigations are carried out independently of each other. However, for the purposes of our overview here, we assume that the main factors that could influence the developmental, individual psychophysiological, and cross-cultural differences in face cognition are not only biological but also social and cultural. One of the principal tasks of this article is to draw the attention of psychologists to the physiology of face processing and to draw the attention of neuroscientists to the psychology of face cognition. Thus, the main goal of the article is to instigate a discussion among social psychologists, psychophysiologists, and neuroscientists about the mechanisms of face cognition, which, as in a mirror, reflect the basic, fundamental “psychophysical” problem of psychophysiology.

About the authorsChernorizov, Alexsander M. ; Zinchenko, Yury P. ; Zhong-qing Jiang; Petrakova, Anastasia V.
ThemesNeuropsychology; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky
Pages:  37-50
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0404
Keywords:  face cognition, social psychophysiology, development, other-ethnicity effects, brain mechanisms

Chernorizov A. M., Isaychev S. A., Zinchenko Yu. P., Znamenskaya I. A., Zakharov P. N., Khakhalin A. V., Gradoboeva O. N., Galatenko V. V. (2016). Psychophysiological methods for the diagnostics of human functional states: New approaches and perspectives.

L. S. Vygotsky in his famous methodological essay “The historical meaning of psychological crisis” (1928) emphasized the importance of studying any psychological process or state as a “whole” — that is, as characterized from the subjective and objective sides at the same time. This position is fully relevant for studying the human functional states (FSes). Today the objective psychophysiological diagnostics of human FSes in activities associated with a high risk of technological disasters (in nuclear-power plants, transportation, the chemical industry) are extremely relevant and socially important. This article reviews some new psychophysiological methods of FS assessment that are being developed in Russia and abroad and discusses different aspects of developing integral psychophysiological FS assessment. The emphasis is on distant methods of FS diagnostics: the bioradiolocation method, laser Doppler vibrometry, eye tracking, audio and video recordings, infrared thermography. The possibilities and limitations of the most popular emotion atlases — the Facial Affect Scoring Technique (FAST) and the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) — in developing distant visual-range and infrared-range systems for automated classification of facial expressions are analyzed. A special section of the article concentrates on the problem of constructing an integral psychophysiological FS index. Mathematical algorithms that provide a partition of FS indicators into different FS types are based on various methods of machine learning. We propose the vector approach for construction of complex estimations of the human FSes.

About the authorsChernorizov, Alexsander M. ; Isaychev, Sergey A. ; Zinchenko, Yury P. ; Galatenko, Vladimir V.; Znamenskaya, Irina A.; Zakharov, Petr N.; Khakhalin, Andrej V.; Gradoboeva, Olga N.
ThemesNeuropsychology; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky
Pages:  23-36
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0403
Keywords:  functional states, distant diagnostics, integral estimating, vector approach

Quintino-Aires J. (2016) Emptiness in psychological science and practice. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 16-22.

Psychology is now one of the most popular sciences for young students. But whether academic production or professional practice, it is still in crisis. When we look together at two different approaches we realize the enormous amount of syncretism. They are not only two different approaches to the same science. They are more than that, they are different areas of knowledge, with very different practical implications. Discussion of psychology with the other sciences researching the same "objects" is nonexistent. So when it comes to practice, many of young psychologists leave the profession.

This article is an invitation to colleagues for a "look inside" this interesting science that can make a significant contribution to human sciences and the better life of human beings in the 21st century. This call is supported by a re-reading of the text by Lev S. Vygotsky The historical meaning of the crisis in psychology written in 1927. The article is structured in four subtopics: the problem of general science (in Psychology), the problem of terminology, the problem of difficulty in recognizing the crisis and the problem of emptiness. Being a call, of course, it is not a complete and finished analysis. It is rather a desire that, engaging some colleagues, we can continue the dialogue with Vygotsky on this topic started by him ninety years ago.

About the authorsQuintino-Aires, Joaquim
ThemesMethodology of psychology; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky
Pages:  16-22
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0402
Keywords:  psychology, crisis, approaches, general science, dialogue, Vygotsky

Ardila A. (2016). L.S. Vygotsky in the 21st century. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 4-15.

Although Lev Vygotsky’s interpretation of human cognition was proposed almost one century ago, new scientific and technological advances have significantly supported many of his ideas and hypotheses. His cultural-historical theory of psychological processes, and his contributions to educational psychology, have continued growing without interruption. In this paper, three of Vygotsky’s hypotheses are examined in light of 21st century scientific developments:

  1. The influence of cultural factors on human cognition. A diversity of research studies in different countries has corroborated the crucial impact of culture on cognitive test performance; 
  2. The role of language in higher psychological processes. According to Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach, cognitive processes (“complex psychological processes”) are social in origin, but complex and hierarchical in their structure. Intrinsic to the systemic organization of higher cognitive processes is the engagement of external artifacts (objects, symbols, signs), which have an independent history of development within a culture; and 
  3. The hypothesis that thought and general complex cognition is associated with certain “inner speech.” Some contemporary neuroimaging studies (particularly PET and fMRI) analyzing “inner speech” have been carried out. These studies have attempted to find the areas of the brain involved in “inner speech.” These scientific advances significantly support Vygotsky’s interpretation of human cognition. It has been found that inner speech depends on activity in Broca’s area and related brain network activity in the left hemisphere. Hence, inner speech is closely related to grammar, language production, and executive functions.

Vygotsky’s important contribution to the understanding of psychological processes has stimulated, and continues to stimulate, a substantial amount of research in this area.

About the authorsArdila Alfredo
ThemesTheories and approaches; 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky
Pages:  4-15
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0401
Keywords:  Vygotsky, cultural-historical psychology, literacy, inner speech, cognition

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2016). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 2-3.

This special issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” is dedicated to the 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky, an outstanding Russian (Soviet) psychologist whose cultural-historical approach has given rise to numerous theoretical advances, empirical research and applied methods in psychology and education worldwide.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0400
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 9, Issue 4, 2016, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Gorchakova O. Yu., Matsuta V. V., Bogomaz S. A. (2016). Intellectual and personality factors in the achievement of high exam effectiveness in first-year Russian university students. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 217-232.

The goals set forth in regulatory documents for the development of Russian education presuppose quantitative evaluation of factors and conditions that ensure students’ achievement of high competence, personality development, and self-realization. Evaluation of intellectual and personality characteristics of first-year university students and study of the relationship among these characteristics thus become important tasks.

The research objective was to evaluate relationships among social and abstractlogical types of intelligence, personality characteristics, and exam effectiveness (performance).

The study sample was made up of 900 first-year university students (55.2% female and 44.8% male) from Tomsk State University who filled in paper-and-pencil forms in Russian: The Evaluation of Choice in Conflict Situations Questionnaire, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, the Self-Organization of Activity, the Reflexivity Type Assessment Test, the Self-Determination Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the World Assumptions Scale. Scores on the Unified National Examination in Mathematics (UNE in Mathematics) and the first exam results at the university were used to measure academic performance. The data were statistically processed using descriptive analysis, correlation analysis, and factor analysis.

The preference for compromising and collaborating strategies indicates a high level of social intelligence and contributes to socio-psychological adaptation of young people to conditions of university education that are new to them, which require greater independence and activity. Social intelligence and abstract-logical intelligence are relatively independent intelligence types.

Social intelligence and personality characteristics are not determinants of scores on the UNE in Mathematics. Probably the process of educating students in mathematics in the graduating classes of Russian secondary schools is replaced by training to solve problems on the UNE, so that students’ individual characteristics in preparation for the test are no longer factors that influence exam effectiveness. A disparity between social and abstract-logical types of intelligence is accompanied by low academic effectiveness. Proportional development of social and abstract-logical types of intelligence may be an important factor in achieving high academic effectiveness.

About the authorsGorchakova, Olesya Yu.; Matsuta, Valeria V.; Bogomaz, Sergey A.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  217-232
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0315
Keywords:  social intelligence, abstract-logical intelligence, academic achievement, personality characteristics, higher professional education

Kulikova T. I. (2016). Pilot research on a pupil’s psychological safety in the multicultural educational environment. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 203-216.

In the modern world, the environment of any educational institution represents a spectrum of ethnic groups and subcultures: a multicultural educational environment. Pupils who are aware of their national identity often demonstrate intolerance toward students of other nationalities, which threatens pupils’ psychological safety. In this article, we present the results of pilot research examining the level of a pupil’s psychological safety in the multicultural educational environment and identifying the criteria that influence a pupil’s psychological safety. The research sample comprised 127 pupils aged 13–14 years from different schools living in various places that differed by the type of settlement, industrial development and level of science and culture. We isolated the following criteria for a pupil’s psychological safety in the multicultural educational environment: satisfaction with the educational environment, protection from psychological abuse and self-confidence. According to pupils, the essential characteristics of safety in the educational environment, regardless of school category and type, are being able to ask for help, protection of personal dignity, interactions with other students, and self-respect.

Empirical data reveal the current status of the psychological safety of the entire sample group (n = 127) and compare indices of psychological safety in the educational institutions under study.

Analysis of the results of our research indicates that protecting a pupil’s personality in the multicultural educational environment has the greatest influence on his/her psychological safety. In addition, a comfortable psychological atmosphere, mutual aid and support of pupils and low levels of classmates’ and coevals’ aggression positively influence the protection experience.

About the authorsKulikova, Tatyana I.
ThemesEducational psychology; Security psychology
Pages:  203-216
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0314
Keywords:  multicultural education, educational environment, psychological safety

Dontsov A. I., Perelygina E. B. (2016). Cognitive and value parameters of students’ perceptions of the effects of psychoactive substances. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 188-202.

This article sets forth the main results of a study analyzing attitudes toward psychoactivesubstance (PAS) effects. These findings demonstrate the conditionality of social, historic, and cultural views of PAS effects. Despite the threat posed by increasing high school and university students’ drug involvement, exploration of this phenomenon in the format of scientific discourse has been limited so far.

In 2014–2015, in Yekaterinburg, Moscow, and Krasnoyarsk a survey to evaluate perceptions of high school and university students about PAS effects was conducted (289 respondents, aged 16–22).The methods used included the semantic differential (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test modified by A.G. Shmelyov), a modified version of the Rokeach Value Survey, word associations, and content analysis.

The use of psychoactive substances is a specific social practice emerging in a certain social context that includes both drug-addicted and PAS-free young people. Examination of the factors affecting the formation of views about PAS effects and the dynamics of youth values is possible by using a bio-psycho-socio paradigm for performing a complex analysis of cognitive, behavioral, and value parameters.

As documented in the respondents’ perceptions, distinctive features that are characteristic of drug addicts and that are seen in their behavior area loss of control over behavior, emotions, and volition; changes in value systems; and a tendency to develop a manipulative communication style.

Within the system of their social perceptions the respondents endowed drug-addicted persons with pronounced negative characteristics (“aggressiveness,” “addiction,” “stupidity,” “light-mindedness”). Still, they stated that drug abusers are capable of being active, decisive, cheerful, generous, and flexible. The value analysis demonstrated that terminal values appreciated by the school and university students included health, true friends, love, happy family life, active life, and self-development. Receiving pleasure through methamphetamine intake and a burst of energy through PAS intake were considered worthless even though the survey demonstrated the respondents’ use of psychoactive substances.

About the authorsDontsov, Aleksander I. ; Perelygina, Elena B.
ThemesEducational psychology; Psychology of addictions
Pages:  188-202
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0313
Keywords:  perceptions, value preferences, PAS effects, factor analysis, semantic space

Denisenkova N. S., Nisskaya A. K. (2016). The role of teacher-child interaction in promoting peer communication. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 173-187.

It is well-known that communication is the main source and necessity of human development and activity. It promotes social relationships, self-image and a wide range of cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Preschoolers communicate both with their peers and adults. It is traditionally assumed that peer communication greatly depends on the teacher-child interaction, leading role of the adult, and the child’s own activity, which are the main elements of the Russian preprimary education system.

Changes in social situations, reductions in available play time, greater engagement of children in activities and many other factors can affect modern preschoolers’ peer communication. Therefore, the effect of teacher-directed and child-directed teacherchild interactions on preschoolers’ peer communication important to study.

The following methods were applied: peer-communication observation, the behavioral tests ‘Magic room’ and ‘Mosaic’, and the sociometric procedure ‘Two houses’. The sample included 49 Moscow preprimary students aged 4 to 6 year old (25 girls and 24 boys).

The research proved that preschoolers showed better results in child-directed interactions, such as playing skills, compared with a similar situation in which the children were directed by the teachers. Additionally, the level of proactiveness, communication success, conflict resolution, prosocial behavior and emotional response to peer influence did not differ among children.

Thus, the child-directed approach is more beneficial to preschoolers’ communication development than a teacher-directed approach.

About the authorsDenisenkova, Natalia S.; Nisskaya, Anastasia K.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  173-187
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0312
Keywords:  teacher-child interaction, preschoolers’ peer-communication, peer-communication components, preprimary education

Baeva I. A., Zinchenko Yu. P., Laptev V. V. (2016). Psychological resources of modern Russian adolescents’ resilience to violence in the educational environment. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 159-172.

Determination of the personality’s psychological resources that ensure its resilience to negative effects of the social environment is a priority problem in modern society, science, and education, since we currently see a sharp increase in the number of factors that affect psychological hardiness and security. One of these is intensification of violent and aggressive forms of interaction in educational institutions. Such manifestations are especially dangerous in schools, since, by virtue of their age-specific features, students are the most vulnerable and they subsequently translate the acquired values and behaviors to society as a whole. The goal of this empirical study was to identify teenagers’ psychological resources that determine their resilience to various forms of psychological violence in the educational environment. The study covered four St. Petersburg high schools, with 437 teenagers aged from 16.5 to 17 (189 boys and 248 girls). A questionnaire was developed to divide the subjects into groups with high and low levels of protection (security) against psychological violence in the educational environment. The questionnaire lists forms of psychological violence in the educational environment (identified by theoretical review) that can occur in interpersonal communication between peers and between teachers and students. The respondents evaluated each item of the questionnaire in accordance with the proposed scale of frequency with which each form of violence occurred. Theoretical analysis determined that psychological violence is traumatic for the adolescent personality’s cognitive, emotional, and behavioral spheres. The teenagers’ psychological resources of resilience to violence in the educational environment were identified with the aid of psychodiagnostic methods addressing each of them. Our study allows us to conclude that the resources that ensure the teenager’s resilience to the negative effect of psychological violence in the educational environment are: satisfaction with oneself, accepting oneself as a personality with positive and socially desirable characteristics; high level of self-control, well- developed ability to behave in an acceptable way whatever the circumstances; openness and goodwill, self-confidence; perception of the surrounding world as friendly and generous, which gives rise to friendly behavior; holistic perception of the world, experiencing the present moment in one’s life in its entirety, striving for personal development and self-improvement; independence of values and behavior from external factors; significance of such values as achievement, self-development, and high financial position, in combination with a priority on learning and education; explanation as a typical mechanism of psychological protection, search for a reasonable basis for justifying behavior and actions as well as impulsive acts; low level of anxiety, aggressiveness, and rigidity. The results obtained can be useful for researching the resource-oriented approach to psychology, and also for the development of follow-up techniques for ensuring the safety of the educational environment, preventing all forms of violence in interpersonal interaction between students and teachers.

About the authorsBaeva, Irina A. ; Zinchenko, Yury P. ; Laptev, Vladimir V.
ThemesEducational psychology; Security psychology
Pages:  159-172
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0311
Keywords:  psychological resources, resilience of the individual, psychological violence, educational environment

Bogdanova M. V., Rusyaeva I. A., Vyelgzhanina A. O. (2016). Gender and age aspects of child psychological defenses in child-mother relationships. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 141-158.

The high level of stress in modern society poses a need to study family factors and resources for the development of children’s defense mechanisms in the current social environment. This study investigates correlations between maternal and child psychological defense mechanisms, using interviews, a structured clinical survey, projective drawing, and a projective game. Analysis of data from 240 people (120 children and 120 mothers) revealed specifics of the formation of psychological defense mechanisms among children aged 4 to 12 years in child-mother relationships. We suggest that maternal and child defense mechanisms have some isomorphic traits, but the level and quality of isomorphism changes with each age period of the child. Certain defensive mechanisms of mother and child appear with the same frequency. The child’s gender influences the correlation between the mother’s and child’s psychological defense mechanisms. Initially, children are more likely to directly copy defense mechanisms observed from the mother’s behavior. As they grow older, they use defenses that they have learned consciously. Based on empirical data, we also found a correlation between the maturity of the maternal psychological defense mechanisms and specifics of child psychological defense mechanisms. We propose that the maturity of maternal psychological defense mechanisms has the greatest meaning for child psychological defense mechanisms at the earliest stages of ontogenesis — it provides consistency between the mother’s own psychological defense mechanisms and the psychological defense mechanisms that she teaches her child.

About the authorsBogdanova, Maria V.; Rusyaeva, Irina A.; Vyelgzhanina, Anastasia O.
ThemesDevelopmental psychology; Family psychology
Pages:  141-158
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0310
Keywords:  psychological defense mechanisms, coping strategies, child-mother relationships, maternal teaching

Symanyuk E. E., Pecherkina A. A. (2016). Psychological predictors of inhibition development in educational environments. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 127-140.

This article examines psychological predictors of inhibition in educational environments as well as various aspects of pedagogical communication, including facilitation, which is aimed at enhancing educational effectiveness and developing students by means of using a particular communication style and the teacher’s personality. The need to study inhibition (the deterioration of teacher-children interactions; the negation of a student’s individuality; the inability to understand and accept students’ viewpoints; teacher-provoked conflicts; and emotional callousness) is substantiated. The essence of psychological predictors as independent variables, changes in which lead to changes in other dependent variables, allowing the prediction of inhibition development, is explained.

The research objective was to identify psychological predictors of the development of inhibition in pedagogical communication.

An empirical study was conducted using standardized techniques for diagnosing communicative attitudes (V. Boyko), developing general communicative tolerance (V. Boyko), identifying aggressiveness (A. Asinger), identifying the level of empathy (V. Boyko), and identifying the degree of pedagogical inhibition (L. Polosova). The sample contained 375 teachers from Yekaterinburg educational institutions, with participant selection made using stratified sampling.

The teacher’s personality features (a negative communicative attitude, low communicative tolerance and empathy, and higher levels of aggression) were shown to be key predictors of inhibition, which itself was found to depend on the length of teaching experience. At the beginning of one’s professional teaching career, the level of inhibition is minimal. However, the level of inhibition reaches its maximum level after 5-10 years of teaching, and after 20 years, there is a sharp decrease in the level of inhibition.

The conclusion of this study stresses the importance of developing strategies to prevent and correct inhibition, which is especially essential for school teachers with 5-10 years of experience.

About the authorsSymanyuk, Elvira E.; Pecherkina, Anna A.
ThemesDevelopmental psychology; Educational psychology
Pages:  127-140
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0309
Keywords:  pedagogical communication, inhibition, facilitation, educational environment, psychological predictors of development

Samokhvalova A. G., Kryukova T. L. (2016). Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 113-126.

Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100) and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30), auditory (n = 30), speech (n = 25) and motor (n = 15) impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts).

First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.

About the authorsSamokhvalova, Anna G.; Kryukova, Tatyana L.
ThemesDevelopmental psychology; Special psychology
Pages:  113-126
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0308
Keywords:  impaired communication, communication difficulties, health impairments, teenagers, objective component of impaired communication, subjective emotional experiences

Muhamedrahimov R.J., Arintcina I.A., Solodunova M. Y., Anikina V. O., Vasilyeva M. J., Chernego D. I., Tsvetkova L. A., Grigorenko E. L. (2016). Structural characteristics of the institutional environment for young children.

The research literature suggests that institutions for children left without parental care do not provide environments that adequately promote children’s development, and that characteristics of orphanages should be considered as an environmental factor influencing developmental difficulties in children living in institutions and later in post-institutional families. This study aimed to analyze the structural characteristics of the caregiving environment in two St. Petersburg (RF) orphanages—baby homes for children from birth to 4–5 years of age (BH A and BH B), and the maintenance of the structural interventions that were implemented in BH A during 2000-05 (The St. Petersburg–USA Orphanage Research Team, 2008). Both institutions belong to the Ministry of Health and are managed under the same medical regulations, providing about the same quality of medical care and nutrition. The results of the study show that the number of children living in each ward (4 to 6 in BH A and 5 to 8 in BH B), and the child–caregiver ratio (2 to 3 for BH A and 2.5 to 4 for BH B) in the two baby homes are about the same, while BH A have fewer staff members who are assigned to the ward (6–8 vs. 9–14 in BH B). The ward assistant teachers in BH A are assigned as the primary caregivers, working 5 days a week (39 hrs) vs. about 25 hrs a week for assistant teachers in BH B. While living in the baby home, children in BH A are integrated by age and disability (vs. segregation by age and partial disability integration in BH B), and are assigned to one ward (meaning the same caregivers, peers, rooms, etc.), while in BH B the children change their ward when they reach a certain age or developmental milestone (number of wards children experienced M(SD) = 1.1 (0.2) in BH A and 2.7 (1.1) in BH B). Our results support the hypothesis that the structural characteristics of institutional environment in the two baby homes are different, and that in comparison with BH B, the structural characteristics of BH A show more caregiving stability and consistency. The results also show that the interventions implemented in BH A within the St. Petersburg–USA Orphanage Research Project were maintained for many years after the project was finished. The specific features of an institutional caregiving environment should be taken into consideration in studies of the mental health and bio-behavioral development of children in institutions and postinstitutional families.

About the authorsTsvetkova, Larissa A.; Grigorenko, Elena L. ; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Arintcina, Irina A.; Solodunova, Maria Y.; Anikina, Varvara O.; Vasilyeva, Marina J.; Chernego, Daria I.
ThemesDevelopmental psychology
Pages:  103-112
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0307
Keywords:  institutions, children, caregiving environment, stability, consistency

Kuzmin M. Y., Konopak I. A. (2016). Distinctive features of adolescent hardiness in families of different composition. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 95-102.

This article analyzes the influence of family structure on the hardiness of adolescents aged 16-18 (average age 17.2). The aim was to investigate hardiness of subjects from full, single-parent, and large families. We used the Test of Hardiness Survey and the Noetic Orientations Test (SZhO). The sample comprised 200 subjects, first year university students from families with different compositions: 75 were brought up in a full family, 75 in a one-parent family, and 50 in a large family. A one-way analysis of variance and repeated measures MANCOVA showed that the subjects differ both in their hardiness and the distinctive features of its development. The authors conclude that subjects from full families are less hardy than those from single-parent families, but more hardy than those from large families. Also the hardiness dynamics of children from full, single-parent, and large families differ. Adolescents from single-parent families increase their hardiness further, whereas in students from full families it decreases. This can be explained by specific ways that the students survive the crisis of adolescence. And finally, students from large families demonstrate a similar level of hardiness in comparison with students from full families. This can also be explained by specific ways that they survive the crisis of adolescence. Later, when this crisis is almost over, their hardiness becomes similar to that of students from full families, which has decreased by that time.

About the authorsKuzmin, Mikhail Y.; Konopak, Igor A.
ThemesDevelopmental psychology; Gender psychology
Pages:  95-102
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0306
Keywords:  hardiness, commitment, control, challenge, family structure, adolescents

Vasilyeva M., Laski E., Veraksa A., Shen C. (2016). Development of children’s early understanding of numeric structure. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 76-94.

Understanding of the base-10 structure of multi-digit numbers is one of the critical aspects in early mathematics learning. It has been documented that children from different countries vary in their use of base-10 representations. Questions concerning potential sources of this variability have been debated for decades. One commonly posited explanation is that some languages provide explicit cues about the structure of multi-digit numbers, facilitating the development of base-10 representations. In the present study, we tested this view against an alternative view, positing that variability in children’s learning of numeric structure may reflect differences in their experiences with numbers. The study examined kindergartners and first-graders from four countries: Taiwan, South Korea, the USA, and Russia. Results showed that the use of base-10 representations by American first-graders increased dramatically over the last decades, following changes in curricular guidelines. First-graders across the four countries showed some differences in performance (however, not consistent with the language account), whereas kindergartners performed comparably despite the differences in their languages. The results suggest that the nature of early math instruction may be critical for children’s developing understanding of numeric structure.

About the authorsVasilyeva, Marina; Veraksa, Aleksandr N. ; Shen, Chen; Laski, Elida
ThemesFamily psychology; Mathematical learning: New perspectives and challenges
Pages:  76-94
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0305
Keywords:  mathematics learning, numeric system, numeric representations, cross-national study, kindergartners

Solovieva Y., Rosas-Rivera Y., Quintanar-Rojas L. (2016). Problem solution as a guided activity with Mexican schoolchildren. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 57-75.

The goal of the present study was to describe the organization of a guided activity for problem solution in primary school. The method, which was applied to mathematical problems, allowed us to propose a specific orientation for the proper solution of arithmetic problems by pupils. The study was based on the activity-theory approach applied to the process of teaching and learning. It was carried out with pupils in the second grade of a private school in the city of Puebla (Mexico). The method was used in the classroom during 30 school sessions of 1 hour per day. The methodology of formative experiment was used in the study. Qualitative analysis of the pedagogical process of teaching and learning was conducted. The results show that, after participation in the formative process, the schoolchildren became able to identify essential elements, data, and all relationships among them in order to solve mathematical problems. At the end of the program the verbal external level was raised for the process of orientation and the solution of problems together with the ability to use logarithms independently. We conclude that orientation, as a guided form of activity in primary school, is essential for the development of the ability to analyze problems.

About the authorsSolovieva, Yulia; Rosas-Rivera, Yolanda; Quintanar-Rojas, Luis
ThemesEducational psychology; Mathematical learning: New perspectives and challenges
Pages:  57-75
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0304
Keywords:  problem solution, learning of mathematics, teaching methods, school age, orientation in mathematics, conceptual learning

Shen C., Miele D. B., Vasilyeva M. (2016). The relation between college students’ academic mindsets and their persistence during math problem solving. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 38-56.

The present study examined the extent to which college students’ academic mindsets predicted their persistence when solving challenging math problems. The study included an experimental manipulation, in which participants initially received either an easy or a difficult arithmetic task. Following the manipulation, all participants solved two target math problems: one that was solvable but very hard and another that was unsolvable.

Time spent attempting to solve each problem served as a measure of persistence. Results showed the predicted pattern for the solvable target problem, but not for the unsolvable problem. That is, for the solvable problem, the more of a fixed mindset participants had, the less persistent they were after completing a relatively difficult arithmetic task than after completing an easy task. The results suggest that, for certain types of math problems, students’ persistence may vary as a function of academic mindset and previous experiences of math success or failure.

About the authorsShen, Chen; Miele, David B.; Vasilyeva, Marina
ThemesEducational psychology; Mathematical learning: New perspectives and challenges
Pages:  38-56
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0303
Keywords:  math problem solving, academic mindset, math persistence, math confidence, college students

Kholodnaya M. A., Gelfman E. G. (2016). Development-focused educational texts as a basis for learners’ intellectual development in studying mathematics (DET technology). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 24-37.

The article discusses an innovative teaching technology that uses development-focused educational texts (DET Technology) to stimulate school pupils’ intellectual development in grades 5 to 9. It describes the psychological and psychodidactic framework of DET Technology. Development-focused educational texts are distinctive in that they use a framework of academic mathematical knowledge to build up the key components of pupils’ mental experience (cognitive, conceptual, metacognitive, and intentional). Such texts also provide the conditions for the development and usage of students’ personal learning styles. The article outlines the psychodidactic types of development-focused educational texts and the requirements that the psychodidactics proposes for educational texts.

About the authorsKholodnaya, Marina A.
ThemesEducational psychology; Mathematical learning: New perspectives and challenges
Pages:  24-37
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0302
Keywords:  psychodidactics, intellectual development, development-focused educational text, mental experience, DET technology

Egorova M. S., Chertkova Y. D. (2016). Sex differences in mathematical achievement: Grades, national test, and self-confidence. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 4-23.

Academic achievement, which is inherently an indicator of progress in the curriculum, can also be viewed as an indirect measure of cognitive development, social adaptation, and motivational climate characteristics. In addition to its direct application, academic achievement is used as a mediating factor in the study of various phenomena, from the etiology of learning disabilities to social inequality. Analysis of sex differences in mathematical achievement is considered particularly important for exploring academic achievement, since creating an adequate educational environment with equal opportunities for boys and girls serves as a prerequisite for improving the overall mathematical and technical literacy that is crucial for modern society, creates balanced professional opportunities, and destroys traditional stereotypes about the roles of men and women in society.

The objective of our research was to analyze sex differences in mathematical achievement among high school students and to compare various methods for diagnosing academic performance, such as school grades, test scores, and self-concept.

The results were obtained through two population studies whose samples are representative of the Russian population in the relevant age group. Study 1 looked at sex differences in math grades among twins (n = 1,234 pairs) and singletons (n = 2,227) attending high school. The sample of Study 2 comprised all twins who took the Unified State Examination in 2010–2012. The research analyzed sex differences in USE math scores across the entire sample and within the extreme subgroups. It also explored differences between boys and girls in opposite-sex dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs.

The key results were as follows. No difference in mathematical achievement was observed between twins and singletons. Sex differences were found in all measures of mathematical achievement. Girls had higher school grades in math than boys, while boys outperformed girls in USE math scores. Boys were more variable and there were more boys at the right tail of the distribution. Girls with a positive math self-concept did better than boys on math tests. In groups of opposite-sex DZ twins, differences between the USE math scores of girls and boys were not significant.

The results obtained are presumed to correspond more closely to assumptions about the roles of non-cognitive factors of variation in mathematical ability than the mathematical ability theory.

About the authorsEgorova, Marina S.
ThemesGender psychology; Mathematical learning: New perspectives and challenges
Pages:  4-23
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0301
Keywords:  mathematical achievement, sex differences, school grades, math tests, selfconcept

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2016). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 2-3.

The current issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” provides the special section Mathematical learning: New perspectives and challenges, edited by Marina Vasilyeva, associate professor at Lynch School of Education, Boston College (USA).

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0300
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 9, Issue 3, 2016, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Sachkova M. E., Timoshina I. N. (2016). Gender aspects of status in teenage student groups. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 167-176.

Typical male and female roles and relationships can be observed at different social levels: intergroup, intragroup, interpersonal, intrapersonal. In adolescence, increased development of gender characteristics (gender identity, gender stereotypes, gender roles) appears at all levels. Since the leading activity at this age is interpersonal communication, research into gender characteristics and their influence on relations in the student group is one of the most important tasks of modern psychology. 

One hundred and forty teenagers in grades 6-8 from secondary schools in Moscow, aged of 12–14, were involved in the research. Special social-psychological techniques were applied for assessment of status relations (sociometry, referentometry, methodology for defining the informal intragroup power structure) and gender characteristics (Bem Sex Role Inventory in classical and modified versions), as well as correlation and cluster analyses. 

We found that representations about the group leader contained clear masculine features. We underline the discrepancy between the qualities attributed to the image of the leader and the qualities of the actual group leaders. Thus, the image of the leader includes predominantly masculine characteristics, while actual high-status group members describe themselves with both feminine and gender-neutral features. Finally gender-typed behavior and masculine traits are more typical of low-status teenagers.

About the authorsSachkova, Marianna E.; Timoshina, Irina N.
ThemesSocial psychology; Gender psychology
Pages:  167-176
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0213
Keywords:  status group structure, gender identity, gender stereotypes, teenagers

Klyueva O. A. (2016). Competitiveness of personality as a psychological phenomenon: The content of the construct and its typology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 151-166.

Human activity (professional and production-related) occurs within the context of explicit or implicit competition and proves to be more or less productive and creative. Operationalization and measurement of the competitiveness of personality without due regard for personal and situational interactions reduces the content of the notion. Competitiveness requires a high degree of personal energy, flexibility, intelligence, and creativity in regulating activity. However, enlarging the domain of psychological studies has necessitated the study of personality in the context of the natural social situations in which it functions. This structural and functional analysis allows expansion of the description of the phenomenology of the competitiveness of personality as well as classification of the strategies of competitive behavior. In this study competitive-behavior strategies (1,064 critical incidents in professional activities) were analyzed using the Critical Incident Technique and thematic content analysis. To classify the data set, I used two-step cluster analysis as an exploratory method and analyzed the cross-tables of several categorical variables using the log-linear method of model selection. I applied the Solution Tree method for categorical variables to build a dependent-variable hierarchical model with the relevant predictor values. Through analysis of the results of the cluster analysis, the hierarchical model, and the functional and situational analysis of the context, it is possible to single out and validate three types of competitiveness strategies: the dependent, irrational, destructive, short-term strategy (quasi-competitiveness); the dependent, rational, constructive, short-term strategy; and the free, rational, constructive, long-term strategy. Study of the nature of competition and a subject’s competitive-behavior strategies is required to analyze, predict, and correct destructive strategies for enhancing performance.

About the authorsKlyueva, Olga A.
ThemesSocial psychology; Personality psychology
Pages:  151-166
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0212
Keywords:  competition, competitiveness, subject, activity, competitive behavior, competitive activity, competitive behavior strategies

Smirnov A. V., Obolenskaya A. G., Valiev R. A. (2016). The semantic structure of gratitude. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 138-150.

In the modern social and economic environment of Russia, gratitude might be considered an ambiguous phenomenon. It can have different meaning for a person in different contexts and can manifest itself differently as well (that is, as an expression of sincere feelings or as an element of corruption). In this respect it is topical to investigate the system of meanings and relationships that define the semantic space of gratitude. The goal of the study was the investigation and description of the content and structure of the semantic space of the gratitude phenomenon as well as the determination of male, female, age, and ethnic peculiarities of the expression of gratitude. The objective was achieved by using the semantic differential designed by the authors to investigate attitudes toward gratitude. This investigation was carried out with the participation of 184 respondents (Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, Jews) living in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Israel, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom and identifying themselves as representatives of one of these nationalities. The structural components of gratitude were singled out by means of exploratory factor analysis of the empirical data from the designed semantic differential. Gender, age, and ethnic differences were differentiated by means of Student’s t-test. Gratitude can be represented by material and nonmaterial forms as well as by actions in response to help given. The empirical data allowed us to design the ethnically nonspecified semantic structure of gratitude. During the elaboration of the differential, semantic universals of gratitude, which constitute its psychosemantic content, were distinguished. Peculiarities of attitudes toward gratitude by those in different age and gender groups were revealed. Differences in the degree of manifestation of components of the psychosemantic structure of gratitude related to ethnic characteristics were not discovered. The semantic universals of gratitude are grouped into the components of its semantic structure: intentional, relational, essential, and expressive. These structural elements are present in the representatives of all the nationalities who participated in the study. The men were more likely than the women to demonstrate the instrumental understanding of gratitude. The women were more likely than the men to reflect humanistic ideas of gratitude. The romantic and noble idea of gratitude was dominant in representatives of the younger generation (18-year-olds). The young adults (19-to-25-year-olds) tended to demonstrate social realism to a larger extent than respondents in the other age groups. In respondents who were 26-years-old and above, humanistic assessment and collectivist values with respect to gratitude significantly decreased.

About the authorsValiev, Ravil A.; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Obolenskaya, Alyona G.
ThemesPsychosemantics; Psychology and culture
Pages:  138-150
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0211
Keywords:  gratitude, culture, sociocultural environment, semantic space, economic environment

Latanov A. V., Anisimov V. N., Chernorizov A. M. (2016). Eye movement parameters while reading show cognitive processes of structural analysis of written speech. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 129-137.

This paper gives an overview of the published data on eye movement parameters while reading sentences in different languages with both local and global syntactic ambiguity. A locally ambiguous sentence contains a syntactically problematic phrase that leads to only one interpretation, while a globally ambiguous sentence has more than one distinct interpretation. In the first case the ambiguity persists only to the end of the sentence, when it is successfully resolved; in the second case the ambiguity is still present after reading the whole sentence. The obvious difficulty in analyzing the structure of locally and globally ambiguous sentences leads to increased reading time compared with unambiguous sentences. The syntactic ambiguity increases two major parameters: the fixation duration when reading words critical for interpreting the sentence, and the frequency of regressive saccades to reread those words. The reading time for critical words, disambiguating the local ambiguity, depends on the principle of early/late closure (i.e., high/low attachment): preferring a recurrent pattern to associate the critical word with a distant or closer word, respectively (as determined by its position in the sentence), and differs across languages. The first study of eye movement parameters in reading globally syntactic ambiguous sentences in the Russian language is reported in this paper. Our findings open up the prospects of quantitative studies of syntactic disambiguation in Slavonic and Romano-Germanic languages.

About the authorsChernorizov, Alexsander M. ; Latanov, Alexander V.; Anisimov, Victor N.
Pages:  129-137
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0210
Keywords:  reading, psycholinguistics, syntactic ambiguity, gaze fixations, regressive saccades, review

Rudenko N. S., Krylova S. G. (2016). Pilot study of the influence of a communicator’s speech characteristics on a recipient’s willingness to maintain interaction in cross-cultural online communication. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 112-128

The success of cross-cultural online communication in an academic environment is defined by the degree of student involvement in such an interaction. The authors’ experience testifies that a number of objective, language, and psychological factors may decrease the activeness of these interactions, and as a result learning may not be effective for students in these types of cross-cultural interactions. Among such factors the current article investigates the influence of a communicator’s speech peculiarities on a recipient’s willingness to maintain interaction in native-to-nonnative, written online communication in the English language. The study was aimed at verifying a hypothesis about the influence of Russian communicants’ speech characteristics on American communicants’ willingness to maintain conversations. The research method chosen was content analysis. Thematic chats involving Russian and American students participating in the Global Understanding course were analyzed. The results of the content analysis allowed us to distinguish certain Russian communicants’ written speech characteristics, such as the prevalence of language and grammar mistakes, the degree of vocabulary richness, and the use of complex sentences. Significant correlations were discovered between the American communicants’ willingness to maintain conversations and the number of mistakes, indicators of lexical richness and scarcity in Russian communicants’ utterances. Language and speech mistakes as well as the quantity of words in the utterances of micro themes had the highest number of significant correlations with indicators of the willingness to maintain conversations. The first factor, language and speech mistakes, decreased the willingness to maintain conversations, whereas the second factor, the number of words in Russian students’ utterances, increased such willingness.

About the authorsRudenko, Nadezhda S.; Krylova, Svetlana G.
ThemesPsychology of ethno-cultural issues; Media and cyber psychology
Pages:  112-128
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0209
Keywords:  intercultural communicative competence, cross-cultural online communication, written communication, language and speech mistakes, willingness to maintain interaction

Avanesyan M. O., Khaibrakhmanova E. Yu. (2016). Cognitive abilities and creating metaphorical names Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 97-111.

The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity) in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults) were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012); to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955); to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960). The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05). The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01). Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1) concrete; 2) situational; 3) abstract; 4) metaphorical (M1 and M2). We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.

About the authorsAvanesyan, Marina O.; Khaibrakhmanova, Ekaterina Yu.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  97-111
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0208
Keywords:  naming, denotation, metaphor creation, conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, flexibility

Osin E. N., Malyutina A. V., Kosheleva N. V. (2016). Self-transcendence facilitates meaning-making and flow: Evidence from a pilot experimental study. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 80-96.

We review the psychological theory of flow and focus on the notion of the autotelic personality, arguing that self-transcendence (understood within the existential tradition of Frankl and Längle as the individual’s ability to establish inner relationships with values) can be viewed as a personality disposition conducive to flow experience. The study aimed to investigate the effects of situational task meaning and dispositional self-transcendence on productivity and flow experience. We present a pilot quasi-experimental study conducted in a student sample (N = 82) Students were asked to work in small-group settings on a creative task, which consisted in finding solutions to a social problem. Each group was randomly assigned to an instruction presenting the problem as happening either in a distant country (low-meaning) or in their home country (high-meaning condition). The outcome variables were measures of flow, perceived meaning of the task, and satisfaction with time spent working. The solutions generated by the students were rated by three experts. The experimental manipulation had a main effect on the quality of the resulting solutions, but not on the subjective experience of the participants. A number of significant interaction effects were found, indicating that the associations of self-transcendence with experiential outcomes tended to be linear under the low-meaning condition, but curvilinear under the high-meaning condition. The findings suggest that self-transcendence is particularly beneficial to flow in situations with unclear meaning, but very high levels of self-transcendence may hinder flow in highly meaningful situations. Overall, the findings suggest that self-transcendence can be considered as a disposition of the autotelic personality.

About the authorsOsin, Evgeny N.; Malyutina, Anna V.; Kosheleva, Natalia V.
ThemesPersonality psychology
Pages:  80-96
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0207
Keywords:  flow experience, self-transcendence, personal meaning, autotelic personality

Shushanikova A. A., Lukyanov O. V. (2016). Adaptation of instruments developed to study the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic processes. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 69-79.

The objective of the research was to adapt for use in Russian-language contexts a set of instruments that assess the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic practices. The instruments explore the effectiveness of different types of therapy, without evaluating the abstract, idealized characteristics or specifics of each approach, specialist, or therapeutic case. The adapted instruments are based on reflective data about the significance of therapeutic events, from the point of view of both the client and the therapist. We translated, edited, and adapted forms developed by John McLeod and Mick Cooper — a “Goals Form”, a “Goal Assessment Form”, a “Post-Session Form”, and a “Therapy Personalization Form”. The adaption was intended to cohere with the stylistic and cultural aspects of the Russian language. The research showed that the instruments and the methods have great potential for practical and theoretical application in qualitative studies to formulate hypotheses and to verify them in quantitative studies. The phenomenological analysis reveals the reliability, appropriateness, and validity of the adapted instruments for identifying specific meanings of the psychotherapeutic cases considered. The instruments can be used in studies exploring helpful aspects and effectiveness in different types of therapy (cognitive, existential, outdoor therapy, online counseling, etc.) with different groups of clients. It is reasonable to continue the use of the Russian-language version of the instruments in further studies exploring the effectiveness of psychological practices. The adapted instruments facilitate comparison and cross-cultural studies, and formulation of meaningful hypotheses about the effectiveness and quality of the psychotherapeutic process.

About the authorsShushanikova, Anastasia A.; Lukyanov, Oleg V.
ThemesPersonality psychology; Applied psychology and psychotherapy
Pages:  69-79
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0206
Keywords:  reflection, relationality, relation, effectiveness, self-assessment, procedurality, psychological help, significant events

Kapustin S. A. (2016). An existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality in the works of Carl Jung and Carl Rogers. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 54-68.

This article is the third in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the first article (Kapustin, 2015a) I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human beings and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients a person toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and necessitates a search for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients a person toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, onesided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormality of personality interpreted like that is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In the second article (Kapustin, 2015b) I showed that this criterion is also implicitly present in the personality theories of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, although in more specific cases. In the current work I prove that this criterion is also present in the personality theories of Carl Jung and Carl Rogers, where it is implicitly stated in a more specific way. In the final article I will show that this criterion is also implicitly present in the personality theory of Viktor Frankl.

About the authorsKapustin, Sergey A.
ThemesPersonality psychology
Pages:  54-68
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0205
Keywords:  human nature, human essence, existential dichotomy, normal personality, abnormal personality

Zinchenko Yu. P., Zotova O. Yu., Tarasova L.V., Gaidamashko I. V. (2016). The contamination of young people’s notions about narcotics and psychoactive substances as a threat to psychological security. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 39-53.

The study described in this article investigated contemporary young people’s perceptions of drugs and psychoactive substances (PAS). In the course of the research the following hypothesis was tested: in young people’s perceptions about drugs and PAS there are differences in emotional coloring, coherence, and tolerance. J.-C. Abric’s structural approach was used as the basic methodology. The free-associations method provided the bulk of the empirical material. The results obtained were processed via prototypic analysis (by P. Vergès’s method), indexing of emotional associations (by E.E. Pronina’s method), and frequency and content analysis. 

As a result the core and the periphery of the perceptions of youth about drugs and PAS were described, and generalized notional categories that synthesize the structural elements of the perceptions were identified. The study revealed that the perceptions of young people about drugs and PAS do differ in coherence, tolerance, and emotional coloring. Perceptions of drugs are firm, consistent, and negative, while perceptions of PAS are less coherent but dynamic and have an ambivalent emotional coloration. The results are of prognostic importance for understanding young people’s attitudes toward drugs and PAS and can be used to design programs and measures directed to the prevention of PAS and drug abuse.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Zotova, Olga Yu. ; Tarasova, Lyudmila V.; Gaidamashko, Igor V.
ThemesClinical psychology; Psychology of addictions
Pages:  39-53
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0204
Keywords:  perceptions, structure of perceptions, core and periphery of perceptions, perceptions of drugs, perceptions of psychoactive substances

Tsvetkova L. A., Eritsyan K. Y., Antonova N. A. (2016). Russian students’ awareness of and attitudes toward donating to biobanks. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 30-38.

Today in Russia and all over the world significant efforts are invested in building biobanks—specialized facilities for storing biological materials for research and medical purposes. The successful functioning of biobanks depends directly on people’s willingness to donate their biological materials. No previous studies of people’s attitudes toward donations to biobanks have been undertaken in Russia. The goal of this study was to measure attitudes toward biobank donation among young Russians and to evaluate potential sociodemographic and personality factors that play a role in a person’s readiness to become a donor. Data from 542 students at Saint Petersburg State University were collected from group-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Only one-fifth of the students knew about the existence of biobanks, while roughly the same number believed they might have heard something about them but were not absolutely certain. However, the students indicated a relatively high level of readiness to become biobank donors (74%). Willingness to be a biobank donor was correlated significantly with studying biology and was just modestly correlated with students’ values. In addition, we found gender-specific differences in the biobank characteristics that students felt were important in making a decision about whether to donate. The study demonstrated that today the attitudes of the general population (at least, those of the subgroup studied, students) do not pose a problem for the further development of biobanking in Russia.

About the authorsAntonova, Natalia A.; Tsvetkova, Larissa A.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  30-38
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0203
Keywords:  biobank, public attitude, public opinion, awareness, Rokeach Values Survey, university students, cross-sectional

Sirota N. A., Moskovchenko D. V., Yaltonsky V. M., Guldan V. V., Yaltonskay A. V. (2016). Strategies and resources for coping with fear of disease progression in women with reproductive system cancer. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 15-29.

Fear of disease progression is one of the most common sources of psychological distress in patients suffering from chronic diseases. Fear of disease progression is a situationspecific and fully discernible (reportable) emotion based on personal experience of a life-threatening disease. This article presents the results of a study of cancer patients’ coping behavior according to the levels of fear of disease progression experienced. The presence of pronounced fear of disease progression reflects a negative cognitive-affective response to one’s expectations for one’s own future; this response is related to a decrease in adaptive capacity. To determine the particular characteristics of coping strategies and coping resources in women with reproductive-system cancers according to the level of fear of disease progression. A total of 177 women with reproductive-system cancers were examined, among them 59 with breast cancer and 118 with gynecological cancers. Women with reproductive-system cancers have varying sets of coping strategies and coping resources according to their level of fear of disease progression. For each of the differentiated groups, specific characteristics of the strategies of coping with difficult life situations are described, along with cognitive self-regulation strategies specific to the illness and to coping resources. The women exhibiting moderate fear of disease progression significantly more often adhered to problem-oriented strategies of coping with difficult life situations and illness and had an internal locus of control regarding treatment. Patients with a low level of fear of disease progression tended to use strategies of positive reinterpretation of difficult life situations and illness; an external locus of control regarding treatment prevailed in this group. Patients found to have a dysfunctional level of fear of disease progression displayed significantly higher rates of using cognitive-regulation strategies focused on negative aspects of illness, as well as strategies for avoiding difficult life situations. Fear of disease progression is a psychological problem in women with reproductive-system cancers. Higher levels of fear of disease progression are associated with a decrease in the psychosocial adaptation of women suffering from reproductivesystem cancers.

About the authorsSirota, Natalya A. ; Moskovchenko, Denis V.; Yaltonsky, Vladimir M.; Guldan, Victor V.; Yaltonskaya, Aleksandra V.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  15-29
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0202
Keywords:  female reproductive-system cancers, fear of disease progression, cognitive strategies for self-regulation in illness, locus of control in illness, self-efficacy in illness and treatment

Lazarenko V. A., Nikishina V. B., Molchanova L. N., Nedurueva T. V. (2016). Structural-phenomenological features of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 4-14.

The vocational activities of doctors and their social status do not ensure their health. And, falling ill, doctors don’t identify themselves with ordinary patients as they have a deep knowledge of medicine. Thus, the internal picture of a doctor’s illness is both a research and a practical problem: the problem of the psychoprevention of doctors’ illnesses at all stages of their professionalization. The purpose of the research was to study the phenomenological features of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses using the structural approach. The total number of participants was 132. The experimental group consisted of 66 sick doctors, differentiated according to their stage of professionalization: vocational training (students), professional adaptation (interns), full professionalization (doctors). The control group consisted of 66 people who did not have any medical education. All the control subjects were hospitalized with chronic diseases during the study period. The organization of the research was carried out with the use of clinical-psychological and diagnostic methods, the methods of descriptive statistics, and comparative, multidimensional, and structural analysis. The research revealed the following phenomenological features of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses: the prevalence of some anxiety in the doctors and high awareness of their health; the doctors’ altruistic orientation; their willingness to work despite difficulties; and their ability to achieve high results in different activities. The structural features of the doctors’ image of their own diseases on the cognitive level were the following: qualitative heterogeneity during in-service activities; a high degree of image integration during in-service activities; and stereotyped perceptions of the disease. The emotional level revealed the emotional distance between doctors and their patients, and the behavioral level revealed doctors’ disregard for the symptoms of the disease. The structural-phenomenological features of the formation of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses are specific to the circumstances of their origin. For the purpose of the psychoprevention of doctors’ own diseases it is necessary to include these features in the special courses on medical psychology at the stages of vocational training (students) and professional adaptation (interns), as well as in the “psychology in practical medicine” project for doctors.

About the authorsLazarenko, Victor A.; Nikishina, Vera B.; Molchanova, Lyudmila N.; Nedurueva, Tatyana V.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  4-14
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0201
Keywords:  internal picture of illness, mental representation, structural features, phenomenological features, doctors

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2016). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 2-3.

The current issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” provides papers on medical, social and personality psychology, as well as various works on speech, communication and semantic.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0200
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 9, Issue 2, 2016, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Karayani A. G. (2016). Warrior’s Spirit: Review of Michael Matthews’s book Head Strong: How Psychology is Revolutionizing War. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 190-192.

Michael D. Matthews is Professor of Engineering Psychology at the United States Military Academy at West Point. From 2007 to 2008 he headed the American Psychological Association’s (19th Division of Military Psychology). Collectively, his research interests center on soldier performance in combat.

About the authorsKarayani, Aleksandr G.
ThemesBook review; Security psychology
Pages:  190-192
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0114
Keywords:  book review, military psychology, psychology of war

Mokretcova O. G., Chrustaleva N. S., Fedorov V. F., Karpova E. B., Shkliaruk S. P. (2016). Attitude as labor migrants’ social-psychological adaptation factor (Labor migrants from Uzbekistan taken...). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 178-189.

This article is devoted to current issues of labor migrants’ adaptation. The research is based on questioning 210 labor migrants from Uzbekistan aged 17 to 49, at present living in Saint Petersburg. It should be mentioned that Uzbekistan labor migrants constitute a considerable part of the entire labor-migrant flow to Russia, Saint Petersburg, in particular. 

The research targets the analysis of personal characteristics contributing to effective adaptation by labor migrants. The research contains an analysis of the system of personality “I”-structures interrelation, their constructive, destructive, and deficient components as well as the analysis of life-meaning guidelines and the system of migrants’ family and interpersonal relationships. The outcomes obtained make it possible to examine labor migrants’ unique personality characteristics, depending on their attitude toward whether to stay in Russia or return to Uzbekistan, as well as to provide an analysis of migrants’ mental health or psychological well-being and to forecast the effectiveness of migrants’ adaptation. Two groups of labor migrants — those intending to stay in Russia and those wishing to return to Uzbekistan — differ in a number of indicators. The forecast of mental health or psychological well-being of labor migrants intending to stay in Russia is more favorable. A rather high personal level of mental health and adaptation resources are based on a strong potential of activity, ability to achieve definite goals, and capacity to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships. The outcomes of migrants wishing to return to Uzbekistan give us grounds to assume that there exist both threats to their psychological well-being and emergence of psychopathological symptoms. Thus, the forecast of this group’s adaptation appears less favorable. Following up, it is reasonable to sort out some groups at risk among migrants wishing to return to Uzbekistan and develop relevant programs of mental-disorder prevention. 

Nonetheless, we consider the status of both groups to be marginal, that, in its turn, undoubtedly affects the process of their adaptation. The latter is an extremely complex process because, even under quite favorable conditions, it includes many attendant factors.

ThemesMulticulturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis; Psychology of ethno-cultural issues
Pages:  178-189
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0113
Keywords:  labor migrants, adaptation, potential for adaptation, mental health, psychological well-being, attitude, constructiveness, destructiveness, efficiency, life-meaning guidelines

Gladkova A. A., Korobeynikova K. A. (2016). Examining the public’s exposure to reports about ethnic groups in mainstream Russian media. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 164-177.

This article examines the exposure of Russian public to reports about ethnic groups in current mainstream Russian media by analyzing the amount of such reports today, as well as results of an online survey (n = 1040) aimed at revealing to what extent the public is indeed exposed to them by the respondents’ own estimations. The survey showed that generally users tend to lack information about ethnicities in mainstream media and demonstrate a certain interest in learning more about other ethnic groups in Russia through media channels. We argue thus that the public’s exposure to information about ethnic issues, although relatively high on a quantitative level (i.e., in terms of the actual number of reports), is lower on a qualitative one (i.e., the share of the respondents who actually come across such reports). The paper also reveals a number of tendencies from analyzing users’ age groups and their regions of living. In general, we believe that singling out both specifics of the public’s exposure to information about ethnicities and the connection between this exposure and the public’s attitudes toward ethnicities (which is planned as the second stage of the current research project) may contribute to better understanding of the effects media can have on their audience in terms of agenda-setting and psychological influence. The current research can also be of interest when discussing the role mass media play in building harmonious relationships between representatives of different ethnic groups in a multiethnic society such as the Russian one.

About the authorsGladkova, Anna A.; Korobeinikova, Kseniya A.
ThemesMulticulturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis; Psychology of ethno-cultural issues
Pages:  164-177
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0112
Keywords:  exposure, ethnic groups, mainstream media, audience, Russia

Abakumova I. V., Ermakov P. N., Kolesina K. Y. (2016). On analyzing the results of empirical research into the life-purpose orientations of adults of various ethnic identities and religious affiliati. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 155-163.

The research in question investigates life-purpose orientations and values of various groups of a population living in a multicultural area with a variety of ethnic and religious communities. Members may have different attitudes to one and the same set of values due to their specific cultural traditions and religious guidelines. A common set of life-purpose orientations and values as well as distinctly different ones were identified in the research. It employed an ethno-psychological questionnaire designed specifically to that end and psychometric instruments aimed at identifying the values of the adults of various ethnic identities and religious affiliations. Residents of a multi-cultural area in the south of Russia who belong to different denominations were surveyed. It is stated that there is a substantial difference between the sets of values held by Baptists and Buddhists and representatives of other ethnic and religious groups (Muslims and Christians) participating in this investigation. The survey found that all of the Baptist and Buddhist respondents were described by a high-to-medium level of civil identity. Indifference to ethnic standards and a failure to accept the culture of their own people were found among all of the respondents; it was displayed by a small proportion of Orthodox Christians, whereas all of the Buddhists under investigation had a positive ethnic identity, and a certain proportion of Muslims and Catholics as well as a tiny proportion of Orthodox believers reported that they placed a priority for ethnic rights over human rights. Among all of the denominations surveyed, the majority of respondents surveyed have a positive attitude towards both their own nation and other nations.

About the authorsAbakumova, Irina V.; Ermakov, Pavel N. ; Kolesina, Karina Y.
ThemesMulticulturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis; Psychology of ethno-cultural issues
Pages:  155-163
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0111
Keywords:  axiological sphere of the person, life-purpose orientations, values, ethnic identity and religious affiliation, civil identity, strategy

Valiev R. A., Valieva T. V., Maksimova L.A., Karimova V. G. (2016). Readiness for interaction with inoethnic subjects of education and ethnic worldview. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 138-154.

In the context of a significant increase of mass migration, the modern educational environment acquires the features of multiculturalism and teachers’ readiness for interaction with inoethnic subjects of educational processes becomes a necessary condition for reduction of ethnic tensions and development of intercultural cooperation. Upon that, the formation of constructive intercultural relations requires the development of an ethnic worldview. In particular, readiness for interaction with inoethnic subjects of educational processes and the ethnic worldview are a precondition for the formation of real multiculturalism in interethnic relations. Objective of the research is to determine the intensity of the components of readiness for interaction with inoethnic subjects of educational processes and ethnic worldview components and to analyze their ratio concerning different subjects of educational processes. The problem of the correlation of readiness for interaction with inoethnic subjects of educational processes and ethnic worldview was solved through a survey of 113 pupils, students and future pupils’ parents in the Sverdlovsk region. The exploratory factor analysis was applied to identify and describe the structural components of readiness under study structure and the structural components of the respondents’ ethnic worldview; the degree of intensity of the mentioned components was analyzed by using the criterion χ2-Pearson. To identify the correlations between the components of readiness for interaction with inoethnic subjects in educational processes and ethnic worldview, the analysis by the criterion r-Pearson was conducted. The structural components of readiness for interaction with inoethnic subjects of educational processes among pupils, students and parents were empirically described; it is revealed that most of their correlations with the ethnic worldview components are inverse. Readiness for interaction with inoethnic subjects of educational processes is developed among the pupils in components such as empirical, communicative and cognitive; among the future teachers — in relational components; none of the components is expressed among the future pupils’ parents. Multiethnic worldview is developed among the pupils in components such as ethnic position and interethnic management. Among future teachers, the component of ethnic orientation is developed. Among the parents, it is the ability to go beyond the ethnic frame. The coordination of readiness for interaction with inoethnic subjects of educational processes with an ethnic worldview is of a multifaceted nature. The intensity of particular components of the readiness under study (behavioral, empirical, emotional, communicative and cognitive) is associated with a monoethnic worldview.

About the authorsValiev, Ravil A.; Valieva, Tatiana V.; Maksimova, Lyudmila A.; Karimova, Valentina G.
ThemesMulticulturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis
Pages:  138-154
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0110
Keywords:  readiness for interaction, the inoethnic subject, multicultural environment, educational process, ethnic worldview

Berberyan A. S., Berberyan H. S. (2016). Ethnopsychological aspects of the meaning-of-life and value orientations of Armenian and Russian students. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 121-137.

The study of ethnocultural identity is remarkably up to date when considering the interactions of different countries, the ethnic groups studied within the limits of mono- and multicultural space, and the processes of acculturation, assimilation, and others. Ethnocultural identity is based on the desires of the individual and the nation viewed integrally; it is achieved in substituted forms through integration in the cultural and symbolic space of society. The aim of this article is to analyze the meaning-of-life and value orientations of Armenian and Russian students in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Armenia. In order to study ethnocultural identity as part of the self-concept we carried out a study with students at the Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University (Yerevan, Armenia) and the South Federal University (Rostov-on-Don, Russia): at the initial stage we conducted two focus groups (the number of respondents in each group was 10); at the second stage we conducted a study the number of respondents was 160. When the Armenian and Russian youth described their ethnicity, high values of social self — in particular, national civic identity — correlated with high and medium levels of meaning-of-life orientations. Armenians and Russians in title ethnos and in the associated diaspora had a number of similarities and differences in value orientations. The majority of respondents in the focus groups noted their positive emotions connected with being Armenian or Russian. The ethnic Russians in Armenia pointed out the ease of communication with Russian speakers, regardless of ethnicity, but noted the difficulty of social interaction because of their insufficient knowledge of the Armenian language. The formation and development of ethnic self-consciousness may be carried out at two levels: understanding the values and ideas of ethnicity and assessing the ethnocultural and ethnopsychological features of one’s ethnic group. The ethnic identity of Armenians in Russia has been transformed, and they are now characterized by similar values as ethnic Armenians in Armenia. Ethnic Armenians and ethnic Russians are in continuous interaction in Armenia and in Russia. This interaction is a key to positive ethnic attitudes in both groups as evidenced by their tolerance for other ethnic groups and their solidarity and it enriches the representatives of both ethnic groups at the regulatory value level, making them carriers of both culture.

About the authorsBerberyan, Asya S.; Berberyan, Hermine S.
ThemesMulticulturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis
Pages:  121-137
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0109
Keywords:  ethnocultural identity, meaning-of-life orientations, value orientations

Abakumova I. V., Boguslavskaya V. F., Grishina A. V. (2016). Ethnoreligious attitudes of contemporary Russian students toward labor migrants as a social group. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 112-120.

This article focuses on the role of the media in shaping the worldview of today’s youth. In Part 1, social attitudes and social stereotypes are described in the context of ethnic relations. Part 2 describes the research into social distance and ethnic and religious stereotypes conducted by I.V. Abakumova and A.V. Grishina. The study was conducted in two stages. First we analyzed various TV and radio programs, articles in the press and on the Internet, about migrant workers, published from March 2009 to March 2012, to identify the image of migrant workers in the Russian media, for further study of the perceptions of migrant workers by students in different professional fields. In the second stage, we modified E. Bogardus’s “Social Distance Scale” in order to assess respondents’ attitudes toward media images of migrant workers and, more importantly, to determine the social distance at which the respondent tolerates the images and therefore the migrants themselves. The last part of the article reports the main findings and conclusions of the study.

About the authorsAbakumova, Irina V.; Boguslavskaya, Victoria F.; Grishina, Anastasiya V.
ThemesMulticulturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis
Pages:  112-120
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0108
Keywords:  labor migrants, social attitude, social stereotype, ethnic and religious attitudes, social distance

Ryabichenko T. A., Lebedeva N. M. (2016). Assimilation or integration: Similarities and differences between acculturation attitudes of migrants from Central Asia and Russians in Central Russia. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 98-111.

When acculturation strategies of migrants and acculturation expectations of a host society do not coincide, psychological outcomes for members of the groups in contact can differ significantly. Berry (2013) proposed that intercultural relations can be understood on the basis of three hypotheses: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. Our goal was to test these three hypotheses in Russian majority and Asian minority groups. Migrants from Central Asia (N = 168; 88 ethnic Uzbeks and 80 ethnic Tajiks) and ethnic Russians (N = 158) were surveyed using a self-report questionnaire that included measures developed by the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies project. Data processing was carried out using Structural Equation Modeling with the Russians and the migrants separately. We found significant and positive relationships between perceived security and multicultural ideology in both groups. We found a positive relationship between intercultural contacts and the integration strategy among the migrants from Central Asia. Intercultural contacts in the group of Russians was positively related to the expectation of integration and negatively related to the expectation of assimilation. The integration strategy of the migrants was positively related to their self-esteem, while the assimilation strategy was positively related to their sociocultural adaptation and life satisfaction. Among the Russians, the integration expectation promoted their better life satisfaction and self-esteem. The multiculturalism hypothesis was partially supported with both the migrants from Central Asia and the Russians: perceived security promoted an acceptance of multicultural ideology but didn’t promote ethnic tolerance. The contact hypothesis was partially supported in both groups: interethnic contacts were positively linked to the integration strategy of the migrants and the integration expectations of the Russians. The integration hypothesis was fully supported in the sample of Russians and partially supported in the sample of migrants. The migrants’ adoption of the assimilation strategy promoted their life satisfaction and sociocultural adaptation.

About the authorsLebedeva, Nadezhda M.; Ryabichenko, Tatiana A.
ThemesMulticulturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis; Psychology of ethno-cultural issues
Pages:  98-111
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0107
Keywords:  acculturation, adaptation, assimilation, integration, intercultural relations, multiculturalism, well-being

Pilishvili T. S., Koyanongo E. (2016). The representation of love among Brazilians, Russians and Central Africans: A comparative analysis. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 84-97.

This paper is dedicated to the cultural specificities of three typical collective groups with respect to the representation of love. The research subject focuses on the cross-cultural similarities and differences in how love is conceptualized among highly educated citizens of Brazil (50), Russia (50), and Central Africa (50) (age range 21–60; M = 34). We used “The Classical ideas of love: acceptance and distancing” questionnaire (I.A. Djidaryan, E.V. Belovol, & O.V. Maslova) and the “Directed associations with ‘love’ as the wordstimulus” technique (on the basis of C.G. Jung’s associative experiment and P. Vergès’s methodology).

The results show similarities and differences in how love is represented among the groups. The following similarities were found: Love is seen as all that is good and kind about a person, a way to become better. At the peripheral level, the social representation of love includes friendship, patience, and passion. At the point of cross-cultural differences, it was found that: a) The main emotion reflecting how love is represented for Brazilians is honesty, for Russians — suffering, for Central Africans — tenderness; b) Brazilians understand love as a sensual, personal moral choice; Russians perceive love as an obstacle, a problem in itself; Central Africans conceptualize love as God-given and ennobling of the person; c) love is conceptualized as something inherent and family-oriented among Russians, intrapersonal and intimate among Brazilians, and divine among Central Africans. The results mean that within peripheral confines, the notion of love among the groups matches to a certain extent R. Sternberg’s triangle of love, while its core zone is culturally specific.

About the authorsPilishvili, Tatiana S.; Koyanongo, Eugénie
ThemesMulticulturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis; Psychology of ethno-cultural issues
Pages:  84-97
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0106
Keywords:  love representation, cross-cultural specificity, value-semantic aspect of love, love and culture

Mikhailova V. V., Nadkin V. B. (2016). Ethno-confessional identity and complimentarity in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 74-83.

This article is based on the empirical data gained from a previous study “Ethnic-confessional relations in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in 2011- 2013”. In the mid-nineties in the 20th century, the number of nationalities that were nontypical for the Far East, Siberia and the Far North of Russia began to enlarge, and the trend continues year by year. According to the analysis results, people who migrate are attracted to the republic. The capital of the republic, the industrial cities of Yakutsk, Mirny, and Aldan, as well as the settlements of Niznij Bestyakh of the Megino-Kangalasskij district and Kysyl-Syr of the Viluiskij district, are the center of the migration stream. To define the ethnic and confessional complementariness of the local population, a test-scale by Yu.I Zhegusov was used. The authors of the study refused a simple dichotomous division of ‘insiders’ and ‘outsiders’, and suggested a more complicated structure. In ethnic-confessional complementariness, the following levels and degrees were used: 

  • positive complementariness is expressed as ‘insiders’ who may be closely related( friendly terms, blood relationship)
  • neutral complementariness is expressed as ‘outsiders’ with whom one may co-exist, but avoids close relations
  • negative complementariness is expressed as ‘outsiders’ who are undesirable to live in a neighborhood with
  • critical level of complementariness is expressed as ‘enemies’ who constitute a danger and threat.

On the whole, the research shows some peculiarities: 

  • Russians are mostly comfortable with representatives of other ethnic groups and religions. In Yakutia, they feel confident in the context of ethnic and migration process intensification. 

  • Yakuts show an alarmist public mood and worry about their future, and they are afraid of losing their ethnic status and national identity as a result of the uncontrollable process of migration and assimilation.

About the authorsMikhailova, Victoria V.; Nadkin, Valery B.
ThemesMulticulturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis; Psychology of ethno-cultural issues
Pages:  74-83
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0105
Keywords:  ethnicity, complimentarity, nationalism, Russia, Yakutia

Lepshokova Z. Kh., Tatarko A. N. (2016). Intercultural relations in Kabardino-Balkaria: Does integration always lead to subjective well-being? Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 57-73.

This article examines intercultural relations in Kabardino-Balkaria. Among a great number of ethnic groups living in Kabardino-Balkaria, Kabardians and Balkars are one of the largest (they are so-called titular ethnic groups). Russians are the second largest of the ethnic groups after Kabardians. We report here the results of an empirical study of the intercultural relations, mutual acculturation, and adaptation of Kabardians and Balkars (N = 285) and Russians (N = 249). Specifically, we examine the relevance of three hypotheses formulated to understand intercultural relations: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. We conducted path analysis in AMOS with two samples: a sample of Russians and a sample of the two main ethnic groups (Kabardians and Balkars), and we further compared the path models with each other. The results revealed significant effects of security, intercultural contacts, multicultural ideology, acculturation strategies, and acculturation expectations on attitudes, life satisfaction, and self-esteem in both samples. These findings partially confirm the three hypotheses in both groups. However, we also identified a regionally specific pattern. We found that, in the Russian sample, the integration strategy was negatively related to wellbeing, while contact with the dominant ethnic group was positively related to well-being. At the same time, in the sample of Kabardians and Balkars, acculturation expectations of integration and assimilation were positively related to well-being. In the article, we discuss these regional specifics.

About the authorsTatarko, Alexander N.; Lepshokova, Zarina Kh.
ThemesMulticulturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis; Psychology of ethno-cultural issues
Pages:  57-73
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0104
Keywords:  acculturation strategies, acculturation expectations, intercultural contact, intercultural relations, multicultural ideology, life satisfaction, perceived security, perceived discrimination, perceived threat, ethnic tolerance

Lebedeva N. M., Tatarko A. N., Berry J. (2016). Intercultural relations in Russia and Latvia: the relationship between contact and cultural security. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 41-56.

The project Mutual Intercultural Research in Plural Societies was designed to examine three hypotheses of intercultural relations: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. These hypotheses were derived from the Canadian multiculturalism policy (Berry, 1984), and their validity has been assessed in a number of countries. Our goal was to evaluate these hypotheses in Russia (Moscow) and Latvia (Riga). We used sociopsychological surveys of two dominant groups (Russian Muscovites and Latvians in Riga) and two nondominant groups (migrants from the Caucasus in Moscow and the Russian minority in Riga) employing structural equation modeling. A sense of perceived security promoted tolerance toward other cultural groups in three of the samples. Perceived security was related significantly to multicultural ideology in Riga, but there was no significant relationship to multicultural ideology in the Moscow samples. A preference for the integration strategy among the migrants in Moscow as well as among the Russians in Latvia promoted their better sociocultural adaptation and had a significant impact on the life satisfaction of the Muscovites but had no impact on the Latvian sample in Riga. Our results provided some support for the effect of intercultural contact on the acceptance of others in three of the groups: the migrants in Moscow, the Russian minority in Riga, and the dominant group in Moscow. However, among the Russians in Riga, the relationship between contacts and perceived security was negative. The multiculturalism hypothesis was confirmed with the dominant group in Riga and was partly confirmed with both the dominant and the nondominant groups in Moscow and with the Russian minority in Riga. The contact hypothesis received partial support with both groups in Moscow and the Russian minority in Riga but was not confirmed with the Latvians in Riga. There was partial support for the role of the integration strategy in promoting sociocultural adaptation and well-being among the migrants in Moscow and the Muscovites. These findings require additional analysis of the sociopolitical and historical context in Latvia in order to understand the psychological outcomes of acculturation among the Russian minority there.

About the authorsLebedeva, Nadezhda M.; Tatarko, Alexander N.; Berry, John
ThemesMulticulturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis; Psychology of ethno-cultural issues
Pages:  41-56
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0103
Keywords:  integration, multiculturalism, acculturation strategies/expectations, intercultural contact, intercultural relations, multicultural ideology, life satisfaction, perceived security, tolerance

Galyapina V. N., Lebedeva N. M. (2016). Is multiculturalism in Russia possible? Intercultural relations in North Ossetia-Alania. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 24-40.

This article examines intercultural relations in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (RNO-A). The research is based on the theory of acculturation of J. Berry and uses the hypotheses and measures developed in the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies project. The RNO-A is the most favorable place for Russians living in the North Caucasus because attitudes toward the Russian minority in the RNO-A are not discriminatory. Our goal was to test three hypotheses in the RNO-A: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. We conducted a sociopsychological survey. The sample included members of the ethnic majority, the Ossetians (N= 318), and members of the ethnic minority, the Russians (N= 327). Data processing was carried out using structural equation modeling (SEM) separately for the ethnic minority and for the ethnic majority, and the models were compared with each other. The results show that perceived security among the Russians (the ethnic minority) as well as among the Ossetians (the ethnic majority) promoted support for a multicultural ideology, tolerance, and mutual integration. The number and frequency of friendly intercultural contacts had a positive and significant impact on a preference for integration among both the Ossetians and the Russians. An integration strategy and the expectation of integration promoted life satisfaction in both groups. Because the results of the study confirmed all three hypotheses, we conclude that interethnic relations between the Russians and the Ossetians in the RNO-A are based on the principles of multiculturalism.

About the authorsLebedeva, Nadezhda M.; Galyapina, Victoria N.
ThemesMulticulturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis; Psychology of ethno-cultural issues
Pages:  24-40
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0102
Keywords:  intercultural relations, acculturation, ethnic majority, ethnic minority, multiculturalism, intercultural contact, integration

Berry J. (2016). Comparative analysis of Canadian multiculturalism policy and the multiculturalism policies of other countries. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 4-23.

Multiculturalism is an increasingly common characteristic of contemporary societies. In culturally diverse social contexts, virtually every person experiences intercultural contact on a daily basis. It is essential to understand that there must be both cultural diversity and equity in social participation for true multiculturalism to exist in these settings. Beyond its core definition, it is clear that multiculturalism is a complex concept encompassing many dimensions and meanings. First, the term is understood to describe a demographic fact, indicating the existence of cultural diversity in a society. Second, multiculturalism refers to the policies and programs that are in place to manage intercultural relations and acculturation. Third, multiculturalism refers to psychological phenomena, including individual attitudes and ideologies that accept or reject the demographic, civic and policy features of multiculturalism. This chapter considers Canadian multiculturalism policy, examining how the multiple meanings of multiculturalism vary around the world. Within this framework, I highlight the psychological processes and outcomes of multiculturalism, particularly in connection with acculturation, adaptation and intercultural relations and consider whether these processes and outcomes differ for dominant and non-dominant groups. I suggest some ways in which to enhance the positive outcomes of intercultural contact and the resultant acculturation outcomes. Finally, this chapter sets the stage for the presentation of the other chapters in this volume. It elaborates three hypotheses derived from Canadian multiculturalism policy: the multiculturalism, integration and contact hypotheses.

About the authorsBerry, John
ThemesMulticulturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis; Psychology of ethno-cultural issues
Pages:  4-23
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0101
Keywords:  integration, multiculturalism, acculturation strategies, expectations, intercultural contact

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2016). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 2-3.

The special issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” — “Multiculturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis” — deals with urgent social issues facing contemporary society.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0100
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 9, Issue 1, 2016, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Panel of referees

Panel of referees

ThemesPanel of Referees
Pages:  167-168
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0414
Keywords:  Panel of referees

Saakyan, O. S. (2015). Electrophysiological analysis of the cognitive component of social creativity in young males and females with different individual characteristics. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 83-90.

This article sets forth the problem of studying social creativity from the psychophysiological perspective. Presented here are the first experimental records of studying the cognitive component of social activity. This article describes the peculiar hemispheric activity during the resolution of interpersonal problems by students of different individual peculiarities and professional achievement levels. The author shows that when the solution to a verbal divergent task by young males and females of high creativity and professional achievement is reached, the frequency-spatial EEG indexes are higher in the parietal and frontal brain regions. In the solution of a convergent task, these indexes are higher in the frontal, central and cervical brain zones. In case of young males and females of low creativity and average and low levels of professional achievement, the solution of a convergent task is accompanied by increased EEG power in the central, frontal, parietal zones of both hemispheres.

Thus, the assessment of the psychophysiological mechanisms of the cognitive component in social activity has shown that a definite picture of hemispheric activation stipulates the peculiarities of divergent and convergent thinking in young males and females of various levels of creativity and professional success.

This difference, revealed at the initial stage of investigation, demands a deeper study of the phenomenon of social creativity in the professional training of a personality that is inclusive of this personality’s individual peculiarities.

About the authorsSaakyan, Oxana S.
ThemesPsychophysiology; Psychology of creativity
Pages:  83-90
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0407
Keywords:  social creativity, creativity level, EEG power peculiarities, lateral arrangement profile (LAP), gender

Kovyazina, M.S., Khokhlov, N.A., Morozova, N.V. (2015). The connection of hemispheric activity in the field of audioverbal perception and the progressive lateralization of speech and motor processes. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 72-82.

This article discusses the connection of hemispheric control over audioverbal perception processes and such individual features as “leading hand” (right-handedness and lefthandedness). We present a literature review and description of our research to provide evidence of the complexity and ambiguity of this connection. The method of dichotic listening was used for diagnosing audioverbal perception lateralization. This method allows estimation of the right-ear coefficient (REC), the efficiency coefficient (EC), and the effectiveness ratio (ER) of different aspects of audioverbal perception. Our research involved 47 persons with a leading right hand (mean age, 29.04±9.97 years) and 32 persons with a leading left hand (mean age, 29.41±10.34 years). Different hypotheses about the mechanisms of hemispheric control over audioverbal and motor processes were assessed. The research showed that both the leftand right-handers’ audioverbal perception characteristics depended mainly on right-hemisphere activity. The most dynamic and sensitive index of the functioning of the two hemispheres during dichotic listening was the efficiency coefficient of stimuli reproduction through the left ear (EC of the left ear). It turns out that this index depends on the coincidence/noncoincidence of the leading hemispheres in speech and motor processes. The highest efficiency of audioverbal perception revealed itself in the left-handers with a leading left ear (the hemispheric-control coincidence), and the lowest efficiency was in the left-handers with a leading right ear (the hemispheric-control divergence). The right-handers were characterized by less variation in values, although the influence of the coincidence/noncoincidence of the leading hemispheres in speech and motor processes also revealed itself as a tendency. This consistent pattern points out the necessity for further research on asymmetries of the different modalities that takes into account their probable interaction. The results of our study comport with scientific data showing genotypic left-handers with subzero right-ear coefficient (REC) values to be more efficient than left-handed persons who display high REC values.

About the authorsKovyazina, Marija S. ; Khokhlov, Nikita A.; Morozova, Natalya V.
Pages:  72-82
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0406
Keywords:  left-handers, right-handers, dichotic listening, right-ear coefficient (REC), efficiency coefficient (EC), leading hemisphere in the process of audioverbal perception

Vorobieva, A.E., Akbarova, A.A. (2015). The analysis and perspectives of studying basic and special types of self-determination according to A.L. Zhuravlev’s and A.B. Kupreichenko’s concept. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 46-59.

An analysis of Russian and foreign ways of understanding the phenomenon of self-determination has been performed. It has been found that the concept of individual and group self-determination by A.L. Zhuravlev and A.B. Kupreichenko is the most developed in modern Russian psychological science. Using the concept as a basis, the conceptual schemes (made by A.E. Vorobieva and A.A. Akbarova) of studies of personal, moral, social and economic self-determination were considered as the examples of the basic and special types of self-determination. Moral self-determination was studied with questions about ideas of morality, moral strategies and personality orientation, attitude toward unethical phenomena, ability for self-regulation and emotional intellect. Social and economic self-determination were studied with questions that show one’s social level, satisfaction with economic and social status and their dynamics, a valuation of favorable circumstances for an increase of status and economic activity. Value and anti-value, spheres and forms of showing of social and living personality’s activity were also determined. Fundamental differences (variability, success criteria, implementation in behavior, a level of ability to control a process, the role of external factors) and similarities (successfulness, a formation level, a range, dynamics, conceptions, strategy, values, factors) between the components of the conceptual schemes of these types of selfdetermination were identified. The principles of studying (proportion of basic and specific types of self-determination, a display of resultative, procedural and formal-dynamic characteristics, consideration of factors of different levels) of basic and special types of self-determination were suggested.

About the authorsVorobieva, Anastasia E.; Akbarova, Anastasia A.
ThemesTheories and approaches; Personality psychology
Pages:  46-59
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0404
Keywords:  basic and special types of self-determination, social self-determination, economic self-determination, life self-determination, moral self-determination, structure and factors of self-determination

Mironenko, I.A., Sorokin, P.S. (2015). Culture in psychology: Perennial problems and the contemporary methodological crisis. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 35-45.

This article begins by discussing the origins of the methodological crisis in psychology. In the literature the idea of a permanent methodological crisis in psychology, lasting since the 1890s, dominates. We contest this view and argue that the contemporary methodological problems in psychology should be considered within the context of the novel and larger crisis challenging all socio-humanitarian knowledge in the face of the transformations in social reality in recent decades. The nature of these transformations and their implications for the theory and methodology of the socio-humanitarian sciences are analyzed by drawing on the sociological literature, which is more sensitive to changes in social life than is psychology.

Prominent sociologists argue that the “old” theories and interpretations of the “social” are no longer relevant in the new, highly complex, and globally unstable reality; this new reality has largely transformed the dimensions of human beings’ existence. Meanwhile psychology still tends to comprehend the universal nature of the human. This position undermines the relevance of both psychology’s theoretical models and the practical implications derived from these methodological assumptions.

We argue for revision of the perennial psychological problem of the biology-culture interaction in human nature. To resolve the contemporary methodological crisis in psychology, a shift is needed from theories of universal and immutable human nature to the idea of the human as an infinitely changing creature. Because culture is, primarily, the ability to change, wherein the speed and extent of changes are unique for humans, distinguishing them from other living beings.

About the authorsMironenko, Irina A. ; Sorokin, Pavel S.
ThemesMethodology of psychology; Psychology and culture
Pages:  35-45
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0403
Keywords:  methodological crisis, general crisis of socio-humanitarian sciences, crisis in sociology, social reality, social transformations, biosocial problem, human nature

Danina, M.M., Kiselnikova, N.V., Kuminskaya, E.A., Lavrova, E.A., Markova, S.V. (2015). Theoretical and empirical approaches to using films as a means to increase communication efficiency. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 23-34.

The theoretical framework of this analytic study is based on studies in the field of film perception. Films are considered as a communicative system that is encrypted in an ordered series of shots, and decoding proceeds during perception. The shots are the elements of a cinematic message that must be “read” by viewer. The objective of this work is to analyze the existing theoretical approaches to using films in psychotherapy and education. An original approach to film therapy that is based on teaching clients to use new communicative sets and psychotherapeutic patterns through watching films is presented. The article specifies the main emphasized points in theories of film therapy and education. It considers the specifics of film therapy in the process of increasing the effectiveness of communication. It discusses the advantages and limitations of the proposed method. The contemporary forms of film therapy and the formats of cinema clubs are criticized. The theoretical assumptions and empirical research that could be used as a basis for a method of developing effective communication by means of films are discussed. Our studies demonstrate that the usage of film therapy must include an educational stage for more effective and stable results. This means teaching viewers how to recognize certain psychotherapeutic and communicative patterns in the material of films, to practice the skill of finding as many examples as possible for each pattern and to transfer the acquired schemes of analyzing and recognizing patterns into one’s own life circumstances. The four stages of the film therapeutic process as well as the effects that are achieved at each stage are described in detail. In conclusion, the conditions under which the usage of the film therapy method would be the most effective are observed. Various properties of client groups and psychotherapeutic scenarios for using the method of active film therapy are described.

About the authorsDanina, Maria M.; Kiselnikova, Natalya V.; Kuminskaya, Eugeniya A.; Lavrova, Elena V. ; Markova, Svetlana V.
ThemesTheories and approaches; Applied psychology and psychotherapy
Pages:  23-34
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0402
Keywords:  film therapy, films, psychotherapy, communication system, effective communication

Sobkin, V. S., Lykova, T. A. (2015). Sociometric status of Theatre College students and its relation to their personal characteristics and educational activitie. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 155-166.

This article presents the results of a study of sociometric status and its relation to personal characteristics and educational activities conducted on 96 first-year and 52 second-year students at the Moscow Theatre College. The sociometric study included three sets of questions combining the everyday life and communication of a student: educational activities, leadership and interpersonal communication. To determine the diagnostics of personality characteristics, Cattell’s multiple-factor personality questionnaire 16 PF was used.

The comparative analysis of the group unity sociometric index has shown that there is more mutuality in the choices dealing with interpersonal communication than in the choices dealing with professional activities. The grades that teachers give in actor training appear as a steady focus that determines the degree of leadership/reject not only in the professional but also in the social and interpersonal spheres. The high level of motivation (energy and determination) captured by Cattell’s factor test Q4 is one of the most significant qualities that determines the number of choices in various spheres of student activity (mastering the profession, leadership qualities and interpersonal communication).

About the authorsSobkin, Vladimir S.; Lykova, Tatyana A.
ThemesSocial psychology; Educational psychology
Pages:  155-166
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0413
Keywords:  sociometric status, actor’s talent, personal characteristics, psychology of the actor, professional education

Kruzhkova, O. V., Vorobyeva, I. V., Bruner, T. I., Krivoshchekova, M.S. (2015). The value sphere of native and newcomer youth in their subjective assessment of the environment of a megalopolis. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 139-154.

Currently, in the Russian Federation more and more attention is being paid to the quality of human capital. The innovative future of the country as a whole and its regions in particular depends on having young people with an active lifestyle, a high level of education, and a desire to be included in the development process of their country, region, city, or town. In most regions of the Russian Federation, programs and projects are supported that promote the self-actualization of young people and create conditions to ensure a full and rich life for the younger generation. But, despite these measures, as well as major government funding, the process of active internal migration and the outflow of talented young people from provincial areas into the central regions, as well as from rural to urban settlements, lead to the significant negative skewing of socioeconomic development in the regions of the Russian Federation. Thus, these are the issues: which characteristics of life in a megalopolis are valuable and attractive to young people and are there differences in the images of a big city held by native young people and newcomers.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of the value-sense and need-motivational spheres of native and newcomer youth in a megalopolis as well as to reveal the specifics of their images of a contemporary megalopolis. A comprehensive study conducted in Ekaterinburg among young people in the senior classes of secondary schools, colleges, and universities, as well as among young working men and women (N = 1108; ages 17-25), disclosed the base values in the subjective evaluation of the environment of a megalopolis by native and newcomer youth. In accordance with the objectives of the study, the sample was divided into two contrasting groups: native residents of Ekaterinburg (living there since birth) 437; newcomer residents of Ekaterinburg (living there fewer than 3 years) who were actively adapting to life in the megalopolis at the time the of the study 671 people. The study was conducted with the use of age-specific characteristics of a battery of diagnostic instruments. This article describes the specifics of the value orientations and evaluations of the image of the city among native and newcomer young people. Value determinants of the assessment of the environment of the big city by the native respondents for the most part had a social focus, and at the same time this category of young people generally did not seek to dominate and manage the environment of the megalopolis. The newcomer young people had an intense orientation to values. This orientation ensured their adaptation to and formation of a positive image of the city as a potential location for their personal self-realization.

About the authorsKruzhkova, Olga V. ; Vorobyeva, Irina V. ; Krivoshchekova, Marina S. ; Bruner, Tatyana I.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  139-154
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0412
Keywords:  values of young people, identification with the city, opportunities and risks in a megalopolis, adolescence, megalopolis, internal migration of young people

Petrova, H. A., Zavarzina, O. O., Kytianova, I. P., Kozyakov, R. V. (2015). Social and personal factors of stable remission for people with drug addictions. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 126-138.

This article presents research on the most effective measures in rehabilitation programs for people with chemical addictions and research on the personal characteristics that influence the complete cessation of drug and alcohol consumption. Building a model of an effective rehabilitation process is one of the most significant problems in organizing aid for drug and alcohol addicts. Analysis of the results of previous research revealed a number of factors that influence the stability of remission: individual biological factors (general state of health, presence of co-existing diseases); individual psychological factors (coping strategies, shifting of attention, self-control, aggressiveness); rehabilitation program factors (duration of programs, rehabilitation measures, form of rehabilitation, conditions for admission to a rehabilitation center); social factors (family support, rehabilitation with children, availability of communities with no drug addictions); spiritual factors (call to a divine power for help). We have researched the most effective measures of rehabilitation programs for people with chemical addictions, as well as personal characteristics that influence the full cease in drug and alcohol consumption.

In our research we studied people undergoing rehabilitation in different programs (nonstate 12-step, confessional, and state). Five groups of respondents participated in the research; the total number of respondents was 945.

The purpose of our research was to investigate the factors of stable remission for drug addicts in different rehabilitation programs. Our conclusion is that there are outer (social) and inner (personal) factors of stable remission.

Our research revealed that during positive remission (abstinence from taking drugs) addicts had fewer social and psychological problems, and their social and psychological personal characteristics improved; it also revealed those measures that furthered the development of remission. Respondents considered the following the most effective measures: small groups, lectures on addiction, written tasks connected with the analysis of feelings (diaries, self-analysis etc.), individual and group psychological classes, sport, introduction to faith, prayer, labour, communication with graduates of rehabilitation programs. The received data demonstrates the necessity of complex approach to rehabilitation, with regards to biological, psychological, social and spiritual components of addiction.

About the authorsPetrova, Helena A.; Zavarzina, Olga O.; Kytianova, Irina P.; Kozyakov, Roman V.
ThemesClinical psychology; Psychology of addictions
Pages:  126-138
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0411
Keywords:  drug addiction, rehabilitation and resocialization, factors of stable remission

Lopukhova, O. G., Kashshapova, E. V. (2015). Fear of childbirth in pregnant women: External and internal factors. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 114-125.

Fear of childbirth (FOC) is an important psychological problem that is studied worldwide because it affects the well-being of pregnant women. However, in Russia, this problem does not receive adequate attention among researchers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conditionality of fear of childbirth (FOC) in pregnant women by external and internal factors, which we assumed were the reasons for this fear. As external factors, we considered socio-demographic indicators (e.g., age, marital status, level of education, housing, and the attitude of relatives towards pregnancy) as well as indicators of gynecological history (e.g., the term of pregnancy, the outcome of previous pregnancies, and pregnancy complications). As internal (psychological) factors of the fear of childbirth, we considered personal anxiety as well as general inclination towards and negative consequences of different fears (20 types of fears and phobias were examined). The study was conducted with a Russian sample of 76 women at different stages of pregnancy and with different socio-demographic indicators and gynecological histories. The analysis of the results showed the absence of significant differences between women who were pregnant with FOC and those without this fear in terms of the external factors considered in this study. According to the study’s data, a general inclination of women to fear is associated with fear of childbirth. However, the findings for the women with FOC did not indicate significant positive correlations between the level of this fear and exposure to any of the 20 types of fear and phobias measured in the study. Furthermore, the results did not detect relationships between the FOC level and women’s personal anxiety. The results allow us to conclude that FOC is a separate phenomenon that is not dependent on other phobias and fears. Fear of childbirth has a subjective and highly individual genesis. It is not a direct consequence of objective factors, and it cannot be predicted based on women’s personal characteristics (in particular, anxiety). For further study of this problem, we suggest that researchers identify different types of FOC and describe their content as a way to help develop practical methods of providing psychological assistance for women during pregnancy.

About the authorsLopukhova, Olga G. ; Kashshapova, Elena V.
ThemesClinical psychology; Developmental psychology; Family psychology
Pages:  114-125
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0410
Keywords:  fear of childbirth, FOC, pregnancy; personal anxiety, fears, phobias

Kholodnaya, M., Emelin A. (2015). Resource function of conceptual and metacognitive abilities in adolescents with different forms of dysontogenesis. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 101-113.

This study investigated the level of conceptual and metacognitive abilities and their interaction in adolescents with different forms of dysontogenesis. The total sample (N= 173) included four groups of young adolescents (11-12 years old): with normal development, with infantile cerebral palsy (CP), with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and with delayed intellectual development (DID). We measured the adolescents’ performance on tests of conceptual abilities (the use of categories at different grades of generalization, the discovery of abstract meaning and implicit connections between concepts) and metacognitive abilities (attention selectivity, as measured by Mtinsterberg’s test and the understanding of hidden pictures, and attention organization, as measured by indices of cognitive styles). The results showed, first, that in comparison with normal adolescents, the adolescents with CP and ADHD had a deficit of metacognitive abilities, but they did not differ in rates of conceptual abilities. As for adolescents with DID, even though they had lower rates of conceptual abilities and attention selectivity, they did not differ from the “norm” group on some indices of attention organization. Second, a tendency for the disintegration of conceptual and metacognitive abilities (as measured by correlation and factor analysis) was most clearly seen in the adolescents with ADHD and DID. The adolescents with CP and ADHD had conceptual (categorial and generative) abilities as a mental resource, and the adolescents with DID had metacognitive abilities as a mental resource. The resource function of conceptual and metacognitive abilities was determined not only by their level but also by the extent of their interaction (integration).    

About the authorsKholodnaya, Marina A.; Emelin, A.
ThemesClinical psychology; Developmental psychology
Pages:  101-113
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0409
Keywords:  ndysontogenesis, infantile cerebral palsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, delayed intellectual development, conceptual abilities, metacognitive abilities, mental resource

Verbitskaya, L.A., Malykh, S.B., Zinchenko, Yu.P., Tikhomirova, T.N. (2015). Cognitive predictors of success in learning Russian. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 91-100.

This study examines the role of cognitive characteristics in the success in learning Russian, assessed through teachers’ grades and test scores on standardized state exams.

This paper examines the relationship between cognitive characteristics, such as nonverbal intelligence, working memory and speed of information processing, and the results of the Unified State Exam for 11th grade students, the Basic State Exam for 9th grade students and the traditional assessment of Russian language learning.

This study involved students in the 9th and 11th grades from four educational institutions in the Moscow and St. Petersburg regions; 427 students were studying in the 9th grade (50.3% were boys) and 398 students were studying in the 11th grade (44.8% were boys).

This study concluded that expert assessment of Russian language learning is more associated with successful test scores on the Unified State Exam (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) than with the results of the Basic State Exam (r = 0.46, р < 0.01).

This study showed that at the lower and upper levels of secondary education, nonverbal intelligence is a significant predictor of success in learning the Russian language according to expert estimates. In addition, we found differences in the relationship between cognitive performance and success in learning the Russian language as assessed by tests. Nonverbal intelligence contributes significantly to individual differences in scores for the Unified State Exam in Russian, while the contribution of cognitive characteristics on the Basic State Exam is not statistically significant.

About the authorsMalykh, Sergey B. ; Zinchenko, Yury P. ; Tikhomirova, Tatiana N.; Verbitskaya, Ludmila A.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Educational psychology
Pages:  91-100
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0408
Keywords:  nonverbal intelligence, cognitive characteristics, success in learning Russian, Unified State Exam, State Final Examination, annual assessment

Zinchenko, Yu.P., Kovalev, A.I., Menshikova, G.Ya., Shaigerova, L.A. (2015). Postnonclassical methodology and application of virtual reality technologies in social research. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 60-71.

The postnonclassical paradigm has increasingly become a conceptual basis for social research in various fields in an attempt to overcome the limitations of the classical and non-classical approaches. Subjects of social research activities require changes in the paradigm at all levels of research: from the statement of the problem to the elaboration of the appropriate methods and the analysis of the research data. The search for new research methods, technologies and techniques plays a crucial role in this process. One of the most promising methods that has rapidly developed in recent years is the technology of virtual reality (VR). This technology is being widely applied to both natural science and social science research. In this article, we examine the possibilities of using VR technology for the resolution of current tasks in social research from the perspective of the postnonclassical approach.

About the authorsMenshikova, G.Ya.; Zinchenko, Yury P. ; Kovalev, Artem I.; Shaigerova, Ludmila A.
ThemesMethodology of psychology; Media and cyber psychology
Pages:  60-71
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0405
Keywords:  postnonclassical paradigm, social research, virtual reality technology, ethnic and racial attitudes, verbal and non-verbal communication, avatar

Chernorizov, A.M., Asmolov, A.G., Schechter, E.D. (2015). From physiological psychology to psychological physiology: Postnonclassical approach to ethnocultural phenomena. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 4-22.

In modern science, along with the “classic” and “non-classical” approach to solving fundamental and applied problems, there is an actively developing “postnonclassical” research paradigm. This renovation of general scientific methodology has been accompanied by the emergence of new experimental technologies and new scientific research directions based on them. “Social psychophysiology” is one such direction. It is formed within the frame of postnonclassical methodology at the intersection of neuroscience and psychology. This work is devoted to the analytical review of the methods, achievements and prospects of contemporary social neuroscience and social psychophysiology studying brain structures that are specifically related to the implementation of social forms of behavior and intercultural communication. Physiological studies of brain activity during social interaction processes, which are simulated using virtual reality environments, are analyzed, and the physiological approach to the study of the brain mechanisms associated with social perception, social cognition and social behavior is used. Along with the analysis of psychophysiological studies of the mechanisms of social perception and social cognition, we discuss the theories of “Brain Reading” and “Theory of Mind” and the underlying data concerning “Gnostic neurons recognition of persons and recognition of emotional facial expressions”, “mirror neurons”, “emotional resonance” and “cognitive resonance”. Particular emphasis is placed on the discussion of a fundamentally new trend in the study of the relationship between the brain and culture (i.e., “cultural neuroscience”). Related to this connection, the following topics are raised: physiological mechanisms protecting the “individual distance” in communication between members of a personified community, psychophysiological approaches to the study of cross-cultural differences, physiological mechanisms of social classification (particularly the formation of attitudes toward representatives of various social groups and toward the content of socially oriented information), and psychophysiological approaches to the study of processes of social classification in the field of intercultural relations (racial perception, stereotypes and prejudices).

About the authorsChernorizov, Alexsander M. ; Asmolov, Aleksandr G. ; Schechter, Eugeniya D.
ThemesMethodology of psychology; Psychophysiology
Pages:  4-22
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0401
Keywords:  postnonclassical approach, psychological physiology, cultural neuroscience, virtual reality, brain activity, ethnocultural identity, intercultural and interethnic attitudes, cross-cultural differences

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2015). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 2-3.

The current issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” provides diverse papers on theory and methodology, social psychology and such multidisciplinary topics as cognitive psychology, psychophysiology and clinical psychology.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0400
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 8, Issue 4, 2015, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Karayani A. G. (2015). The Power of Weakness: Review of the book by Mark Neville and Jamie Hacker Hughes “Battle Against Stigma”. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 157-160.

About the authorsKarayani, Aleksandr G.
ThemesBook review; Security psychology
Pages:  157-160
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0312
Keywords:  book review, review, books

Morosanova V.I., Fomina T.G., Bondarenko I.N. (2015). Academic achievement: Intelligence, regulatory, and cognitive predictors. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 136-157.

Using the results of two empirical studies (with different samples and academic subjects), our research was aimed at discovering the significant role of conscious self-regulation, intelligence, and cognitive features in predicting optimal academic achievement. The sample consisted of 406 students (aged 14-16) in the 8th to 11th grades of the Russian formal education system. Conscious self-regulation together with intelligence and cognitive abilities was determined to be a significant predictor of academic success. The Study 1 results revealed that the general level of self-regulation of learning activity and certain regulatory features were significant predictors of different types of mathematical achievements: academic grades, scores on exams, mathematical fluency, as well as solving logical mathematical problems and equations. The present study is the first to show the mediating role of self-regulation in relation to intelligence, cognitive features, and academic success. Study 2 found evidence that conscious self-regulation and intelligence can predict academic achievement in the humanities, mathematics, and natural sciences... At the same time, this determination has its peculiarities in particular variables of intelligence and certain self-regulation processes depending on the substantive characteristics of the academic subjects. Regression models of academic success in the humanities identified verbal intelligence associated with vocabulary as highly significant and a definitive requirement for success in these subjects. Study 1 and Study 2 showed that the only significant predictors of success in algebra and geometry were quantitative- relations intelligence and spatial intelligence. The implications of these findings for investigating predictors of academic achievement are discussed.

About the authorsMorosanova, Varvara I. ; Fomina, Tatiana.G.; Bondarenko, Irina N.
ThemesEducational psychology; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  136-157
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0311
Keywords:  conscious self-regulation, intelligence, cognitive features, gifted students, academic achievement

Kulikova T.I., Maliy D.V. (2015). The correlation between a passion for computer games and the school performance of younger schoolchildren. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 124-136.

Today computer games occupy a significant place in children’s lives and fundamentally affect the process of the formation and development of their personalities. A number of present-day researchers assert that computer games have a developmental effect on players. Others share the point of view that computer games have negative effects on the cognitive and emotional spheres of a child and claim that children with low self-esteem who neglect their schoolwork and have difficulties in communication are particularly passionate about computer games. This article reviews theoretical and experimental pedagogical and psychological studies of the nature of the correlation between a passion for computer games and the school performance of younger schoolchildren. Our analysis of foreign and Russian psychology studies regarding the problem of playing activities mediated by information and computer technologies allowed us to single out the main criteria for children’s passion for computer games and school performance. This article presents the results of a pilot study of the nature of the correlation between a passion for computer games and the school performance of younger schoolchildren. The research involved 32 pupils (12 girls and 20 boys) aged 10-11 years in the 4th grade. The general hypothesis was that there are divergent correlations between the passion of younger schoolchildren for computer games and their school performance. A questionnaire survey administered to the pupils allowed us to obtain information about the amount of time they devoted to computer games, their preferences for computer-game genres, and the extent of their passion for games. To determine the level of school performance we analyzed class registers. To establish the correlation between a passion for computer games and the school performance of younger schoolchildren, as well as to determine the effect of a passion for computer games on the personal qualities of the children, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r-Pearson) was used. Analysis of the results of the study indicates that there is a correlation between computer-game genres and the school performance of younger schoolchildren, that a passion for role-playing computer games adversely affects the school performance of younger schoolchildren and that the time period for a single game determines the extent to which younger schoolchildren have the personality traits necessary to maintain educational motivation and interest in an academic subject.

About the authorsKulikova, Tatyana I. ; Maliy, Dmitry V.
ThemesEducational psychology; Media and cyber psychology
Pages:  124-136
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0310
Keywords:  computer-gaming activities, passion for computer games, school performance, younger schoolchildren

Solovieva Yu., Quintanar L. (2015). Qualitative syndrome analysis by neuropsychological assessment in preschoolers with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 112-124.

The basis of this article is A. R. Luria’s conception of the qualitative approach in neuropsychology. Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity is one of the most frequent clinical diagnoses given during preschool age. However, precise qualitative neuropsychological criteria for analysis of this clinical diagnosis do not exist and change from one approach to another. Our objective here is to propose such qualitative criteria for neuropsychological analysis of children with diagnoses of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity at preschool age. We follow clinical methodology that is traditional for historical and cultural neuropsychology and is an alternative for the psychometrical and cognitive approach. The methodology of the study was qualitative neuropsychological assessment of the syndrome followed by detailed consideration of the types of difficulties in each case. The study analyzes mistakes and typical examples of execution of the tasks of neuropsychological qualitative assessment by regular children and by children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. The results showed differences between these groups of children. The children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity made a lot of mistakes during assessments. Their difficulties are related to unfavorable conditions in the three functional brain blocks according to Luria’s conception. We conclude that “attention” cannot be considered the only or the main problem in children who receive this diagnosis by psychiatrists and neurologists.

About the authorsSolovieva, Yulia; Quintanar, Luis Rojas
ThemesNeuropsychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  112-124
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0309
Keywords:  qualitative neuropsychology, process of attention, disorders of attention, neuropsychological assessment, child neuropsychology

Murafa S.V. (2015). Mnemonic abilities of primary school children with delayed mental development. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 98-112.

This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls). The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls). The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students), mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test.
The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the type of underdevelopment of their perceptive abilities and attention abilities. Operational and regulative mechanisms of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays are determined to exist at early stages of their formation. Significant differences in productivity and mnemonic abilities in primary school students with developmental delays were observed in comparison with their typically developing peers. In both children with developmental delay, as well as typical children, gender did not present any significant differences in memorization or the employment of functional mechanisms of mnemonic abilities. The analysis shows, and this paper discusses possible causes for subjects’ inability to copy simple nonverbal material after its correct reproduction is shown.

About the authorsMurafa, Svetlana V.
ThemesNeuropsychology; Developmental psychology
Pages:  98-112
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0308
Keywords:  delay of mental development, mnemonic abilities, functional mechanisms, operational mechanisms, regulation mechanisms, effect of inability to redraw earlier remembered and correctly reproduced material

Dikaya L.A., Skirtach I.A. (2015). Neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity: The example of improvisation. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 84-98.

Since the turn of this century, a substantial body of research has been published on the neuroscience of creativity. Now, it is necessary to study the neurophysiological correlates in true-to-life, professionally specific situations. The aim of our empirical research was to study the neurophysiological correlates of musical improvisation, a spontaneous creative activity. The participants were 136 right-handed practicing musicians aged 19 to 36 (102 males and 34 females), divided into two groups—professionals (56 people) and amateurs (80 people). EEG signals were recorded in a resting state (eyes closed) and during three types of internal musical activity (perceiving, mentally reproducing, and mentally improvising) from 21 scalp electrodes according to the International 10-20 System. For statistical analysis, we used ANOVA and post hoc analysis. For the main neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity, we revealed higher values of EEG spectral power in the delta band and the dominance of long-distance functional cortical connections in the high-frequency bands. Variable neurophysiological correlates were differentiated according to emotions and the professional level of the musicians. The distinguishing EEG pattern in the professional musicians during improvisation was the predominant activation of the left- hemisphere cortical regions simultaneously with high interhemispheric integration in the high-frequency band along the “creativity axis.” The revealed neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity during improvisation included basic and variable components and were characterized by a specific frequency-spatial organization of bioelectric cortical activity in the musicians.

About the authorsKorobeynikova, Elena V.; Zakharova, Lyudmila N.
ThemesNeuropsychology; Psychology of creativity
Pages:  84-98
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0307
Keywords:  musical creativity, improvisation, brain cortex, EEG, spectral power, co¬herence, frequency band

Zakharova L.N., Korobeynikova E.V. (2015). Personal characteristics of effective managers in organizational cultures of different types. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 69-84.

Since the 1990s Russian enterprises have been experiencing difficulties in transitioning to the market-innovative model of development. In the context of the current variability of management paradigms, we had an opportunity to study the internal and external regulators of organizational changes that are typical for a transitioning economy. Organizational culture (ОС) was studied as an external factor, while the personal traits of middle managers were viewed as internal factors because these managers are the agents for values and for behavior models, from corporate directives to “front-desk’ personnel. The goal of this theoretical and empirical study was to determine the personality traits of middle managers who were deemed effective by top management in companies transitioning to the market-innovative model of development in the context of different types of OCs.
During the preliminary stage, we conducted a comparative analysis of the requirements for the personal traits of middle managers who are working in stable conditions as well as in conditions of transfer to the market-innovative model of development, and we selected the relevant methods of empirical research. During the first stage of the empirical part of our research we defined a group of four enterprises with OCs of different types, identified their effective mid-level managers based on expert evaluations by the top leadership, and formed test groups. During the second stage we studied the personal characteristics of these managers.
We determined that the personality traits of managers deemed effective by their leaders form integral complexes, which in turn correlate in a certain way with the type of ОС of an enterprise. We identified four models of an effective manager: Mentor, Dictator, Innovator, and Businessman; these managers have varying degrees of work productivity, value priorities in the development of ОС, personal self-concepts, organizational leadership skills, and types of decision-making. It has been demonstrated that in the evaluation of the effectiveness of a manager of an enterprise, the correspondence of his/her personal traits to the characteristics of the ОС prevailing in the company is a more important factor than his/her agreement with the long-term goals of the company and, therefore, with the more promising type of ОС. This phenomenon opens a way to utilize such functions of ОС as internal integration but prevents external adaptation, which in turn becomes a serious psychological obstacle in the development of an enterprise.
The ОС of an enterprise has a powerful potential to attract employees with certain sets of psychological traits. Important tasks for the psychological support of the organizational development of an enterprise could be the development of a criteria database for the evaluation of managers and the development of a management talent pool based on the market-innovative vector of development of an enterprise with relevant changes in the ОС.

About the authorsKorobeynikova, Elena V.; Zakharova, Lyudmila N.
ThemesSocial psychology; Organizational psychology
Pages:  69-84
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0306
Keywords:  transition economy, innovations, psychological regulation of activities, orga¬nizational culture, values, managers’ psychological characteristics

Sobkin V.S., Adamchuk D.V. (2015). The attitudes of Russian teenagers toward sexual aggression. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 61-69.

The data reported in the article describe the attitudes of teenagers to problems concerning sexual violence and aggression. Given the lack of any national systems that could monitor negative factors in the teenage environment, including sexual aggression, special value lies in the data obtained through questionnaires, as these data allow us to evaluate the prevalence of such factors, and they also describe the typical lifestyles of modern Russian teenagers.
The main objective of the study was to describe the age dynamics and gender specifics of teenagers’ attitudes toward the problem of sexual aggression: its prevalence, probable reasons for it, ways of dealing with such situations.
This article is based on data from a research project conducted in 2012 in the Krasnoyarsk region. The research particularly addressed various aspects of schoolchildrens sexual behavior and their attitudes toward sexual violence. The main research method was a paper questionnaire. It was administered to 1,540 children in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grades.
The results showed that every tenth teenager indicated the presence of sexual-violence victims in their circle. According teenagers’ opinions about the reasons for sexual violence the main reasons are “bad luck,” “provocative appearance” “carelessness”. The majority of teenagers will seek help in case of rape.
The answers of teenagers who have sexual experience regarding possible solutions for sexually traumatic situations show their readiness to take responsibility for their behavior and its consequences, as well as for their mental and physical health. In this respect sexual experience can be viewed as an indicator of teenagers’ personal and psychological readiness to lead a grownup life independently of their parents.
To sum up, analyzing schoolchildren’s replies, even to those questions that were not asked directly but in oblique form, allows us to conclude that the teenage environment involves an aggressive (unlawful) component, which usually appears to be a “hidden layer” of interpersonal relations in the microsocial circle of a schoolchild. As a result, the threat of becoming a victim of bullying (ostracism) can block a teenager’s search for help.

About the authorsSobkin, Vladimir S.; Adamchuk, Dmitry V.
ThemesSocial psychology; Developmental psychology
Pages:  61-69
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0305
Keywords:  puberty, prevalence of sexual aggression, reasons for sexual aggression, sup¬port for victims of sexual violence, demographic and socially stratified factors

Shingaev S.M. (2015). Pilot study of the psychological factors in the professional health of managers. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 47-61.

The main research problems and tasks of a new scientific field in Russia—the psychology of professional health — are formulated. A definition of professional health as the abilities of a person successfully to cope with the demands and requirements in a professional environment is offered. A psychological vision for professional health with four basic provisions is proposed. The aim of the research was to study the extent of the influence on the professional health of managers of such psychological factors as systems of values, stress in professional activity, individual and psychological features, strategies for overcoming stressful situations. Data are provided from research conducted in 2002-2012 on managers in Russian companies. Taking part in the research were 651 managers of various organizations in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Veliky Novgorod, and Kharkov. For collecting empirical material on methods of supervision, I used polls, tests, interviews, content analysis, self-reports of participants in training programs, and a method for forming the experiment. In addition I employed psychodiagnostic techniques intended for studying the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components of health, a technique for revealing the personal potentials (regulatory, communicative, intellectual) of the managers, and also my own techniques. The study positively correlated health with such values as having interesting work, having a happy family life, being financially secure, having an active life, and giving and receiving love. Connections between the behavioral manifestations of type A behavior and the managers’ values were revealed. The greatest negative impact on the managers was made by such factors of professional activity as an excessive workload, emotional pressure at work, difficulty in carrying out activity, and insufficient time. Health is important in the structure of the professional activity of managers; it acts as a strategic resource by providing at the least cost efficiency and reliability during all stages of a professional career.

About the authorsShingaev, Sergey M.
ThemesSocial psychology; Organizational psychology
Pages:  47-61
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0304
Keywords:  professional activity, professional health, managers, psychological factors, stress factors

Téllez A., García C.H., Corral-Verdugo V. (2015). Effect size, confidence intervals and statistical power in psychological research. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 27-47.

Quantitative psychological research is focused on detecting the occurrence of certain population phenomena by analyzing data from a sample, and statistics is a particularly helpful mathematical tool that is used by researchers to evaluate hypotheses and make decisions to accept or reject such hypotheses. In this paper, the various statistical tools in psychological research are reviewed. The limitations of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and the advantages of using effect size and its respective confidence intervals are explained, as the latter two measurements can provide important information about the results of a study. These measurements also can facilitate data interpretation and easily detect trivial effects, enabling researchers to make decisions in a more clinically relevant fashion. Moreover, it is recommended to establish an appropriate sample size by calculating the optimum statistical power at the moment that the research is designed. Psychological journal editors are encouraged to follow APA recommendations strictly and ask authors of original research studies to report the effect size, its confidence intervals, statistical power and, when required, any measure of clinical significance. Additionally, we must account for the teaching of statistics at the graduate level. At that level, students do not receive sufficient information concerning the importance of using different types of effect sizes and their confidence intervals according to the different types of research designs; instead, most of the information is focused on the various tools of NHST.

About the authorsTéllez Arnoldo ; García, Cirilo H.; Corral-Verdugo, Víctor
ThemesMethodology of psychology
Pages:  27-47
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0303
Keywords:  effect size, confidence intervals, statistical power, NHST

Karpov A.V. (2015). The structure of reflection as the basis of the procedural organization of consciousness. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 17-27.

The relationship of consciousness to the reflexive processes is one of the fundamental problems in psychology. To date, however, many important aspects of this problem remain poorly understood. This article attempts a theoretical study of this problem. The subject of research is the interconnection between consciousness and reflexive processes and also the structure of these processes. This study presents theoretical and empirical materials revealing the interrelatedness of these two fundamental subjects of psychological research. In connection with this issue, I introduce a new methodology for psychological research, which I refer to as the metasystem approach. This approach is grounded in the claim that reflection is the basic procedural means of consciousness and is based on a heterarchical principle. This article proposes a new structural, polyprocess method for revealing the psychological nature of reflection and the contents of reflexive processes. I propose a new explanation for the basic properties of the psyche that underlie consciousness: self-sensitiveness (sensitivity to oneself). I theoretically prove the following proposition: reflection has a fundamental heterogeneity because its processes are localized on completely different hierarchical cognitive levels of personality. In addition, I show that in the structural organization of reflection as an integral process in relation to other (“secondary,” metacognitive) processes, another basic principle is involved — the principle of hierarchy. The property of reflexivity (and the process of reflection as a procedural manifestation of this property) should be understood as a species in relation to the more common attribute inherent in the psyche: self-sensitiveness. Elementary manifestations of this property have been observed for the simplest sensory processes.

About the authorsKarpov, Anatoly V.
ThemesMethodology of psychology
Pages:  17-27
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0302
Keywords:  consciousness, reflection, metasystem approach, heterarchу, structure, metacognitive processes, levels, self-sensitiveness

Kapustin S.A. (2015). An existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality in the works of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 4-17.

This is the second in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the previous article I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human beings and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients one toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients one toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, one-sided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormality of personality interpreted like that is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In this article I show that this criterion is implicitly present in the personality theories of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, although in more special cases. In the following articles I will show that this criterion is also implicitly present in the personality theories of Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl.

About the authorsKapustin, Sergey A.
ThemesTheories and approaches
Pages:  4-17
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0301
Keywords:  human nature, human essence, existential dichotomy, normal personality, abnormal personality

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2015). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 2-3.

The current issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” provides diverse papers on theory and methodology, social and educational psychology and neuropsychology.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0300
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 8, Issue 3, 2015, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Zotova O.Yu., Karapetyan L.V. (2015). Occupation as a factor of personality subjective wellbeing. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 126-136.

This article examines personality subjective well-being and describes its psychological structure, general components and characteristics. An overview of foreign theories and studies on subjective well-being is presented. Correlations among related concepts such as happiness, life satisfaction and subjective well-being are also described. Subjective well-being is seen as a multivariate construction of a stable nature in mobile equilibrium. It is argued that a type of professional activity can have great importance and a positive impact on an individual’s social life, health, identity shaping and psychological wellness. This article’s findings are substantiated by the survey administered to 2229 respondents divided into groups according to their area of business: students, psychologists, doctors, teachers, engineering and technical staff, representatives of service industries, workers, military men, and prisoners. The descriptors identified two types of natures: positive, directed to a person’s inner world (happy, lucky, optimistic) and to the outer world (trustworthy, competent, successful), and negative (pessimistic, unhappy, envious). This division of nature type was categorized according to the participants’ subjective well-being index. Empirical evidence has shown that occupational specificity influences a person’s subjective well-being. A substantial difference was found in subjective well-being index of the respondents. A higher index is typical of students and military men. Educators and industrial intelligentsia also demonstrate an increased level of subjective well-being, whereas prisoners tend to have a low level of subjective well-being. The same low index is characteristic of servicing trade representatives and psychologists.

About the authorsZotova, Olga Yu. ; Karapetyan, Larisa V.
ThemesPersonality psychology; Organizational psychology
Pages:  126-136
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0211
Keywords:  personality, subjective well-being, life satisfaction, psychological security

Pluzhnikov I.V., Kaleda V.G. (2015). Neuropsychological findings in personality disorders: A.R. Luria’s Approach. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 113-125.

There is a lack of information concerning the features of cognitive processes in personality disorders, as well as the brain mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these diseases. Luria’s neuropsychological approach demonstrated its heuristicity in estimating the cognitive status of patients with mental disorders and can be employed to identify the brain bases of non-psychotic mental disorders (including personality disorders).

The objective of this research is to study the features of neurocognitive functioning in patients with schizoid personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder (against the norm), employing Luria’s neuropsychological methodology. Hypotheses: 1) While both types of personality disorders are related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the specificity of the neurocognitive functioning of each personality disorder will be observed in addition to general neuropsychological signs. Specific neuropsychological symptoms point to different brain deficits, which allows conclusion to be drawn regarding differences in the pathogenesis of each personality disorder; and 2) Luria’s methodology neuropsychology is adequate for the study of neurocognitive functioning in personality disorders.

The study was conducted using qualitative and quantitative analyses (according to Luria) of neuropsychological testing data in a group of fifty male patients aged 19,2±3,7 years with pathocharacteristic domain disorders. The group consisted of 30 schizoid personality disorder patients and 20 schizotypal personality disorder patients.

Statistically significant differences (p <0,005) in neurocognitive function (regulatory processes, memory, spatial function) between the healthy controls and patients with personality disorders were observed.

Specific cognitive disorders pointing to the dysfunction of front-thalamoparietal connections were characteristic of both groups. Lateral differences were discovered for both patient groups. The neuropsychological symptoms related to left hemisphere dysfunction were characteristic of the patients with schizotypal personality disorder. Neurocognitive deficits related to right hemisphere deficiency characterized the patients with schizoid personality disorder.

About the authorsPluzhnikov, Ilia V.; Kaleda, Vasily G.
ThemesPersonality psychology; Neuropsychology
Pages:  113-125
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0210
Keywords:  neuropsychology, cognitive functions, personality disorders, cerebral mechanisms, pathogenesis

Manukyan V.R., Golovey L.A., Strizhitskaya O.Yu. (2015). Formation of personality psychological maturity and adulthood crises. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 99-112.

Based on theoretical analysis, in the present paper, we defined the structure of the characteristics of personality psychological maturity, which is considered an adult development criterion. The objective of this paper was to identify the mechanisms that contribute to the formation of psychological maturity in adulthood development. We first assumed that one of the possible mechanisms is the normative crisis of development. In turn, previously formed psychological maturity traits can relieve the experiences associated with this normative crisis. The aim of the present study was to analyze the formation of psychological maturity during periods of emerging and middle adulthood, with a specific focus on normative crisis experiences. The study design included cross-sectional and longitudinal methods. The participants included 309 adults. The emerging adulthood group ranged in age from 18 to 25 years, and the participants in the middle adulthood group were between 38 and 45 years of age. To study crisis events and experiences, we used three author-designed questionnaires. A self-actualization test by E. Shostrom (SAT), the Big Five personality test by Costa and MacCrae, a value and availability ratio in various vital spheres technique by E.B. Fantalova, a purpose-in-life test by D.A. Leontiev, and a coping test by Lazarus were used to define the personality characteristics used to overcome difficult life situations.

In this paper, we described experiences specific to the crises associated with emerging adulthood and middle adulthood in the context of developmental tasks. Using cluster analysis, we defined groups with different intensities of crisis experiences and analyzed psychological content of crisis experiences in different groups. Using ANOVA, we found that participants with low intensity crisis experiences show more developed characteristics of psychological maturity. During emerging adulthood, the overcoming of crises associated with the separation from family contributes to the formation of such aspects of psychological maturity as self-management, life organization and responsibility. In a longitudinal study of midlife crises, the data suggest that in groups where there are more intense crisis experiences, there are more significant dynamics in the meaning and value sphere over the course of a year that lead to the achievement of greater personal integrity and congruence.

The current study proved the hypothesis regarding the role of the crisis mechanism of psychological maturity development in two phases of adulthood. It also proved that psychological maturity contributes to a decrease in the intensity of crisis experiences.

About the authorsManukyan, Victoria R.; Golovey, Larisa A.; Strizhitskaya, Olga Yu.
ThemesPersonality psychology; Developmental psychology
Pages:  99-112
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0209
Keywords:  development, adulthood, psychological maturity, crisis, crisis experiences, meaning and value sphere

Veraksa N.E., Veraksa A.N. (2015). The technique of project activity: A new approach in Russian preschool. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 73-86.

Project activity has a long history of implementation in education (Kilpatrick, 1918). This article describes the approach to project activity that became widespread in preschool education in Russia in the late 1990s. This approach is based on the cultural-historical theory of Vygotsky (1978), Venger’s (1988) understanding of intellectual giftedness, as well as an understanding of project activity proposed by Leontiev (2000).

At the heart of project activity lies children’s exploration of the space of possibilities — that is, their search for action options that correspond to their personal motives and express their individuality. The main features of project activity are the problem situation to be presented to the child; the subjectivity of all its participants, including teachers; and its nature, which includes its social context.

Three main types of project activity are presented: research, creative, and normative; each has its own structure and value for children’s development. Examples of their implementation in preschool settings are provided. The impact of project activity on all its participants in preschool — children, teachers, parents — is addressed.

The article shows the effectiveness of project activity for educational work with both intellectually gifted and normally developing children.

About the authorsVeraksa, Nikolay E. ; Veraksa, Aleksandr N.
Themes4th Annual international research-to-practice conference “Early Childhood Care and Education”; Educational psychology
Pages:  73-86
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0207
Keywords:  project activity, giftedness, intellectual development, space of possibilities

Solovieva Yu., González-Moreno C.X., Quintanar L. (2015). Indicators of reflection during acquisition of symbolic actions in preschool Colombian children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 61-72.

The background of the study is the historic and cultural conception of development, which considers symbolic activities significant for preschool-age children. Our objective was to identify indicators of reflection as an essential feature of preschool development during the acquisition of symbolic actions at three levels: materialized, perceptive, and verbal. The design of the study was descriptive with qualitative and quantitative analysis applied. Included in this assessment of the development of symbolic function were 180 children of preschool age (from 5 to 6 years old) who were in the third year of formal preschool education in Bogotá, Colombia. Qualitative analysis of the results pointed out specific indicators of symbolic development at each level. On the materialized level such indicators were the sequencing of actions with substituted objects, the generalization of the symbolic features of objects, and a verbal, coherent explanation of the mode of substitution. On the perceptive level the indicators were the generalization of features in graphic representations, the possibility of using an image as a strategy for voluntary memorization, and a verbal explanation of the use of an image as a substitution. On the verbal level reflective explanation of verbal substitution was established as the positive indicator. The results permit us to posit the usefulness of clear qualitative indicators for assessment of a child’s level of psychological development and readiness for school learning at the end of preschool.

About the authorsSolovieva, Yulia; González-Moreno, Claudia Ximena; Quintanar, Luis Rojas
Themes4th Annual international research-to-practice conference “Early Childhood Care and Education”; Developmental psychology
Pages:  61-72
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0206
Keywords:  symbolic development, preschool age, reflection, psychological development, actions with objects, symbolic actions

Kapustin S.A. (2015). An existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality in the works of Erich Fromm. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 87-98.

This is the first of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal on the position people with normal and abnormal personalities take in regard to so-called existential dichotomies. The main objective of this article is to propose a new, existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies, and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients one toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients one toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, one-sided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormal personality interpreted like this is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In the following three articles it will be shown that this criterion is also implicitly present in the theories of personality devised by Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl.

About the authorsKapustin, Sergey A.
ThemesPersonality psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  87-98
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0208
Keywords:  human nature, human essence, existential dichotomy, normal personality, abnormal personality

Sobkin V.S., Skobeltsina K.N. (2015). Shared activities of parents with their preschool children during family pastime. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 52-60.

This article studies the structure of the pastime of contemporary preschool children and the importance and prevalence of various kinds of activities that parents and their children share. The emphasis is on those features of parental behavior that are determined by gender role (mother/father), family status (two-parent/separated family), style of parentchild relationship, and also child’s gender. The work is based on data from 1,936 questionnaires received from parents of preschool children (from 1.5 to 7 years old) who were attending Moscow kindergartens. The research was carried out in 41 kindergartens in 9 districts of Moscow. The survey uncovered several social-psychological features of the position parents take while organizing their shared pastime with preschool children: the influence of traditional gender-role models of parental behavior; the “complementary” principle of mother’s and father’s social-role positions in the upbringing of a daughter; the distortion of traditional maternal behavior in the upbringing of a son in a separated family; the reduced organization of shared play with a child in a separated family; the influence of the style of the parent-child relationship on the participation of parents in their children’s activities. The dynamics show how the parents’ position changes as their children grow older (from 1.5 years to 7 years): namely, the decrease of parents’ organization of and participation in a preschool child’s activities has a negative impact on their emotional state while interacting with the child.

About the authorsSobkin, Vladimir S.; Skobeltsina, Ksenia N.
Themes4th Annual international research-to-practice conference “Early Childhood Care and Education”; Developmental psychology
Pages:  52-60
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0205
Keywords:  preschool childhood, family pastime, shared activity of parents and children, parental position, parent-child relationship

Shvedovskaya A.A., Archakova T.O. (2015). Styles of parent-child interactions in families with preschool-age children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 36-51.

With regard to cultural-historical and activity approaches, collaborative activity with an adult, including communication as a type of meta-activity, is considered to be the necessary mechanism of child development. A child is considered to be an active partner, possessing his/her own motives, and is guided by mental representations of the parent and interactions with him/her. Russian psychologists have developed a range of parenting style classifications; however, these styles primarily emphasize a parent’s position, contrary to methodological perspectives, with inadequate consideration of a child’s own agency. The aims of the current research were to investigate actual goal-oriented interactions between preschoolers and their parents and to outline certain patterns (types) of interactions, considering both partners and analyzing interac- tions according to the activity model. A total of 75 parent-child dyads (children aged from 4.6 years to 6.11 years) participated in “collaborative activity trials” in which the observational method was based on the activity approach. Cluster analysis (k-means clusterization) revealed five different groups of parent-child dyads: conflictual, harmonious, distant and two-fold dominant (with dominant parent or dominant child). Between-group comparisons (Mann-Whitney U test) showed significant differences in a range of parameters of activity and emotional components of interactions. The harmonious type of interactions is not prevalent, although subgroups with different types of domination are the most common, which may be attributed to cultural peculiarities. Domination-subordination misbalance does not seem to seriously distort the normal developmental trajectory; however, in cases of conflictual and distant dyads, interactional issues might hinder the course of goal-oriented activity, which might serve as a predictor for potential difficulties in further learning.

About the authorsShvedovskaya, Anna A.; Archakova, Tatyana O.
Themes4th Annual international research-to-practice conference “Early Childhood Care and Education”; Developmental psychology
Pages:  36-51
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0204
Keywords:  parent-childhood interactions, parenting styles, collaborative activity, parental scaffolding, preschooler

Singer E. (2015). Play and playfulness in early childhood education and care. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 27-35.

Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.

About the authorsSinger, Elly
Themes4th Annual international research-to-practice conference “Early Childhood Care and Education”; Educational psychology
Pages:  27-35
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0203
Keywords:  play theory, game theory, play curricula, day care, teacher-child relationship, very young children

Karlsson Lohmander M., Pramling Samuelsson I. (2015). Play and learning in early childhood education in Sweden. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 18-26.

Learning through play is a common phrase in early childhood education worldwide. Play is often put forward as the overarching principle for working with young children (Johnson, Christie, & Wardle, 2005). However, if we go beyond the rhetorical level and explore how “learning through play” and a “play-based curriculum” are understood and transformed into practice, we may find differences both within and between countries (Karlsson Lohmander & Pramling Samuelsson, 2014a, 2014b; Pramling Samuelsson & Fleer, 2009).

In this article we discuss the relationship between the concepts of play and learning and describe how they are enacted in everyday practice in early childhood education in Sweden. Starting with a brief presentation of the development of early childhood education, we then reflect on the challenges preschool teachers may encounter when trying to implement a new learning-oriented curriculum (National Agency for Education, 2011) and still trying to keep play as a central dimension in children’s everyday life in preschool.

About the authorsLohmander, Maelis Karlsson ; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling
Themes4th Annual international research-to-practice conference “Early Childhood Care and Education”; Educational psychology
Pages:  18-26
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0202
Keywords:  early childhood education, Sweden, preschool, play, learning

Gjems L., Sheridan S. (2015). Early literacy in Norwegian and Swedish preschool teacher education. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 4-17.

Since the turn of the century, politicians in the Scandinavian countries have placed great emphasis on early childhood education and care. They have been especially concerned with lifelong learning in the field of language learning, early literacy, and numeracy. Almost all children between the ages of 1 and 6 years attend a preschool, and the quality of the learning environment is of great importance. This article presents a comparative study of student preschool teachers’ conceptions of the knowledge that they claim to have acquired about children’s early literacy throughout their bachelor education in Norway and in Sweden. The aim is to compare responses to a questionnaire administered to the student teachers and to examine the similarities and differences in the content of and goals indicated in the two countries’ national plans for early literacy. This study is based on sociocultural theories and has a multimethod design. First, through a discourse analysis we examined the national plans for preschool teacher education in Norway and Sweden and studied similarities and differences. Second, we sent a questionnaire to all student preschool teachers at all universities and university colleges in Norway and at the University of Gothenburg. The differences between the Norwegian and Swedish education students were most obviously seen in their responses to the questions about how they work with early literacy. The discourse analyses showed that the national education plans for preschool teacher education in the two countries differ in certain instances but share common ground in others.

About the authorsGjems, Liv; Sheridan, Sonja
Themes4th Annual international research-to-practice conference “Early Childhood Care and Education”; Educational psychology
Pages:  4-17
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0201
Keywords:  early childhood education, language learning, early literacy, preschool teachers, preschool teacher education, comparative study

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2015). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 2-3.

The current issue of Psychology in Russia: State of the Art opens with reports from the 4th Annual international research-to-practice conference “Early Childhood Care and Education” held on April 23rd - 25th 2015 at the Lomonosov Moscow State University (Moscow, Russia).

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0200
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 8, Issue 2, 2015, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Grishina N.V. (2015). Review of the book by Aleksander I. Dontsov “Phenomenon of Envy”. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 157-160.

Considering today’s abundance of psychology books, from reprints of timeless classic works through scholarly editions to popular literature, it is hard to expect a new book to become a big event in psychology. However, a book entitled The Phenomenon of Envy is hard to overlook: as observed by the author, very few people are unaffected by envy. Besides, the name of the author, Aleksander I. Dontsov, former head of the Faculty of Psychology at Moscow State University and of the Russian Psychological Society, is well known among Russian scholars.

About the authorsGrishina, Natalia V.
ThemesBook review; Social psychology
Pages:  157-160
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0113
Keywords:  book review, Aleksander I. Dontsov “Phenomenon of Envy”, Dontsov

Vorobyeva I.V., Kruzhkova O.V., Krivoshchekova M.S. (2015). The genesis of vandalism: From childhood to adolescence. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 139-156.

This study was developed because vandal behavior is an increasing threat in the world. Countries, commercial companies, and individuals experience great damage to property as a result of individual vandal acts. In addition, vandalism threatens not only “tangible assets” but also the cultural and historical heritage of modern humanity. Despite the threatening spread of vandalism, the study of its psychological foundations, including its origins, in the context of individual life courses is in many ways terra incognita. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genesis of vandal behavior and the sociopsychological and individual personality factors in the formation of readiness to destroy public property and the property of others. A comprehensive study of children, adolescents, and young adults (N=1522), as well as of their social environment, revealed mechanisms of the readiness to commit vandal acts that were present since childhood. The study was conducted by examining four age groups: preschoolers (4–6 years), primary school pupils (7–9 years), adolescents (12–15 years), and young adults (17–22 years); the instruments used were specific-age batteries, observation, expert techniques, and questionnaires. We found that the characteristics of parent-child relationship are is the basis for forming the boundaries of the permissible activity of the child; disturbance in the parent-child relationship can lead to the development of forms of vandalism in children. We describe the specificity and intensity of the vandal activity of adolescents and young adults in the context of their environment, and we look at the individual characteristics that promote deviant behavior. Thus, vandal activity is not only a specific characteristic of adolescents and young adults, and it is not always very destructive. Basic vandal activity originates in the early stages of ontogenesis as a result of a deformation in social interaction that becomes fixed and converted into the destructive actions of people trying through this form of activity to understand themselves in social space.

About the authorsVorobyeva, Irina V. ; Kruzhkova, Olga V. ; Krivoshchekova, Marina S.
ThemesDevelopmental psychology; Social psychology
Pages:  139-156
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0112
Keywords:  vandalism, genesis of vandal behavior, preschool age, primary school age, adolescence, youth, personality and environmental factors in the development of vandal behavior

Alekhin A.N., Koroleva N.N., Ostasheva E.I. (2015). Semantic structures of world image as internal factors in the self-destructive behavior of today’s teenagers. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 125-138.

This article presents the results of a theoretical and methodological analysis and empirical study of semantic formations in the structure of a world image as factors in teenagers’ self-destructive behavior in contemporary Russian society. During the teenage years the value-semantic bases of a world image are being formed. A world image is the integral, multilevel representation of the subject, which consists of social reality and himself/herself; it exists in the mind as a unity of sensual fabrications, significations, and personalized meanings. Transformations of semantic components of a world image that are inadequate for the environment or that are externally and internally rigid can serve as preconditions for disadaptation and for one of its extreme forms—self-destructive behavior. The purpose of our empirical research was to determine the main characteristics of basic conceptual formations in the structure of a world image—that is, attitudes, intentions, motives, and values— that serve as predictors of disadaptation in modern teenagers. The teenagers in the study were born in different generations with a ten-year interval (1990–1991 and 2000–2001). Our empirical research of the semantic world-image structures that serve as bases for the self-destructive behavior of modern teenagers consisted of two phases. The first phase provided a comparative analysis of the relationships, value preferences, and basic conceptual intentions that raise the possibility of disadaptation and self-destructive behavior among teenagers. In order to perform this analysis, we analyzed data from the Character-Pathological Diagnostic Poll (PDP) of A. E. Lichko. During the second phase, a comparative analysis was carried out of the basic semantic components of teenagers’ images of the world and self-destructive and normative behavior. The main conceptual world-image structures were defined with the help of projective methods: the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and the modification for teenagers and youth (TAT-Y), which was developed by A. N. Alekhin and others. The main changes in the value-semantic orientations and personality dispositions of Russian teenagers in the late 20th to early 21st centuries were defined. The features of the semantic organization of these teenagers’ world image as a precondition for disadaptive behavior were uncovered, and the personality preconditions for their self-destructive behavior were identified: their world image is fragmentary and self-contradictory; their personality features include cognitive distortions, a negative emotional state, ambivalence of motives and disposition, and disharmony with world-image semantic structures. The indicator for social disadaptation and behavioral deviation in modern Russian teenagers is evident deformation of personal relationships as the basic cognitive structure of their world image.

About the authorsAlekhin, Anatoly N. ; Koroleva, Natalya N. ; Ostasheva, Eugeniya I.
ThemesDevelopmental psychology; Psychosemantics
Pages:  125-138
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0111
Keywords:  teenager, contemporary society, sociocultural transformations, socialization, personality development, self-destructive behavior, disadaptation, value orientations, semantic formations, world image

Mikhailova O.V. (2015). The value-motivational structure of the innovativeness of young students. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 112-124.

The study of personal qualities’ development and the peculiarities of value-motivational aspects in groups with various manifestation levels of these qualities are of particular interest for contemporary researchers as well as for practicing psychologists who develop psychotechnologies aimed at personal value-motivational sphere management.This article suggests new approaches for analyzing and studying value-motivational aspects of personal activity, predetermining innovation activity. It also provides an analysis of a comparative empirical study that evolves value-motivational characteristics in students with various innovativeness levels.

The author submits a detailed theoretical analysis of innovation behavior based on manifestations of personal value-motivational activity. Resulting from the given theoretical analysis, a suggestion is made that the manifestation and development of personal potential is determined by values and motives. Personal innovation potential is regarded as an effective combination of various activity forms, and innovativeness is a personal quality that is manifested by a form of effective activity. Currently, psychologists are highly interested in evolving value-motivational structure of personal innovativeness.

The given article discusses the results of an empirical study aimed at revealing value- motivational peculiarities of students in groups with various levels of innovativeness manifestations. Indicative peculiarities of value-motivational characteristics are revealed in groups with low, middle and high levels of innovative qualities. Furthermore, gender differences in innovativeness manifestation and value-motivational characteristics of this quality in young men and women are thoroughly described.

New data concerning the personal and gender specifics of the value-motivational sphere and innovativeness manifestation in young adults are presented using a thoroughly described research strategy as well as results substantiation.

About the authorsMikhailova, Olga V.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  112-124
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0110
Keywords:  innovativeness, innovative potential, value-motivational sphere of innovative personality.

Lopukhova O.G. (2015). The impact of gender images in commercials on the self-consciousness of adolescents. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 100-111.

Television has a strong impact on gender-identity development. Theoretical analysis shows that the direct perception of different gender characteristics in advertising images has a specific impact on gender self-consciousness, primarily at the unconscious level. The purpose of our study was to uncover features of this impact.

In this study, the effects of advertising images on the gender self-consciousness of teenagers were investigated. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) Perception of gender images in TV commercials has individual variability and is connected with gender features of self-consciousness (gender type of personality, gender differentiation of consciousness, the specifics of gender identification). (2) Direct perception of gender images in TV commercials has a differential influence on the transformation of verbal (cognitive) and nonverbal (emotive) levels of selfconsciousness.

The commercials, which were for chocolate, contained different gender types of male and female images (masculine female images, androgynous images, and feminine male images); they used as stimulus materials in an experimental situation involving 61 teenagers. The contents and dynamics of gender self-consciousness in adolescents were investigated using the psychosemantic method of “multiple identifications.”

We discovered that the girls’ preferences for gender images were more varied than those of the boys. Despite different variants in the gender characteristics in the advertising images, their impact on the gender self-consciousness of the adolescents consisted mostly of gender differentiation and identification with the images of their own gender. In general, in regard to the direct impact in the experimental situation, at the cognitive level, the girls revealed changes in the enhancement of gender identification with images of their gender, and the boys were characterized by the enhancement of gender differentiation. At the level of emotive evaluation, in contrast to the cognitive level, we observed stronger dynamics of the changes in selfconsciousness (enhancement of gender differentiation and enhancement of identification with images of ideals and parental images).

The results clearly showed the quite high plasticity of self-consciousness structures and their susceptibility to externally designated images. We concluded that, in their direct perception, features of gender images in TV commercials have specific effects on the consciousness of adolescents: they reinforce already-formed gender categories and self-identification. We consider this research a pilot study, and we are planning to check the results on a more representative sample with different age groups.

About the authorsLopukhova, Olga G.
ThemesSocial psychology; Gender psychology
Pages:  100-111
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0109
Keywords:  commercials, gender images, identification, gender self-consciousness, adolescent

Baeva I.A., Bordovskaia N.V. (2015). The psychological safety of the educational environment and the psychological well-being of Russian secondary school pupils and teachers. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 86-99.

The interest of psychologists in the study of safety in the educational environment and its psychological characteristics is increasing. The aim of this study was to select, substantiate, and disclose the psychological factors in the educational environment that influence the psychological well-being of pupils. There were three stages in our research: clarifying the level of psychological safety in the schools in the study; revealing the consistency of the teachers’ and the students’ evaluations of the level of psychological safety in those schools; determining the nature of the influence of the psychological safety of the educational environment on the psychological well-being of the students. The study involved 172 teachers and 876 students in Moscow and St. Petersburg schools.

Psychological safety is a condition of educational environments that are free from psychological violence in the interactions of the people in them; psychological safety contributes to the satisfaction of the needs for personal trust and communication, creates for the participants a sense of belonging (the referential importance of the environment), and contributes to their mental health.

The empirical study revealed that (1) the level of the psychological safety of the educational environment in the evaluations of the teachers was higher and had more expressed differentiation than did the level in the students’ evaluations; (2) the psychological well-being of the students was closely correlated with the level of psychological safety for the teachers; (3) such components of the well-being of the students as emotional comfort, self-confidence, a higher level of cognitive activity were developed in those schools with high levels of psychological safety for the teachers.

The results can be useful in educational psychology and environmental psychology as well as when creating technologies to support the safety of school environments and of the people in them, including situations related to minimizing safety violations and reducing risks and threats.

About the authorsBordovskaia, Nina V. ; Baeva, Irina A.
ThemesSocial psychology; Educational psychology
Pages:  86-99
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0108
Keywords:  educational environment, psychological safety, psychological well-being of pupils

Shmeleva E.A., Kislyakov P.A., Luneva L.F., Maltseva L.D. (2015). Psychological factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in the educational environment. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 74-85.

The negative sociocultural transformations that are taking place in modern society and the resulting psychological transformation of personality and mode of life strongly require searching for ways of providing social safety to the next generation, with teachers being the implementers of this process. Teachers’ professionalism is determined by their willingness to solve personal and socially relevant problems, including the willingness to provide social security for other people, to thwart social risks, and to build constructive interpersonal relationships.

The aim of our research was to reveal and to analyze the psychological factors affecting the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in educational environments.

The environmental factors of social risk have been theoretically characterized. It has been shown that the essential factor in ensuring students’ social security is providing a safe social environment in educational institutions; such an environment provides the learners and the teachers with sociopsychological security and psychosocial well-being. The empirical part of our study was devoted to identifying negative social phenomena in the schools in the Ivanovo region (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 700 students) and to identifying the personally and professionally important qualities of the teachers and the subjective psychological factors of their readiness to ensure social security in the educational environment (through interviewing 300 teachers); the administration of the questionnaires and the interviewing were followed by an assessment of their significance (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 140 teachers). Using factor analysis we identified the relevant indicators and grouped them into six factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure a safe educational environment.

Relevant personal and professional qualities of teachers were revealed; these are the subjective factors of the readiness of a teacher to ensure social security in the educational environment: social anticipation, resistance to sociopsychological stress, social tolerance, professional orientation, responsibility, communication skills.

Data were collected in the analytical and experimental studies to determine ways to improve the organization of educational processes in order to ensure the social security of students and society in general. The identified psychological factors, their relative weight, and content must be considered when designing a system for training teachers and developing in them the required personal and professional qualities.

About the authorsShmeleva, Elena A. ; Kislyakov, Pavel A. ; Luneva, Ludmila F. ; Maltseva, Larisa D.
ThemesSocial psychology; Educational psychology
Pages:  74-85
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0107
Keywords:  social security, educational environment, psychological factors, negative social phenomena in the schools.

Gurieva S.D., Kostromina S.N., Tsvetkova L.A... (2015). Migration as an indicator of people’s social and psychological stability (as exemplified in the Pskov Region). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 61-73.

Years of social, economic, and political changes have resulted in intensive and extensive migration activity. The appearance of compelled and voluntary migrants has brought about the development of a new direction in social psychology: the psychology of migration. Many disciplines are connected with the study of migration, the problems of migrants, and adaptation processes. In the social-psychological literature, various models of adaptation to new conditions of a social-cultural environment are considered (I. Jasinskaja-Lahti, K. Liebkind, J. Berry; S.-K. Lee, J. Sobal, E. Frongillo). Various social-psychological features of migrants are studied: for example, ethnic identity, characteristics of psychological adaptation, emotional well-being, and mental health. In the Russian scientific literature the following problems are considered: emigrants’ interactions with representatives of foreign cultures (N. S. Khrustaleva), degree of cultural similarity (T.G. Stefanenko), personal features of emigrants (S. H. Schwartz, E. Prince-Gibson), features of ethnic identity (G.U. Soldatova, S. D. Gurieva), and many others. In Russia, research regarding the influence of the social-cultural environment on processes of adaptation were begun only in 2004.

The main objective of our study was to identify psychological mechanisms of migration flows (incoming and outgoing) as indicators of sociopolitical and psychological stability in the Pskov Region. Participants in the study were citizens permanently residing in the Pskov Region who by age and social characteristics represented the population structure of a part of that region. In total, 52 persons aged 17 to 69, with an average age of 42.3, participated.

The technique used was focus groups. A content analysis was made of the answers received in the focus-group sessions. During these sessions, participants could freely share their views on questions asked by the facilitators who had a college-level psychological education. In each group, two facilitators worked cooperatively. One facilitator was in charge of group dynamics; the other was in charge of asking all the questions covered as well as of keeping track of all the substantial aspects of the conversation. This arrangement encouraged the participants to discuss issues of the region in an open manner.

The findings allowed us to classify all the migrants and potential migrants in the Pskov Region according to their reasons and motives for migration. For example, in the Plyussa settlement, which is “depressed” and remote from the region’s center, migrants seek to escape their extreme poverty and unemployment; they can be called “survival migrants.” In the “favored” central area, the city of Pskov, migrants seek to significantly increase their income level and improve their quality of life. We can describe them as “migrants seeking new opportunities.” In a border area, the town of Gdov, people living in close proximity to other countries (Estonia, Latvia) compare their financial situation and opportunities with those of their foreign neighbors. Migrants living in Gdov tend to move because they want to avoid an environmental crisis or progressive degradation of the environment, structural unemployment, and poor economic opportunities. We can call them “migrants in search of hope and prosperity.”

In the Pskov Region, the labor (economic) situation is a typical reason for migration. Migration for economic reasons is a resettlement of people for the purpose of employment and proper remuneration. Labor migration can have such causes as a desire to change one’s job, as well as sociocultural, housing, environmental, nature, climate, and other conditions. Without a developed economy and social sphere, regions are able to prevent only elderly or incapacitated people from migrating. To retain the younger generation, it is necessary to inform people of all the possible difficulties that potential migrants may face and to make systematic and large-scale efforts to develop the region, to improve the image of the region (including encouraging the residents to be proud of and to cherish the region’s heritage and its people’s achievements), and to create a comfortable environment.

About the authorsKostromina, Svetlana N.; Zvetkova, Larisa A.; Gurieva, Svetlana D. ; Anisimova, Tatyana V. ; Samuylova, Irina A. ; Konfisakhor, Aleksandr G.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  61-73
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0106
Keywords:  migration processes, reasons for migration, potential migrants, the Pskov Region.

Belolutskaya A.K. (2015). Multidimensionality of thinking in the context of creativity studies. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 43-60.

This article describes the theoretical difference between the flexibility and the multidimensionality of thinking. Multidimensionality is discussed as a characteristic of thinking that is necessary for exploration of the variability of structural transformations of problematic situations.

The objective of the study was to examine a number of theories concerning the correlative connection between the multidimensionality of thinking and other characteristics of creative, productive thinking: the flexibility of thinking; the formation of an operation of dialectical thinking such as “mediation”; the ability of a person to use a scheme as an abstraction for analysis of various specific content.

A total of 85 people participated in the study: they were 15 to 17 years old, students at a senior school in Kaliningradskaya oblast, winners of different stages of the all-Russian academic competition in physics, chemistry, and mathematics. All respondents had a high level of academic success and of general intelligence.

The following techniques were used in this study: (1) my technique for diagnostics of the multidimensionality of thinking; (2) my technique of “schemes and paintings,” designed for diagnostics of the ability to relate abstract schemes and various specific content; (3) the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (verbal battery); (4) a diagnostic technique for dialectical thinking: “What can be simultaneous?”

All the hypotheses were confirmed.

Confirmation was received of the existence of a correlation connection; this finding counts in favor of the assumption that the parameters of thinking my colleagues and I were working with can in aggregate be considered an integral characteristic of human thinking. It allows us to distinguish significant features of a situation from secondary ones—that is, to see a substantial contradiction and to propose several options for its transformation.

About the authorsBelolutskaya, Anastasiya K.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Psychology of creativity
Pages:  43-60
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0105
Keywords:  multidimensionality of thinking, dialectics, theoretical generalization, flexibility, transformation, intellectual creativity

Vorobyeva E.V., Ermakov P.N., Saakyan O.S. (2015). The relationships between the achievement motivations and temperaments of psychology students with different lateral organization profiles. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 32-42.

The objective of this research was to assess the motivational potential of psychology students using an egoskopiya method. Heart rate and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed the Mehrabian achievement motivation test. Thirty students of the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 20 and 30 years participated. The psychodiagnostic study involved 136 students from the Faculty of Psychology of Southern Federal University who were aged between 18 and 49 years. To determine the lateral organization profiles of sensory and motor functions, a computer-based testing program termed “Profile” was used. The Compact Russian Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ-77) was used to evaluate the features of temperament. 

The results revealed that people with a strong motivation to succeed exhibited a predominance of right features in their lateral organization profiles. Their cardiovascular systems were in more activated states than those of the people who were extremely motivated to avoid failure. The observed temperament features of psychology students with different levels of achievement motivation indicated that the level of achievement motivation is related to the properties of temperament such that students with lower levels of achievement motivation (i.e., motivation to avoid failure) exhibited the temperament traits of Neuroticism and Impulsivity in addition to low values on the scales for the Sensitivity to Sensations, Intellectual Ergonicity, and Sensitivity to Probabilities. High levels of achievement motivation (i.e., motivation to strive toward success) corresponded to the psychology students’ propensities for Sensitivity to Sensations, high levels of Intellectual Ergonicity, high levels of Sensitivity to Probabilities and low values on the scales of Impulsivity and Neuroticism.

About the authorsVorobyeva, Elena V.; Ermakov, Pavel N. ; Saakyan, Oxana S.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Personality psychology
Pages:  32-42
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0104
Keywords:  individual profile asymmetry, achievement motivation, temperament, egoskopiya.

Shchelkova O.Yu., Usmanova E.B. (2015). Quality of life and relation to disease in patients with bone sarcoma. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 22-31.

The study aimed to investigate the basic aspects of quality of life and relation to disease in patients with malignant or premalignant bone tumors. Study participants (N=82) were aged 18 to 67 years (average age 34 ± 2 years). They were separated into three groups depending on diagnosis: patients with osteosarcoma, patients with giant cell tumor and patients with chondrosarcoma. The SF-36 Health Status Survey and the Quality of Life Questionnaire - Core 30 with Bone Metastasis (BM22) Module were used to assess patient quality of life. The type of relation to disease method (TOBOL) was used to determine the relation to disease of the patients.

According to the results of the quality of life study, patients with giant cell tumor exhibited the highest degree of limiting physical activity and reduced social functioning, the greatest financial difficulties and more pain sites than either patients with osteosarcoma or patients with chondrosarcoma. The study of relation to disease revealed that all studied groups of patients were susceptible to ergopathic and sensitive types of relation to disease. Moreover, patients with giant cell tumor experienced increased levels of tension and irritability with respect to relation to disease and treatment, while patients with chondrosarcoma were more susceptible to anxiety and hypochondria with respect to relation to disease.

Patients with different types of bone tumors have different experiences with respect to their physical and mental health, their social functioning and their general health. The results of the study may be useful in developing individualized psychological aid programs for patients with malignant and premalignant bone tumors.

About the authorsShchelkova, Olga Yu. ; Usmanova, Ekaterina B.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  22-31
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0103
Keywords:  bone sarcoma, malignant bone tumor, quality of life, relation to disease

Yakupova V.A., Zakharova E.I., Abubakirov A.N. (2015). The mental state of women with an IVF pregnancy. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 14-21.

An in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy is stressful both financially and emotionally. Patients undergoing an IVF procedure often have already had infertility and reproductive losses. Pregnancy through IVF involves the increased risk of various medical complications. Experts around the world are actively engaged in studying the specifics of the mental state of participants in IVF programs during pregnancy. Of critical importance is the issue of providing psychological support for couples who are preparing for and who have received an IVF pregnancy. 

The aim of our research was to investigate the mental state of women participating in an IVF program. The study involved 224 pregnant women in the second and third trimesters: 62 women with an IVF pregnancy and 162 women who conceived naturally. The study took place at the Kulakov Scientific Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology in Moscow, Russia. All the study participants had encountered medical complications during their pregnancy. No significant differences were identified in mental well-being in the two groups; this finding suggests that somatic complications during pregnancy are a general source of anxiety regardless of the reason for their occurrence. The second and third trimesters of pregnancy register increased anxiety levels associated with experiences of reproductive loss and the presence of physical problems. The main resources of a woman’s personality that contribute to her self-confidence and mental stability are her professional employment and flexible behavior.

About the authorsYakupova, Vera A. ; Zakharova, Elena I. ; Abubakirov, Ajdar N.
ThemesClinical psychology; Family psychology
Pages:  14-21
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0102
Keywords:  IVF, psychology of pregnancy, mental state, motherhood

Velichkovsky B.B., Roschina I.F., Selezneva N.D. (2015). Cognitive control and memory in healthy ApoE-ε4 carriers with a family history of Alzheimer’s disease. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 4-13.

A major risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s type dementia (DAT) is the carriage of the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene. Identifying cognitive deficits in healthy ApoE-ε4 carriers is valuable in order to develop interventions to prevent them from developing DAT. Existing evidence about cognitive deficits in the domains of episodic memory and cognitive control specific to ApoE-ε4 is contradictory.

The objective of our research was to assess episodic memory and cognitive control in healthy ApoE-ε4 carriers.

Cognitively healthy ApoE-ε4 carriers (13 ε4/ε4 heterozygotes) and noncarriers (22 ε3/ε3 homozygotes), who were matched on age and family history of DAT, were compared on episodic-memory and cognitive-control tasks. Episodic-memory tasks were verbal and visual recognition tasks with a systematic variation of distractor-to-target similarity. Executive functions were assessed by a task for updating working memory, an inhibition task, and a switching task. Working-memory capacity was also assessed.

The results showed that executive functions were generally not impaired in the carriers, but carriers showed a specific increase in accuracy-related switch costs. Workingmemory capacity was not reduced in the carriers. In the domain of episodic memory, the carriers were found to make more errors with phonetic distractors in the verbal episodicmemory task. They also tended to make more errors with visually dissimilar distractors in the visual episodic-memory task.

The results are indicative of an episodic-memory deficit specific to the carriage of ApoE-ε4. This deficit may be driven either by deficits in storage or by deficits in the encoding of the to-be-remembered material. Contradictory results concerning the presence of an episodic-memory deficit obtained in previous studies may stem from small effect sizes, the use of specific materials, and the employment of attention-intensive encoding strategies. The carriers also showed a switching deficit that possibly is related to difficulty in retrieving task rules from episodic memory. Existing empirical contradictions concerning the presence of an executive deficit in carriers may in part depend on the extent to which tasks used to assess an executive deficit draw on the switching function. In this study, there was no general executive deficit in the carriers of ApoE-ε4.

About the authorsVelichkovsky, Boris B. ; Roschina, Irina F. ; Selezneva, Natalia D.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  4-13
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0101
Keywords:  apolipoprotein E, Alzheimer’s type dementia, episodic memory, cognitive control, executive functions, working memory, attention, task switching

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2015). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 2-3.

The current issue of Psychology in Russia: State of the Art presents topical articles in clinical, cognitive, social, and developmental psychology.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0100
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 8, Issue 1, 2015, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Kostromina S.N., Bordovskaia N.V., Rosum S.I., Moskvicheva N.L., Iskra N.N. (2014). Research potential and cognitive features of students. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 122-136.

This article examines the theoretical and methodological justifications for studying students’ research potential. It presents proof of the isomorphic nature of human research activity and research potential as well as of the fluid nature of its development: from research-like behavior to science-based research activity. It defines three functional components (motivational, cognitive, and behavioral) that form the structure of research potential. It further presents the results of empirically studying the cognitive features of master’s students possessing different levels of research potential. It provides data on the dynamics of research-potential components at different educational levels (bachelor’s and master’s programs). Special attention is given to a comparative analysis of evaluations by research tutors regarding their students’ research potential and of the indicators obtained using psychodiagnostic methods.

About the authorsKostromina, Svetlana N.; Bordovskaia, Nina V. ; Rosum, Sergey I. ; Moskvicheva, Natalya L. ; Iskra, Natalya N.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  122-136
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0411
Keywords:  research activity, research behavior, research potential, cognitive activity, cognitive features of students

Khanina I.B. (2014). The professional world and professional activity of a medical university lecturer. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 111-121.

Questions connected to the correlation of such notions as “image of the world” (A. N. Leontiev) and “invariant image of the world” (A. A. Leontiev) are considered. The proposition that professional activity is one of the bases for distinguishing invariant images of the world is substantiated. Based on the analysis of the professional activity of lecturers in medical institute clinical faculties, the notion “professional view of the world,” which reflects professional activity in an invariant image of the world, is introduced. The necessity for specifying the notion “professional view of the world” and introducing the notion “professional world,” describing professional measurement of the living space of medical institute lecturers, is also shown; the structure-forming components of this notion are singled out. It is also shown that the systems of relations by which the professional world is determined are by nature meaning relations (D. A. Leontiev).

About the authorsKhanina, Irina B.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  111-121
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0410
Keywords:  image of the world, invariant image of the world, professional view of the world, professional world, meaning relations

Glotova G.A., Wilhelm A.M. (2014). Teachers’ notions about their communicative competencies. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 98-110.

This article describes the results of four empirical research studies of teachers’ notions about effective conduct in various pedagogical situations and about communicative competencies, which can help in resolving difficult pedagogical problems. The findings indicate that teachers’ ideas concerning their professional conduct and communicative competencies are rather positive. The majority of teachers identify their conduct in difficult pedagogical situations with that of an “ideal” teacher. At the same time, the results received when the semantic differential was used revealed the ambiguous character of teachers’ assessments of their own communicative competencies. Psychological training focused on deepening teachers’ notions about communicative culture was carried out. As a result of the training, teachers’ notions about their own communicative competencies changed.

About the authorsGlotova, Galina A. ; Wilhelm, Angelica M.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  98-110
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0409
Keywords:  communicative competencies, communicative behavior, teachers’ notions, psychological training for teachers

Kulchitskaya D.Yu. (2014). Psychological prerequisites and effects of using multimedia content in the mass media. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 88-97.

The author of the article argues that multimedia content can be used not only for entertainment purposes, but also may help achieve various psychological effects on the audience. The paper provides a brief overview of the psychological research performed in the field of multimedia perception and describes the cognitive theory of multimedia learning. The article analyses two phenomena that may be regarded as prerequisites for the emergence of multimedia as a new technology: multimodality of human perception and so-called polyphony of reality. Multimedia content affects various sensory systems and thus imitates the real world, which is full of stimuli from various modalities. The author also highlights a range of psychological effects that may accompany the usage of multimedia content in the mass media.

About the authorsKulchitskaya, Diana Yu.
ThemesMedia and cyber psychology
Pages:  88-97
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0408
Keywords:  multimedia content, media perception, psychological effects, multimodality of perception, media psychology

Pronina E.E. (2014). Media psychology: Modern man and nonlocality of psyche. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 75-87.

The development of modern information technologies is causing changes in the structure of the human psyche, bringing about a new psychotype. The transition to a new level of evolution is accompanied by the growing manifestation of the psyche’s ontological features — nonlocality and self-determination. From a sample of more than 300 people, it was demonstrated that active Internet users are significantly different in a number of parameters from those who mostly use traditional media. This article examines the resources of media psychology as a new paradigm in the study of mass communication phenomena and the laws of the development of psyche.

About the authorsPronina, Elena E.
ThemesMedia and cyber psychology; Methodology of psychology
Pages:  75-87
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0407
Keywords:  media psychology, the nonlocality of psyche, net-thinking, hacktivism, communicative openness, information security, evolution of psyche

Soldatova G.V., Rasskazova E.I. (2014). Assessment of the digital competence in Russian adolescents and parents: Digital Competence Index. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 65-74.

In this paper, we developed a psychological model of digital competence including four components (knowledge, skills, motivation and responsibility) and four spheres (work with online content, communication, technical activity and consumption). The Digital Competence Index (DCI) is a 52-item instrument assessing an index and an entire profile of digital competence. In the Russian population study (1203 adolescents 12-17 years old and 1209 parents), acceptable reliability (.72-.90 for all of the scales, except motivation) of DCI was demonstrated. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the superiority of the four-component structure with the second-order index. Mean DCI was 34% of the maximally possible level in adolescents and 31% in parents, indicating the necessity for the educational programs in Russia. The motivation component was both the lowest and the least homogeneous factor, indicating that important special efforts to improve motivation to learn in Russian adolescents are needed.

About the authorsRasskazova, Elena I.; Soldatova, Galina V.
ThemesMedia and cyber psychology; Psychological assessment
Pages:  65-74
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0406
Keywords:  digital competence, Digital Competence Index, Russian population study, Kids online project, online risks

Druzhinenko D.A., Podolskiy A.I., Podolskiy O.A., Schmoll P.A. (2014). Using videogames to treat childhood obesity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 51-64.

Childhood obesity is one of the most dangerous pathologies; it can lead to serious illness in the absence of medical support. In this article we give an overview of the use of videogames for reducing and normalizing the weight of overweight and obese children. We discuss the categorization of the existing games and their limits, and we outline the perspectives of psychopedagogical research in the domain of game design for treating obese and overweight children. The role of long-term motivation in the treatment of obesity is one of the crucial questions we discuss. We try to understand how videogames can help children and parents maintain motivation during weight-loss treatment. The role of parents is undeniable in ensuring the success of weight-loss programs for overweight or obese children. Perhaps videogames can be the instrument for families’ lifestyle changes.

About the authorsPodolskiy, Andrei I. ; Druzhinenko, Daria A. ; Podolskiy, Oleg A. ; Schmoll, Patrick
ThemesMedia and cyber psychology; Applied psychology and psychotherapy
Pages:  51-64
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0405
Keywords:  childhood obesity, videogame, motivation, family, lifestyle

Strokanov A.A., Zhdanova S.U. (2014). Russian and American students' images of their future presidents. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 43-50.

The structure of their future presidents’ images among Russian and American students was studied. The general tendencies and specific features of the perception of a future president among Russian and American students were revealed. For respondents of both groups, the significant factors influencing their choice of whom to vote for were the program of the candidate, his strategic thinking, the reliability of his team, a high degree of professionalism and competence, leadership skills, the ability to speak and convince, and personal qualities. In regard to specific features, Russian students paid more attention to the business qualities of a future president than did American students; Russian students were optimistic and considered elections capable of effecting changes in the country. American students showed less interest in political events, along with the professional qualities of the leader; they paid attention to his appearance and believed that elections can affect the private life of people.

About the authorsStrokanov, Aleksandr A. ; Zhdanova, Svetlana U.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  43-50
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0404
Keywords:  perception of a political leader, political image, president’s image

Shoygu J.S.(2014). Psychological aid in crisis and emergency situations: Psychological follow-up by emergency-related professionals. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 35-42.

The development of contemporary society, the mass media, and new technologies improves living standards on the one hand and, on the other, enhances the risk of large-scale catastrophes, accidents, and natural disasters (Yanitsky, 2004). From year to year the number of people who survive natural disasters and human-caused accidents and catastrophes is growing, as is the number of professionals involved in disaster-relief operations, such as rescuers, medical professionals, and psychologists. The 1990s saw the intensive development of new work for psychologists: rendering psychological aid to people affected by emergencies. During that time, because of a shift in the political system and the democratization of society, these issues gained a public dimension.

About the authorsShoygu, Yulia S.
ThemesSocial psychology; Security psychology
Pages:  35-42
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0403
Keywords:  emergency psychological aid, ethical performance principles, emergency area, disaster-relief operations, large-scale catastrophes, accidents, natural disasters, psychological follow-up of emergency-response operations, preventing negative sociopsychological implications, extreme conditions, victims

Dias A., César M. (2014). Museums as spaces and times for learning and social participation. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 20-34.

A museum is valued according to its collections, communication and knowledge exchange with visitors (Primo, 1999). Museums should be in dialogue with the public, contributing to their development (Skramstad, 2004) and collective memory (Wertsch, 2004). Social interactions and working in participants’ zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1934/1962) play an important role in non-formal learning opportunities that take place at museums. The National Museum of Natural History and Science (Lisbon University) offers weekly holiday programmes for children and teenagers, aiming at developing scientific literacy in intercultural and inclusive spaces and times, facilitating knowledge appropriation and social participation. We studied these programmes, assuming an interpretive approach (Denzin, 2002) and developing an intrinsic case study (Stake, 1995). The main participants were these children and teenagers, their parents, and museum educational agents. Data collecting instruments included observation, interviews, questionnaires, children and teenagers’ protocols and tasks inspired in projective techniques. Data treatment and analysis was based on a narrative content analysis (Clandinin & Connelly, 1998) from which inductive categories emerged (Hamido & César, 2009). Some examples illuminate participants’ expectancies, their engagement in activities, and the contributions of social interactions and non-formal education to the development of scientific literacy.

About the authorsCésar, Margarida ; Dias, Ana
ThemesSocial psychology; Educational psychology
Pages:  20-34
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0402
Keywords:  museum, scientific literacy, non-formal learning settings, social interactions, zone of proximal development, participation

Verkhlyutov V.M., Ushakov V.L., Sokolov P.A., Velichkovsky B.M. (2014) Large-scale network analysis of imagination reveals extended but limited top-down components in human visual cognition. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 4-19.

We investigated whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in a group of 21 healthy adult subjects during perception, imagination and remembering of two dynamic visual scenarios. Activation of the posterior parts of the cortex prevailed when watching videos. The cognitive tasks of imagination and remembering were accompanied by a predominant activity in the anterior parts of the cortex. An independent component analysis identified seven large-scale cortical networks with relatively invariant spatial distributions across all experimental conditions. The time course of their activation over experimental sessions was task-dependent. These detected networks can be interpreted as a recombination of resting state networks. Both central and peripheral networks were identified within the primary visual cortex. The central network around the caudal pole of BA17 and centers of other visual areas was activated only by direct visual stimulation, while the peripheral network responded to the presentation of visual information as well as to the cognitive tasks of imagination and remembering. The latter result explains the particular susceptibility of peripheral and twilight vision to cognitive top-down influences that often result in false-alarm detections.

About the authorsVelichkovsky, Boris M. ; Verkhlyutov, Vitaliy M.; Ushakov, Vadim L.; Sokolov, Pavel A.
ThemesPsychophysiology; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  4-19
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0401
Keywords:  perception, imagination, remembering, fMRI, large-scale cortical networks, resting states, mirror neuron system, real-world visual stimuli

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2014). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 2-3.

The present issue of Psychology in Russia: State of the Art addresses a wide range of problems that prompt current research efforts of Russian psychologists. It opens with an impressive psychophysiological study in human visual cognition that provides insights from an extensive analysis of imagination performed by Vitaly M. Verkhlyutov, Vadim L. Ushakov, Pavel A. Sokolov and Boris M. Velichkovsky B.M.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0400
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 7, Issue 4, 2014, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Leones do Couto G., Cruz A. (2014). Playing life away: Videogames and personality structure. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 146-160.

This study aims to fill a gap in the current research on the personality organization of frequent videogame users. The scientific literature in this area refers only to the existence of risk factors that increase the likelihood of abusing videogames and their negative consequences on the mental health of users (Gentile et al., 2011; Lemmens, Valkenburg, & Peter, 2011; Rehbein & Baier, 2013). In this study, a sample of patients who reported spending an excessive amount of their time playing videogames were recruited from Instituto Quintino Aires–Lisbon/Oporto and took the Rorschach Personality Test (Exner, 1993, 1995). Two other samples—one consisting of patients who reported not playing videogames, and the other of patients who were discharged from the institution after psychotherapy—also took part in the study. The patients in the first sample revealed less exposure to the relational sources of stress that are necessary for socioemotional development and less interest in others than did patients in the other samples. Other results regarding the personality structure of the subjects in the three samples are compared and discussed in light of cultural-historical psychology.

About the authorsLeones do Couto, Gonçalo ; Cruz, Andreia
ThemesMedia and cyber psychology; Personality psychology
Pages:  146-160
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0313
Keywords:  clinical psychology, cultural-historical psychology, personality psychology, Rorschach Personality Test, videogames

Vartanova E.L., Tolokonnikova A.V., Cherevko T.S. (2014). The information security of children: Self-regulatory approaches. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 136-145.

The 21st century has been characterized by tremendous changes in mass-media systems. The rapid growth of the Internet, inspired by the progress of communication technologies and digitalization, has resulted in the rise of new interactive media. Developments contributing to the scope and speed of media production and distribution have drawn particular attention to the information security of audiences – in particular, to protecting children from content that might be harmful and not appropriate for their age. Unlike adults, who are accustomed to living in an information-rich society, children cannot understand and filter content. Digital media, with their profound effects on a young audience, definitely affect children’s psychology and emotions.

Recognizing this development, the most economically advanced countries have elaborated specific media policies to ensure that children receive the advantages of new media and simultaneously are kept safe from harmful content. These policies, aimed at traditional media (press and analogue broadcasting), have been based on legal approaches, but in digital reality laws do not always produce the same desired effects because the law-making process often does not keep up with technological change. Governments, therefore, have to share their responsibilities with the nongovernmental – private business and civil– sectors. Even countries with strong government influence over public life, such as Singapore, are working toward a co-regulated and self-regulated mass-media industry. Many foreign countries, including those in Western Europe, North America, and Asia, already have experience with these policies.

The article reviews practices in the field of media aimed at guaranteeing children’s information security and at opposing harmful content. It points to key aspects of the regulation of market-driven media content in different countries.

About the authorsVartanova, Elena L.; Tolokonnikova, Anna V. ; Cherevko, Taras S.
ThemesMedia and cyber psychology; Security psychology
Pages:  136-145
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0312
Keywords:  mass media, children’s information security, children and the mass media, self-regulation of the mass media, Internet regulation

Rodrigues T.F. (2014). Meaning in couples relationships. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 126-135.

Based on psycholinguistics and L. Vygotsky’s (2007) theories on sign, meaning and sense categories, as later discussed by A. Leontiev (2004, 2009), we present a case study that focuses on the intricacies of a love relationship for a woman who remained in a painful marriage. Interview material is presented in a Relational-Historical Psychology theoretical framework to provide central categories of meaning and sense. This is understood as a privileged method for apprehending the uniqueness of a human being. To segment the qualitative material, we used the “Analysis of the Nuclei of Meanings for the Apprehension of the Constitution of Sense,” by Aguiar and Ozella (2006, 2013). This approach seeks to discriminate the meanings and senses that constitute the content of a speech sample.

About the authorsRodrigues, Tâmara Ferreira
ThemesFamily psychology
Pages:  126-135
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0311
Keywords:  meaning, sense, core meaning, activity, love, relationship

Teixeira R. (2014). Reaching Conversation Through Play: A Qualitative Change of Activity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 114-125.

This article illustrates the process of reaching conversation in the case of Anna, a 10- year-old girl, in a countryside Portuguese primary school, through neuropsychological habilitation and psychotherapy. This case identifies the theoretical and methodological concepts from Vygotsky’s cultural historical conceptualization in psychotherapy practice. Vygotsky introduced a new form of thinking in psychology, the concept of play, as a cultural and relational tool on a child’s (consciousness) development. During psychotherapy, Anna progressed through the following stages: 1) not playing (deploying the toys, with no relations between them or awareness of social rules); 2) worldplay (building worlds using wooden blocks and other toys, establishing relations between the characters and their possessions); and 3) imaginary situation (with no toys). At the end of this process, she was able to talk about her issues, communicating in a more adaptive way, especially in a schooled society. When she reached conversation, Anna’s activity was also changed. Therefore, there was a qualitative change regarding her needs, motives and ways of acting and reacting to herself, others, and cultural tools or events.

About the authorsTeixeira, Rute Gonçalves
ThemesDevelopmental psychology; Applied psychology and psychotherapy; Theories and approaches
Pages:  114-125
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0310
Keywords:  Vygotsky, play, activity, consciousness, language

Courela C., César M. (2014). Crafting a neo-Vygotskian approach to adult education in Portugal: Collaborative project work in an alternative curriculum. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 100-113.

Collaborative project work facilitates social interactions among peers and between them and their teachers. It allows students to work in their zone of proximal development (ZPD), promoting their knowledge appropriation. It empowers adult students, allowing them to express their voices and their cultures. Inter-empowerment mechanisms are part of this process, facilitating the internalization of intra-empowerment mechanisms. Both of them shape students’ life trajectories of participation (César, 2013a). This work is part of the Interaction and Knowledge (IK) project. During 12 years (1994/1995–2005/2006) we studied and promoted social interactions in formal educational scenarios. We assumed an interpretative paradigm and developed an action-research project (three-year alternative curriculum, 7th–9th grades) and a 10-year follow up. The participants were the seven students who completed this course, their teachers, and other educational and social agents. Data collecting instruments included observation, interviews, informal conversations, tasks inspired by projective techniques, students’ protocols, and documents. Data treatment and analysis were based on a narrative content analysis. The results are mainly focused on one student: Ernesto. His legitimate participation in this course facilitated his inclusion in school and in society. It promoted his socio-cognitive and emotional development and allowed him to internalize intra-empowerment mechanisms. This enabled him to improve his life trajectory of participation.

About the authorsCourela, Conceição ; César, Margarida
ThemesApplied psychology and psychotherapy; Educational psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  100-113
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.039
Keywords:  inclusion, alternative curriculum, collaborative project work, life trajectory of participation, inter- and intra-empowerment mechanisms

Karpova, N.L. (2014). Lev Vygotsky’s ideas in family group logopsychotherapy. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 90-99.

According to Lev Vygotsky’s theory, every bodily deficiency not only changes a person’s attitude to the world but also entails social consequences, which makes its social and psychological rehabilitation so important. The way in which problems of deformity compensation and supercompensation are solved, is largely determined by a patient`s motivation. The paper deals with stuttering (logoneurosis) as an extreme form of broken communication; it analyses the peculiarities of stutteres and their families, and the specific features of treating this defect; it also dwells on issues involving family co-participation in social rehabilitation. The multilayered system of family group logo psychotherapy - treatment of stuttering children, teenagers and adults - is based on Yu.B. Nekrasova’s method of group logopsychotherapy. It also employs non-traditional techniques: Nekrasova’s dynamic psycho-therapeutic diagnostics and biblio-, kinesi-, symbol-, video- and cinema therapies.

This system may serve as a model for forming motivational involvement and intragenic activity by patients and their relatives in social rehabilitation processes. The paper describes the levels and psychological structure of motivational involvement and mechanisms of its formation in logopsychotherapeutic processes. Motivational involvement is understood as a source of a subject’s intragenic (inner) activity, the paper maps out strategies to form intragenic activity. The family group logopsychotherapeutic techniques may also help optimize communication between parent and child, doctor and patient, teacher and pupil, professor and student.

About the authorsKarpova, Nataliya L.
ThemesClinical psychology; Applied psychology and psychotherapy; Theories and approaches
Pages:  90-99
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0308
Keywords:  logoneurosis, motivation, social rehabilitation, family group logopsychotherapy, supercompensation

Glozman J.M., Naumova V.A. (2014). Art-therapy as a method for mobilizing personal resources in the elderly. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 80-89.

Aging can be viewed as a continuation of development and an active interaction with the environment during which regressive changes are combined with progressive new formations. It is believed that the self-determining nature of subjectivity in the elderly mediates self-awareness and favors self-acceptance as an active agent that determines the outcomes of one’s own life at this age as an autonomous self-regulating subject of one’s own activity. A formative experience proved the efficiency of using art therapy as a method for mobilizing personal resources during aging.

About the authorsGlozman, Janna M. ; Naumova, Valentina A.
ThemesClinical psychology; Applied psychology and psychotherapy
Pages:  80-89
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0307
Keywords:  subjectivity, personal resources, latent resource of personality, elderly, art therapy

Zinchenko Y., Pervichko E., Akatova E. (2014). Dynamics of the psychological features and clinical symptoms in mitral valve prolapse patients receiving long-term integrative psychotherapy for anxiety disordersPsychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3),

The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of the psychological features and clinical symptoms in mitral valve prolapse (MVP) patients receiving long-term integrative psychotherapy for anxiety disorders (AD) and to investigate the psychological factors of their improvement in mental health as a result of psychotherapy. Thirty-two MVP patients with AD attended long-term integrative psychotherapy. Psychological and clinical examinations of the patients were made before and after the therapy courses and in a follow-up study after 2, 5, and 10 years. Data from the study show that 78.1% of the patients who attended psychotherapy sessions demonstrated valid improvements in self-rated psychological well-being and a reduction in their anxiety levels. Analysis of emotion-regulation strategies showed that psychotherapy encouraged the use of strategies effective for solving adaptive tasks. Positive dynamics in the development of personality reflection, the recognition of one’s emotional experiences, improved skills of self-regulation, and growing awareness of actual needs, individual purposes, and personality resources—all were associated with the reduction of MVP clinical symptoms. The psychiatrist who interviewed the patients reported that most of them were in sustained remission.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Pervichko, Elena I. ; Akatova, Evgeniya
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  66-79
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0306
Keywords:  long-term integrative psychotherapy, emotion regulation, personality reflection, self-regulation, mitral valve prolapse (MVP), anxiety disorders (AD), quality of life (QOL), psychological well-being

do Rosário Dias M. (2014). Is the oncology patient a participant actor?: Designing psychosocial profiles. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 50-65.

Oncologic disease should be considered one of modern society’s dominant pathologies because of its chronicity. Estimates of a patient’s adaptation to chronicity shapes the information given to the patient, which is a powerful strategy for changing the patient’s social representation from a mere clinical case to a psychosocial being. In this article, the patient’s persona, when captured in the social processes and relations involved in therapeutic acts, is conceptualized as the main actor on the stages and sets of hospitals. The informative act, in which information is given to a patient in a hospital, allows identification of the psychosocial profile inherent in the patient’s role; this profile describes some relevant categories, among which the “informed patient” and the “uninformed patient” stand out.

About the authorsDias, Maria do Rosário
ThemesClinical psychology; Social psychology
Pages:  50-65
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0305
Keywords:  oncology patients, psychosocial profiles, informed patient, uninformed patient

Quintino-Aires J. (2014). Contribution to postnonclassical psychopathology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 35-49.

Any psychological paradigm needs a psychopathological system that helps professionals to describe and explain the behavioral expressions that deviate from “normal” (whether this term is used with the semantic property of statistical or ideal adaptations). In this work, I seek to present the system that I have been developing since 1998 among the psychologists at the Instituto Vegotsky de Lisboa (Vygotsky Institute of Lisbon), Portugal, to understand psychopathology with regard to the vygotskian approach. It was conceived and designed according to the work of Rita Mendes Leal and her contribution to socioemotional development theory, AR Luria’s systemic and dynamic theory of the human brain, the theory of Activity (dyatel’nost) of AN Leont’ev, and the psychopathological German school of E Kraepelin, presented and disseminated in Portugal in the early twentieth century by Professor Sobral Cid. It is intended to be a proposal to colleagues who are interested in postnonclassical psychology and a request for arguments.

About the authorsQuintino-Aires, Joaquim
ThemesClinical psychology; Methodology of psychology
Pages:  35-49
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0304
Keywords:  psychopathology, development, vygotsky, Luria, postnonclassic, syndromic analysis

Alves P.F. (2014).Vygotsky and Piaget: Scientific concepts. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 24-34.

Jean Piaget’s so-called biological perspective is often paired with the viewpoint of Lev Vygotsky when we speak of learning in humans. Both authors acknowledged the active role of children in the construction of knowledge. However, they differ in that, unlike Piaget, Vygotsky believed that the assimilation of new information does not have to wait for an appropriate level of development but must, on the contrary, produce that development through instruction; thus, cooperation between teacher and student promotes the development of higher psychological functions. The present research presents proof that school instruction is instrumental in this process. Samples of adults who had acquired distinct levels of schooling (from illiterates to university students) are differentiated experimentally through the use of four Piagetian cognitive problem-solving tasks created for adolescents and adults. The present research suggests that instructional level is the distinctive factor in the development of those problem-solving capacities that implicate higher psychological functions.

About the authorsAlves, Pedro Ferreira
ThemesTheories and approaches; Methodology of psychology
Pages:  24-34
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0303
Keywords:  Vygotsky, Piaget, learning, development, scientific concepts

Krichevets A.N. (2014). Vygotsky and intersubjectivity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 13-.23

Lev Vygotsky’s statement on the development of the higher psychological functions— from the interpsychological form to the intrapsychological form—is discussed in the article. I describe the changing of Vygotsky’s interest from nonverbal to verbal communication and his emphasis on verbal communication as an only kind of interpsychological function. I then analyze works that show the importance of nonverbal communication in this process. I raise the questions of what an interpsychological function is and who is its “owner.” I argue that immediate response to the behavior (verbal and nonverbal) of another person is a basis for the psychological functions of a child, and this basis continues to influence processes in later stages of human development, including adulthood. Thus, interpsychological function in the development of the child is inevitably connected with some kind of passivity in reactions to social stimulation.

About the authorsKrichevets, Anatoly N.
ThemesTheories and approaches; Methodology of psychology
Pages:  13-23
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0302
Keywords:  interpsychological and intrapsychological functions, ontogeny, intersubjectivity, communication, dialogue

Podolskiy A.I. (2014). “There is nothing so practical as a good theory”: How to let it work in practice (the case of Galperin’s theory). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 4-12.

One of the most important and sharply discussed aspects of scientific knowledge is the problem of the possibility for practical applications and results. The application of psychological knowledge in different types of schooling, training, and instruction is a representative illustration of that problem’s current state. The aims of this paper are (1) to consider the possibilities and difficulties of such an application, (2) to analyze the reasons for both success and failure, and (3) to try to work out a path toward the construction of an applied theory to bridge the gap between psychological theory (in particular, learning and developmental psychology) and instructional practice. Specifically, this article considers practical applications of the fundamental psychological theory of Planned, Stage-by-Stage Formation of Mental Actions, or the PSFMA theory, by P. Galperin as the target case.

About the authorsPodolskiy, Andrei I.
ThemesTheories and approaches
Pages:  4-12
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0301
Keywords:  psychological knowledge, practical application, formation of mental actions, mental models, internalization, applied model-based theory

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2014). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 2-3.

This special issue is dedicated to the 3rd Estoril Vigotsky Conference — the biannual international scientific event held in Estoril, Portugal on 16-18 June 2014. The organizing committee honored the wide impact of Lev Vygotsky’s works on contemporary psychology and included Vigotskyan League of Portuguese Language and the Institute Quintino Aires, in collaboration with the Lomonosov Moscow State University, the Russian University of Humanities (Russia, Moscow), IPAF — Instituto Vigotsky (São Paulo, Brazil) and Andricard (Luanda, Angola). The editorial board of our journal is very grateful to Professor Quintino-Aires for organization of this outstanding conference and to Professor Margarida César for contribution to this special issue.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0300
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 7, Issue 3, 2014, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Emelin V.A., Tkhostov A.Sh., Rasskazova E.I. (2014). Psychological adaptation in the info-communication society: The revised version of Technology-Related Psychological Consequences Questionnaire. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 105-120.

The aim of the study is to consider technology-related changes in psychological needs and boundaries that affect one’s personal adaptation to the info-communication society, as well as how they relate to problematic or excessive technology use. Based on the psychological model of the consequences of technology use, we’ve picked two forms of technology use (one related to mobile phones and the other related to the Internet) from a revised version of our Technology-Related Psychological Consequences Questionnaire. The new version includes nine questions: two assessing the excessive use of technology (the inability to resist using technology and subjective dependence), four assessing changes in psychological boundaries (boundaries extension and violation, easiness-related and opportunity-related preference for technology) and the other three measuring technology-related needs (functionality, convenience and image making). In the normative sample (N=132), appropriate reliability, factor validity and convergent validity were demonstrated in comparisons to the picture measure of the technology-related boundaries change. Based on hierarchical regression and moderator analysis, it was shown that changes in psychological boundaries affect the excessive use of technology (explaining an additional 17-27% of the variance) after adjusting for frequency of use and age group. The extension of boundaries and ease-of-use-related preference for mobile phones versus the Internet predicted satisfaction with life after adjusting for frequency of use, age group, inability to resist and subjective dependency respectively; however, the figures were not statistically significant. Thus, our data supports the hypothesis that there are different kinds of technology-related changes in psychological boundaries that manifest themselves in the subjective feeling of dependence on technology and the feeling that it is impossible to do without technology, which might in some cases be important for personal satisfaction with life.

About the authorsTkhostov, Alexander Sh. ; Emelin, Vadim A.; Rasskazova, Elena I.
ThemesSocial psychology; Psychological assessment
Pages:  105-120
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0210
Keywords:  psychological consequences of technology, adaptation in the info-communication society, the revised version of the Technology-Related Psychological Consequences Questionnaire, the psychology of Internet use, the psychology of mobile phone use, excessive use of technology

Razina N.V. (2014) Attitudes to motherhood in different cultures. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 93-104.

The study of motherhood is a promising and relevant field of psychology. This article represents the results of a study in which a socio-psychological analysis of reproductive attitudes and demographic behaviour was conducted. The study also shows the relationship between attitudes related to motherhood and women’s cultural affiliations.

The factors that contribute to the nature of attitudes towards motherhood and the interaction between these factors were studied. According to the results of this study, we distinguished the most significant characteristics of the attitudes to motherhood that influence the nature of the relationship between a mother and her unborn child.

The model of the development of attitudes to motherhood proposed by R. V. Ovcharova was detailed. We considered the influence of factors on the nature of attitudes to motherhood as well as the influence of factors on each other.

The results of this study allow us to describe the psychological portraits of women with different attitudes to motherhood.

About the authorsRazina, Natalya V.
ThemesFamily psychology; Psychology and culture
Pages:  93-104
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0209
Keywords:  motherhood, image of the child, attitude towards motherhood

Buzina T.S. (2014) Representation of the disease, motivation sphere and medical communication as a target for prevention and treatment of HIV infection in substance users. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 84-92.

The psychological aspect of treating HIV-infected substance users entails changing their behaviour, as their behaviour is what leads to the risk of them transmitting and spreading HIV. Psychological treatment must facilitate their adaptation so that they may be otherwise treated for substance abuse and HIV. We propose establishing the psychological objective of helping patients overcome substance addiction by addressing their internal representation of the disease (IRD), value-sense and motivational sphere, as well as their relationships with their physician, as this is the main person who interacts with the patient in the clinic. An IRD study of patients with an opioid dependency, complicated with infectious diseases, showed that the IPD emotional level of opioid patients, as interconditional for other levels, can be an indicator of the status and impact of the main objective. A comparative study of substance users who received psychotherapy with those not receiving psychotherapy showed that the value-sense and motivational sphere is also an important target for preventive action. A study of the physician’s image of drug treatment clinics’ patients revealed that increases in the communicative competence of drug treatment facilities’ personnel represents a third course of preventing the transmission of HIV among substance dependent patients.

About the authorsBuzina, Tatyana S.
ThemesClinical psychology; Psychology of addictions
Pages:  84-92
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0208
Keywords:  HIV-infected substance users, internal representation of the disease (IRD), value-sense and motivational sphere, the physician’s image

Popinako A.V., Pugovkina O.D. (2014) Psychological factors of propensity for alcoholism (social anxiety, hostility, Machiavellianism) in depressive patients. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 73-83.

Based on the analysis of psychosocial models of alcoholism and depression the general and specific factors of occurrence and course of illness are identified in the present study. The authors put forward hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of activation of psychological addiction to alcohol as an ineffective coping strategy. The necessity of empirical research needed to refine the techniques and targets of patient care within the psychiatric and psychological care is justified. The results of the pilot study show that depressed patients who are subject to alcohol dependence feature marked distress in interpersonal relations, coupled with hostility and aim at gaining profit and pleasure by manipulating other people. These patients are hostile to others, while in interpersonal relationships personal safety is important to them, so they may be more likely to resort to manipulation. In their attitudes with respect to health the communication of these patients is characterized by hedonistic tendencies and histrionic traits in interpersonal contacts.

About the authorsPopinako, Anastasiya V.; Pugovkina, Olga D.
ThemesClinical psychology; Psychology of addictions
Pages:  73-83
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0207
Keywords:  depression, alcoholism, hostility, Machiavellianism, social anxiety

Kovyazina M.S., Roshchina E.I. (2014) Methods of dichotic listening as a research methodology for hemispheric interaction. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 64-72.

Experimental data was obtained from a dichotic listening test by patients with unilateral brain lesions and corpus callosum pathology (agenesis, cysts, degenerative changes, etc). Efficiency index analysis shows that interhemispheric interaction in the audioverbal sphere depends to a greater extent on the right hemisphere state. The dichotic listening technique is not an informative means of studying hemispheric interaction, since it does not allow a clear distinction between hemispheric symptoms and symptoms of pathology of the corpus callosum. Thus, violations of hemispheric relations caused by disorders of the corpus callosum and cerebral hemispheres change worth more right hemisphere activity.

About the authorsKovyazina, Marija S. ; Roshchina, Elena I.
Pages:  64-72
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0206
Keywords:  interhemispheric interaction, brain pathology, dichotic listening

Tous Ral J.M., Liutsko L. (2014) Human errors: their psychophysical bases and the Proprioceptive Diagnosis of Temperament and Character (DP-TC) as a tool for measuring. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 48-63.

Human error is commonly differentiated into three different types. These are: errors in perception, errors in decision and errors in sensation. This analysis is based on classical psychophysics (Fechner, 1860) and describes the errors of detection and perception. Decision- making errors are evaluated in terms of the theory of signal detection (McNicholson, 1974), and errors of sensation or sensitivity are evaluated in terms of proprioceptive information (van Beers, 2001).

Each of these stages developed its own method of evaluation that has influenced the development of ergonomics in the event of errors in perception and the verbal assessment of personality (stress, impulsiveness, burnout, etc.) in decision-making errors. Here we represent the method we have developed, the Proprioceptive Diagnosis of Temperament and Character (DP- TC) test, for the specific assessment of errors of perception or expressivity which are based on fine motor precision performance.

Each of the described errors types are interdependent of each other in such a manner that observable stress in behaviour may be caused due to: the inadequate performance of a task due to the perception of the person (i.e. from right to left for a right-handed person); performing a task that requires attentive decision-making to be performed too hastily; undertaking a task that does not correspond to the prevailing disposition of the person.

About the authorsLiutsko, Liudmila N.; Tous i Ral, Josep Maria
ThemesPsychophysiology; Psychological assessment
Pages:  48-63
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0205
Keywords:  human error detection, Proprioceptive Diagnostic of Temperament and Character (DP-TC), diagnosis, prevention, expressivity, perception

Korotaeva I.V. (2014) Metacognitive strategies in reading comprehension of majors in education and psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 39-47.

This study looks at how well students majoring in educational sciences and psychology were able to use spontaneously metacognitive strategies for reading comprehension. Students majoring in education have demonstrated ineffective learning goals and strategies. The results of the study show that only 7 percent of education majors sought to establish logical connections between the text fragments in multiple-choice assessment by contrast with 48 percent of psychology majors. The study showed that the number of education and psychology majors with metacognitive strategy of systematization has increased in the situation of self-formulated answer.

About the authorsKorotaeva, Irina V.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  39-47
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0204
Keywords:  metacognition, learning approach, multiple-choice assessment, self-regulated learning, readers’ skills

Vartanova I.I. (2014) The role of motivation and system of values in the development of upper secondary school pupils' personalities. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 27-38.

The motivation system in adolescent high school pupilsstudents of was studied (9th and 11th grade students) on the basis of a complex approach and a comparative analysis of emotional attitudes and a deliberate preference of values (general and educational). It was shown that the significance and accessibility of analyzed groups of values are, to a considerable extent, determined by a dominant motivation. Also, a tendency was found towards the contra-positioning of conscious and emotional attitudes with values — values which are highly attractive on the motivation-and-emotional level, but on the level of conscience, are underestimated compared with other ones. This also determines the further trend of development of a personality in the direction of acceptance of sociallyapproved general and educational values, and leads to the convergence of personality development of schoolchildren at that stage of their life. Also revealed were certain gender- related features of value orientations, which were relatinged to the more advanced development of girls when compared to boys of the same age.

About the authorsVartanova, Irina I.
ThemesDevelopmental psychology; Personality psychology
Pages:  27-38
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0203
Keywords:  motivation, values, personality, upper secondary school children

Zaks L.A. (2014) Psychology and culturology: A means of cooperating and problems associated with cooperation. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 14-26.

The article discloses the main potential aspects of cooperation between psychology and culturology, which are connected through their mutual determination of the psyche (psychic reality) and culture. The paper acknowledges the key importance of the cultural-historical traditions initiated by Lev Vygotsky and his successors as well as the idea that their potential has yet to be realized by contemporary psychology. A new vision of culture is given to culturology (in comparison with traditional cultural studies) and its significance in conducting modern psychological research: a novel problematization of psychology’s subject matter and its methodological support. Different aspects of the psyche’s cultural determination, the experience with cultural psychology (historical psychology) in researching historical mental types (“Annals school”) are reviewed alongside with the role of culture knowledge in analyzing the psychological results of this determination. The consistency of culture and its components represented and internalized by mental structures is announced as a fundamental cultural basis of psychological research. The return influence of psychological phenomena on culture’s various aspects, as well as related cultural and psychological problems, are determined by the fundamental place and role of the psyche in any given cultural system as well as the contradictions that exist between a culture and the psyche. All this requires further examination. One of the most vital contemporary challenges facing psychology is the problem of the mental peculiarities of the consciousness, which can be principally explained in terms of a consistent culturological approach. Interrelationships between the psyche’s properties and conscious cultural functions are shown through example of aesthetic attitude.

About the authorsZaks, Lev A.
ThemesMethodology of psychology; Psychology and culture
Pages:  14-26
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0202
Keywords:  culture, psyche/the psyche, culturology, cultural and historical psychology, cultural psychology, system and consistency approach

Mironenko I.A. (2014) Integrative and isolationist tendencies in contemporary Russian psychological science. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 4-13.

Contemporary Russian psychology faces an uphill battle in joining the international mainstream after decades of isolation. Among Russian psychologists today, we can see traces of the “globalist” (integrative) and “counter-globalist” (isolationist) tendencies that first manifested during the Soviet period. At that time, Russian psychology was shaped as a mono-methodological trend; it addressed fundamental theoretical problems, was based on Marxist philosophy and was oriented to reflect the standards of the natural sciences. In the post-Soviet period, fundamental social changes shifted the development of psychology as a science and different standards were adopted. Contemporary Russian psychology is substantially diversified. When searching for “the optimum level of integration” with global peers, it is necessary to take into account the theoretical and methodological orientations of the scientists, as their motives and constraints with respect to integration can be substantially different. Here we explain in detail how the different theoretical understandings and predilections of Russian psychologists determine their interests, ideals and constraints with respect to integration with the mainstream.

About the authorsMironenko, Irina A.
ThemesMethodology of psychology
Pages:  4-13
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0201
Keywords:  Russian psychology, international science, Activity theory, Christian Orthodox psychology, psychology in Russia in Post-soviet period

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2014). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(2), 2-3.

The first issue of 2014 opens with the special section “The Second Russian-Japanese Forum of Social Sciences and Humanities”. This forum was welcomed by Lomonosov Moscow State University in Ooctober 2013 and included a seminar on psychology. A team of researchers from the Graduate School of Arts and Letters of Tohoku University led by Dr. Tsuneyuki Abe, the head of Psychology Chair, and the Lomonosov Moscow State University Faculty of Psychology professors discussed current advances in psychological science in Russia and Japan with an emphasis on psychophysiology and social psychology. The corresponding section of the journal presents articles based on the seminar papers.

Tsuneyuki Abe, Juthatip Wiwattanapantuwong and Akio Honda explore the experience of a survivor in a great natural disaster. In the article “Dark, cold, and hungry, but full of mutual trust: Manners among the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake victims” they deconstruct simplified “urban legends” about extremely high levels of helpfulness among Japanese earthquake victims, and present valuable insights into actual resources promoting solidarity and support.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0200
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 7, Issue 2, 2014, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Bovina I.B., Dvoryanchikov N.V., Berezina E. B., Debolsky M.G., Konopleva I.N., Il’in A. V. (2014). Social representations of drugs among young Russians: shared common views and social positions. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 158-168.

The official statistics reveal a steady growth of drug use in Russia and epidemiological estimations indicate that the real prevalence of intravenous drug users may be 4-5 times higher than the official figure. This fact highlights the importance of effective preventive programmes for young people. Each preventive programme in the field of public health should be based on the results of socio-psychological studies on a given problem (Gurvich, 1999). In this paper, we discuss the results of a two-stage study based on the ideas presented by social representations theory (Moscovici, 1961). Our purpose was to analyze the lay thinking about drugs among different groups of young Russians. A total of 257 respondents (162 males and 95 females) aged 16 to 35 participated in the study (the median age was 24 years). At the first stage, the ‘map’ of shared common views about drugs was revealed. At the second stage, different social positions (as a function of different experience with drugs) on this ‘map’ were analyzed. The reported results give support to our predictions.

About the authorsBovina, Inna B.; Dvoryanchikov, Nikolay V. ; Berezina, Elizaveta B. ; Debolsky, Mikhail G. ; Konopleva, Inga N. ; Il’in, Aleksandr V.
ThemesClinical psychology; Social psychology; Psychology of addictions
Pages:  158-168
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0115
Keywords:  drugs, young Russians, social representations theory, experience of drug consumption, experience of imprisonment related to drugs

Ivanova A.N., Enikolopov S.N., Mitina O.V. (2014) Sense of humor disorders in patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 146-157.

The article presents an empirical study of sense of humor disorders in patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. Several parameters of analysis are distinguished: humor recognition, humor preferences and the level of laughing activity. It is showed that patients with schizophrenia are characterized by inability to recognize humor. As soon as patients with schizotypal disorder do recognize humor, this may be used as a diagnostic criterion in clinical practice. Sense of humor in patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders acquires peculiarities which are defined here as preferences of certain cognitive mechanisms and topics of jokes.

About the authorsEnikolopov, Sergey N. ; Mitina, Olga V. ; Ivanova, Alyona N.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  146-157
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0114
Keywords:  sense of humor, humor recognition, schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, affective disorder

Katasonova А.V., Perkovsky S.V., Kravtsova N.A. (2014). Higher mental functions and time perception in internet-addicted teenagers. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 135-145.

Statistical data about Internet users indicates that Russia ranks first in Europe in terms of its number of Internet users. Young people prevail among Russia’s Internet users. Internet dependence behaviour is given a definition. The behavioural peculiarities of Internet addicts are considered. Time perception is a background for psychical processes. The time focus of the human psyche reveals itself in the speed and duration of perception, impression, memory, thought and emotions peculiar to people with a certain temperament and of a certain age, sex and group. Time perception is an integral part of our mental processes. A human being is inclined to consider all events and processes taking place around him as a process which takes time. The time perception of every person is always specific, and it is reflected in his or her thought and behaviour. The results of studying higher mental functions and time perception in internet-addicted teenagers are given. The obtained results have revealed distraction at the end of the study due to the high exhaustiveness of the neuro-dynamic component of mental activity, as well as the poorer ability of Internet addicts to be conscious of themselves in time. Given the absence of a clear pattern of their roles in real life, Internet addicts may often find that their addiction results in mental conflicts and self-aggression. In turn, it may result in impulsion, confusion, certain problems with explaining personal actions, wishes and motives. Internetaddicted teenagers have a more pessimistic attitude towards their time and life activity. When running into hardship, their behavioural performance and incentives to overcome barriers may be limited.

About the authorsKatasonova, Anna V. ; Perkovsky, Sergey V. ; Kravtsova, Natalya A.
ThemesClinical psychology; Media and cyber psychology
Pages:  135-145
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0113
Keywords:  Internet addiction, time perception, higher mental functions

Gusev A. N., Mikhailova O. A., Utochkin I. S. (2014). Stimulus determinants of the phenomenon of change blindness. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 122-134.

This article describes techniques and procedures that are used to research the changeblindness phenomenon. The role of stimulus parameters in completing a visual task (detecting changes) was investigated. The following parameters of visual stimuli varied in a chronometric experiment: the number of objects, their location in the stimulus space, and the shape of the objects (including a new object that attracts attention as well as various changes of single objects, such as appearance/disappearance, location shifts, changes of color and shape). The results of this study indicate that change blindness can have a different intensity (the time of detecting changes in flickering images) depending on the number of objects, their location in the stimulus space (structured or randomized), and the type of change (the most complicated one was a change of color):

  1. The number of objects has considerable influence on the intensity of change blindness and is the most powerful parameter. 
  2. The shape of the objects within the image is not crucial for change-detection time.
  3. The spatial organization of the objects is important for the successful detection of changes. The changes are detected quicker in images with regular rather than random organization. 
  4. A distraction (in this case, a word that was substituted for an object) doesn’t have any considerable influence on change detection. 
  5. Change-detection time increases as the interstimulus interval increases from 200 to 400 ms.
  6. The detection of shifts and of appearance/disappearance is quicker than the detection of color change.

These results let us create stimulus patterns for change-blindness experiments that differ in complexity, and thus we could examine a wide range of hypotheses about the function of the psychological mechanisms of spatial attention that are used to explain this phenomenon.

About the authorsGusev, Alexey N.; Mikhailova, Olga A. ; Utochkin, Igor S.
ThemesPsychological assessment
Pages:  122-134
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0112
Keywords:  spatial attention, change blindness, stimulus determinants

Dzherelievskaya M.,Vizgina A., Pantileev S., Yashina L.(2014). A substantial psychometric analysis of the scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: F. B. Berezin’s version, the MMIL. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 105-121.

In our research we made a substantial psychometric analysis of the scales of F. B. Berezin’s version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the MMIL, which is widely used in various spheres of psychological practice. Since the mid-1990s in Russia there have been many essential transformations in thinking and values that have been caused by changes in social and economic reality. For this reason, we need to continue our work on specifying the meaning of the MMIL tasks and, then, on updating the test norms and keys. Such psychometric updating is necessary for maintaining the efficiency of the method. For our update, we constructed linear norms for the test; we tested the questionnaire for the normality of the distribution of points; and we checked the validity (including external validity), the reliability coherence of the scales, and the variability of the points. The necessity of readapting the MMIL was thus demonstrated. Questions that display low variability and that are not significantly correlated with the scale they belong to, which reduces their differentiating potential, may be excluded from the test or reformulated.

About the authorsDzherelievskaya, Maria A.; Vizgina, Anna V. ; Pantileev, Sergey R. ; Yashina, Ludmila L.
ThemesPsychological assessment; Personality psychology
Pages:  105-121
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0111
Keywords:  psychometric analysis, test norms, validity, reliability coherence, representativeness, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Questionnaire (MMPI), the MMIL, factor analysis

Kosonogov V. (2014). The psychometric properties of the Russian version of the Empathy Quotient. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 96-104.

The aim of the work was to develop and prove a Russian version of the Empathy Quotient, a new tool to measure empathy. A sample of 221 volunteers from the general population filled this questionnaire, the Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy and the Quotient of Empathic Abilities. The coefficients of test-retest reliability, internal consistency and validity were high. In a factor analysis three factors were found that correspond to cognitive, emotional and social skills subscales. A short version with seven questions in each subscale was elaborated and it had acceptable psychometric properties as well.

About the authorsKosonogov, Vladimir
ThemesPsychological assessment
Pages:  96-104
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0110
Keywords:  empathy, questionnaire, psychometrics, empathy quotient, adaptation

Kokurina I. G., Solina E. I. (2014). Representations of happiness and life satisfaction in the group of educated and socially active young people. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 83-95.

The paper examines the differences in the social representations of happiness among optimists and pessimists in the group of socially active, educated young members of the international youth organization Association Internationale des Etudiants en Sciences Economiques et Commerciales . To assess the degree of optimism and pessimism we used the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) developed by E. Diener, while social representation, divided into the nucleus and peripheral zones, were examined using Verges’ technique within the framework of the concept of social mindsets offered by S. Moskovichi.

It has been shown that, irrespective of the optimism or pessimism of the participants, the nucleus of their representations of happiness contains such a value as love. However, only in optimists’ representations is this value combined in the nucleus with the values of family and friendship. In the pessimists’ nucleus zone of the representation of happiness, love is presented as an independent value, primarily associated with striking emotional experiences, which has aspects of psychological addiction. Considerable differences between optimists and pessimists have also been found in the peripheral zone of the representation of happiness. Only optimists have such associations as “knowledge”, “children”, and “faith” in their peripheral area. In our opinion, the major scale of differences between optimists and pessimists is formed by the factor of sociocentricity and egocentricity.

About the authorsKokurina, Irina G. ; Solina, Elena I.
ThemesDevelopmental psychology
Pages:  83-95
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0109
Keywords:  life satisfaction, optimism, pessimism, social representations of happiness, socially active educated young people, social and economic crisis

Avakyan T. V., Volikova S. V. (2014). Social anxiety in children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 73-82.

Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanage near the Moscow region, aged 10 to 16 years old. The control group comprised 66 students from a general school, aged 10 to 15 years old, and all living with their families. Differences were found in the parameters studied. The orphans were characterized by higher levels of social and general anxiety. On the one hand, they strove for the attention and approval of adults, but, on the other hand, they were more worried than their peers who lived with their families about the impression they made on others. They were afraid of receiving a negative evaluation.

About the authorsAvakyan, Tamara V. ; Volikova, Svetlana V.
ThemesDevelopmental psychology
Pages:  73-82
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0108
Keywords:  orphaned children, anxiety, social anxiety, fear of social evaluation, depressiveness, situation at school

Filippova E. V., Pivnenko T. V. (2014). Psychological boundaries of “I” in the role play of peer-unaccepted children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 62-72.

This article examines the psychological peculiarities of children who are not accepted by their peers in the course of play. Problems in peer communication are analyzed in respect to the violation of “I” psychological boundaries. The phenomenology of the psychological boundaries of “I” and their violation in the course of play are investigated. New data are provided on the peculiarities of play (mainly its subject matter, including also specific plots, roles, and the organization of play space) in children who are not accepted by their peers; differences between children with low sociometric status and children from a control group were ascertained. Projective methods and observations of children’s play and communicative behavior in different situations were used. The sample included 140 children from 5 to 6 years old, 70 of whom were not accepted by their peers. Additionally 80 mothers (40 of them mothers of children who were not accepted by their peers) participated in the research. The link between the peculiarities of the children’s play, their peer relations, and violations of the psychological boundaries of “I” is described. The work provides elaboration of the notions of play developed within the framework of L. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach.

About the authorsFilippova, Elena V. ; Pivnenko, Tatyana V.
ThemesDevelopmental psychology
Pages:  62-72
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0107
Keywords:  psychological boundaries of “I”, role play, role, subject matter, play contact, acceptance by peers

Zinchenko Yu. P., Zotova O. Yu. (2014). Security in the worldview of Russians. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 50-61.

This article deals with the role of security in shaping an individual’s standpoints, opinions, attitudes, and unique world picture. It is argued that security/insecurity is a subjective notion of individuals about the absence/presence of threats to their existence. The results of a study of the security notions maintained by Russians are described. The data obtained give grounds to suggest that the following characteristics exist in the ordinary consciousness of Russians: security is perceived as a state associated with inactivity; security is seen as the basis of harmonious interpersonal relations; security is considered a kind of “ideal world” and is understood as powerful. A typology of Russians based on the specifics of these security notions is presented.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Zotova, Olga Yu.
ThemesThe 2nd Russian-Japanese forum of social sciences and humanities; Security psychology
Pages:  50-61
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0106
Keywords:  security, world picture, ordinary consciousness, typology, security factors

Dontsov A. I., Perelygina E.B. (2014). Interpersonal confidence as a factor in the prevention of disorganized interaction. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 40-49.

Human communities are based on a certain set of everyday attitudes, on the coordination of the actions of “the self ” in a group, and on the regulation of social practices. The results of this study show that a number of factors act as determinants of trust/ distrust ambivalence: the multidimensionality and the dynamics of interactions among people; the high level of subjectivity in evaluating risks resulting from openness and from confidence in partners involved in an interaction; and a subject’s contradictory attitude toward the personal traits of an interacting partner (power, activity, honesty, trustworthiness). Japanese scholars have proved the necessity of taking into account quality of life (QOL) as one of the determinants of the development of interpersonal confidence. The study demonstrates that people try to bring trust into their daily routines as a way of organizing conscientious, emotionally open interactions that take into account the interests of all parties. Mistrust blocks access to the emotional, intellectual, and activity-related resources supporting life and undermines faith in the possibility of virtue and morality. Yet a supplementary study (using instant diagnostics) indicates that in practice respondents did not demonstrate a high level of confidence (in two cities it was 0%; in one city, it was 4.6%). In spite of emotionally positive views regarding trust, as well as constructive estimates of its moral/behavioral potential, a considerable number of respondents were not open and oriented to the interests of others. A tendency toward caution, inwardness, and constrained sincerity leads to nonconformity in one’s actions in a group and to changes in the vector of social practices from socio-partner regulation to disorganized interaction.

About the authorsDontsov, Aleksander I. ; Perelygina, Elena B.
ThemesThe 2nd Russian-Japanese forum of social sciences and humanities; Social psychology
Pages:  40-49
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0105
Keywords:  social interaction, disorganization, conscientiousness, psychological security, confidence

Raevsky A.E. (2014). Psychological aspects of the Aum Shinrikyo affair. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 34-39.

Terrorism has become a highly important problem for humanity, and psychology tries to make its contribution to the study of this complex phenomenon. In the current work we analyze not a typical terrorist case, but an unusual one: the sarin attack which took place in Japan in 1995. The current study combines the cultural-historic approach of L.S. Vygotsky, and research on Japanese mentality and collectivistic psychology. The results show the importance of several key factors that led a religious sect to become a terrorist organization. In spite of the uniqueness of the Japanese psychology, in the Aum Shinrikyo case we can see some common aspects of terrorist motivation and behavior.

About the authorsRaevsky, Aleksandr E.
ThemesThe 2nd Russian-Japanese forum of social sciences and humanities; Security psychology
Pages:  34-39
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0104
Keywords:  Japan, religious terrorism, religion, terrorism in Japan, Aum Shinrikyo, social behaviour, conformity

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2014). Extremism from the perspective of a system approach. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 23-33.

Extremism is seen as a complex, multilevel, and multicomponent phenomenon. The problems of modern science in understanding extremism are revealed. The following bases of extremism as a system phenomenon are singled out: social factors, latent extremism, and extremist acts. It is demonstrated that a system approach makes it possible to shape a notion of a subject as a system, to identify patterns of the manifestations of the given phenomenon, and to translate them into concrete practices.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
ThemesThe 2nd Russian-Japanese forum of social sciences and humanities; Security psychology
Pages:  23-33
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0103
Keywords:  extremism, system approach, latent extremism, security, extremist outlook

Sakai N. (2014). The psychology of eating from the point of view of experimental, social, and applied psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 14-22.

In this article, eating behavior is discussed from the point of view of various areas of psychology. First, tasting food and the perception of food palatability are discussed from the viewpoints of sensory and perceptual psychology and of physiological psychology. Second, the phenomenology of some social-psychological effects on eating behavior are introduced – for example, communication at the table, sociocultural variations in food liking/disliking, and emotional changes after eating. Third, these topics are integrated and are applied to food businesses. Two conclusions can be drawn: (1) understanding human eating behavior leads one to understand human beings themselves; (2) a psychological understanding of eating behavior not only gives one broad knowledge of psychology but also provides businesses and governments with hints for improving quality of life.

About the authorsSakai Nobuyuki
ThemesThe 2nd Russian-Japanese forum of social sciences and humanities; Psychophysiology
Pages:  14-22
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0102
Keywords:  eating behavior, taste, food liking/disliking, communication at the table, food business

Abe T., Wiwattanapantuwong J., Honda A. (2014) Dark, cold, and hungry, but full of mutual trust: Manners among the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake victims. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 4-13.

It was reported with praise by the worldwide media that victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami disaster endured the aftermath in a civil manner. We analyzed official crime statistics and investigated data that were collected from residents in disaster-stricken areas. Official statistics showed that crime decreased during the disaster period. Collected data suggest that criminal and deviant behavior were extremely rare, and that the victims helped each other, apparently altruistically. Further research on actual behavior in post-disaster environments is necessary in order to sufficiently prepare for future disasters.

About the authorsAbe Tsuneyuki ; Wiwattanapantuwong Juthatip ; Honda, Akio
ThemesThe 2nd Russian-Japanese forum of social sciences and humanities; Social psychology; Psychology and culture
Pages:  4-13
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0101
Keywords:  emergent norm, crime, panic, looting, post-disaster utopia, tsunami

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2014). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 2-3.

The first issue of 2014 opens with the special section “The Second Russian-Japanese Forum of Social Sciences and Humanities”. This forum was welcomed by Lomonosov Moscow State University in Ooctober 2013 and included a seminar on psychology. A team of researchers from the Graduate School of Arts and Letters of Tohoku University led by Dr. Tsuneyuki Abe, the head of Psychology Chair, and the Lomonosov Moscow State University Faculty of Psychology professors discussed current advances in psychological science in Russia and Japan with an emphasis on psychophysiology and social psychology. The corresponding section of the journal presents articles based on the seminar papers.

Tsuneyuki Abe, Juthatip Wiwattanapantuwong and Akio Honda explore the experience of a survivor in a great natural disaster. In the article “Dark, cold, and hungry, but full of mutual trust: Manners among the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake victims” they deconstruct simplified “urban legends” about extremely high levels of helpfulness among Japanese earthquake victims, and present valuable insights into actual resources promoting solidarity and support.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0100
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 7, Issue 1, 2014, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Y.P. Zinchenko, E.I. Pervichko, O.D. Ostroumova (2013). Motivation as a factor affecting the efficiency of cognitive processes in elderly patients with hypertension. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 186-198

The main purpose of the present study was to assess the role of motivation in the effective cognitive activity of elderly hypertension (HTN) patients provided with antihypertensive treatment; 25 patients with HTN took part in the study, stage 1-2; their mean age was 67.6±6.1. The psychological examination program embraced a quantitative measurement of intelligence quotient (IQ) with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and an investigation into the qualitative features of their cognitive processes, applying a pathopsychological study procedure (Zeigarnik, 1962, 1972) and the principles of psychological syndrome analysis (Vygotsky-Luria-Zeigarnik school). The results showed that within the psychological syndrome structure of cognitive disorders in HTN patients, the leading part is played by two syndrome-generating factors: a neurodynamic factor and a motivational factor. The patients with reduced motivation would achieve poor general test results, if compared with the group of highly motivated participants. A correlation analysis of the data revealed the interconnection between frequency disturbances in motivation and the frequency in occurrence of various signs of cognitive decline, such as low efficiency in memorization and delayed recall, as well as lower IQ test results. The data provide a strong argument to support the hypothesis that motivation is of particular importance as a factor in the generation of cognitive disorders in HTN patients.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Pervichko, Elena I. ; Ostroumova, Olga D.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  186-198
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0417
Keywords:  hypertension at work, essential hypertension, mental stress, state anxiety, psychophysiological mechanisms, aspiration level, emotion regulation, repression of emotions.

C. Anauate (2013). Psychological problems of late adoption as observed in Brazil through a cultural-historical approach. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 176-185

This work discusses certain cultural-historical concepts relating to late adoption. This term is used for the adoption of children over 2 years old. Unfortunately most people do not wish to adopt children over 2 years old. Generally they seek newborn babies, which are a rare population, probably because of birth control campaigns. The children who are available in orphanages are older children who are unwanted. This paper tries to deal with this issue emphasizing that relationships are built within a family, transforming those involved. It lays out principles for a successful adoption and illustrates this matter with a case study. Relationships should be provided so that people can interact. This interaction will lead to the transformation of all of those involved within the established relationship, which constitute the human being. We intend to demystify the difficult matter of late adoption, which is one of the key aspects concerning the return of the child to an orphanage. The adaptation of late adopted children is said to be more difficult, but when we believe that human beings can change and be modified through the relationships they establish, we see a promising possibility for late adoption. Late adoption can be successful when we view it from a relational point of view, stressing that relationships transform all the individuals involved within the group.

About the authorsAnauate, Carla
ThemesClinical psychology; Family psychology; Developmental psychology
Pages:  176-185
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0416
Keywords:  adoption, relationship, mediation, transformation, children, cultural-historical

I.K. Makogon, S.N. Enikolopov (2013). Problems with the assessment of shame and guilt. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 168-175

Moral emotions play a significant role in human behavior, and yet scholars are not unanimous in defining, differentiating, and measuring the basic moral experiences: shame and guilt. Because of this problem, the theory goes far beyond the empirical research on these emotions.

In this article we analyze the most widely accepted points of view on the difference between guilt and shame; those who espouse each point of view suggest their own assessment tools. Thus, one of the often-used methods, the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 (TOSCA-3) (Tangney, Dearing, Wagner, & Gramzow, 2000), is based on a theory that differentiates shame and guilt according to where the negative evaluation of the misbehavior is aimed (at one’s actions or at one’s self). Another widely used questionnaire, the Dimensions of Conscience Questionnaire (DCQ) (Johnson et al., 1987), differentiates these emotions on the basis of whether the event causing them is public or personal.

The latest studies have shown that those methods are not contradictory. In addition, both the TOSCA-3 and the DCQ have their disadvantages; for example, they do not differentiate between emotional and behavioral aspects of guilt and shame. Thus, there is a need to develop a new assessment scale that overcomes these disadvantages. One such scale is the Guilt and Shame Proneness Scale (GASP) (Cohen, Wolf, Panter, & Insko, 2011). The research conducted by its authors has established its reliability and validity, which allow us to consider the GASP as a progressive tool in assessing moral emotions, one that has great theoretical and practical value.

About the authorsEnikolopov, Sergey N. ; Makogon, Irina K.
ThemesClinical psychology; Psychological assessment
Pages:  168-175
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0415
Keywords:  shame, guilt, moral emotions, psychological assessment tools, TOSCA-3, GASP

L.A. Bokeria, Y.P. Zinchenko, M.G. Kiseleva (2013). Psychological factors and outcomes of coronary surgery. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 160-167

Although heart surgery is one of the most effective methods in treating cardiovascular diseases, more than 50% of patients have problems in personal, social, professional adaptation after surgery (Pogosova, 1996).

According to recent studies, psychological factors contribute significantly to negative outcomes of coronary surgery. The main factors are: depression, anxiety, personal factors and character traits, social isolation, and chronic life stress (Blumental, 2003; Connerney, 2010; Contrada, 2008; Cserep, 2010, Gallagher, 2007; Hoyer, 2008; Pigney-Demaria, 2003; Rozancki, 1999; Rymaszewska, 2003; Viars, 2009, Zaitsev, 1997).

The aim of the article is to describe the association between psychological factors and the outcomes of coronary surgery. We have studied how the patient’s attitude towards forthcoming open heart surgery is associated with the outcomes.

We have picked out four types of attitude towards forthcoming heart surgery: 1) pessimistic (no belief in recovery, surgery is threatening, damaging), 2) indifferent (no belief in recovery, surgery will not change anything), 3) optimistic but not realistic (exaggerated expectations, belief in full recovery), 4) optimistic and realistic (adequate expectations, belief in improvement).

The study has shown that patients with optimistic-realistic attitudes towards forthcoming heart surgery have better outcomes, better emotional status, and shorter stays in hospital.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Bokeria,Leo A. ; Kiseleva, Maria G.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  160-167
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0414
Keywords:  heart surgery, nocebo effect, depression, anxiety, postoperative period

A.Ye.Voiskounsky (2013). Psychology of computerization as a step towards the development of cyberpsychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 150-159

The need for the psychology of computerization as a separate psychological discipline was suggested by Prof. Oleg K. Tikhomirov in mid-1980s. First he tried to initiate this discipline as a by-product of his experiments in the psychology of thinking, which formed the basis of the Personal Meanings Theory of Thinking, to be formulated later; soon Tikhomirov enlarged the field of the psychology of computerization. The aims of the new discipline were to study (1) the differences between human mental activity and the operations performed by computers that constitute the key elements of artificial intelligence systems, and (2) the impact of information technology on the human psyche. With the passage of several decades, the first aim partly lost its importance, while the second acquired a high degree of significance. In the paper it is argued that Tikhomirov’s suggestion that the psychological consequences of computerization be studied happened to germinate into the development of cyberpsychology (the psychology of the Internet) in Russia.

About the authorsVoiskounsky, Alexander E.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Theories and approaches; Media and cyber psychology
Pages:  150-159
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0413
Keywords:  psychology of thinking, personal meanings theory, cognition, computerization, Internet, cyberpsychology, artificial intelligence

Y.V. Klochko (2013). A person in a closed environment as a psychological problem. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 143-149

This article addresses an ethically weighted problem which is related to modern psychology: when a person lives in a closed environment. A new approach to solving this problem is being examined. It is based on the finding of substantial new functional aspects of the cognitive processes of making and losing meaning. The study of this sub-discipline started with O.K. Tikhomirov’s theory of thinking. The phenomenon of “adaptability to changes in lifestyle” is being analyzed. The substantial characteristics of the notion of a “closed environment” as well as the psychological manifestations which appear when one is forced to live in a closed environment or choses to live in one of his or her own volition are being revealed. According to the author, the new approach will allow us to come closer to understanding and being able to explain the psychological mechanisms of the mental upheaval which prisoners in solitary confinement experience.

ThemesCognitive psychology; Social psychology
Pages:  143-149
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0412
Keywords:  meaning-making, rethinking, meaning-losing, open system, closed environment, world image, lifestyle.

I.A. Vasilyev (2013). Intellectual emotions. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 134-142

In the laboratory of O.K. Tikhomirov, the phenomenon of the acute emotional regulation of productive thinking was justified. This regulation is realized by means of the elaboration of the axiological profile of cognition. The following definition of intellectual emotions can be given: intellectual emotions are the appraisals of specific cognitive objects — contradictions, assumptions, probabilities, and the intermediate and final results of operations. The main aspect of the method used in the research consisted of the synchronous registration of an external (tactile) elaboration of problems, skin galvanic response and verbal utterances regarding tasks to be completed in a game of chess. The principle position in Tikhomirov`s group is the following: intellectual emotions represent not only the energetic resource or catalysts for the thinking process, but also the determinants of its structure.

About the authorsVasilyev, Igor A.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  134-142
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0411
Keywords:  Intellectual emotions, thinking process, cognition, emotional appraisal, galvanic skin response, blind chess players, anticipation, emotional regulation, emotional heuristic, insight

A. Faiola (2013). Distributed creative activity: expanding Tikhomirov’s original notion of creative activity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 120-133

Tikhomirov’s primary works are considered groundbreaking in the activity theory community. In particular, his efforts in understanding the positive effects of computers on the development of creative activity provide valuable instruction to activity theorists, especially with respect to their influence on new goal formation. Tikhomirov’s quests to better understand “how computers affect the development of intellectual activity” are explicitly revealed in the clinical environment. As the intensive care unit is a preeminent environment to observe creative activity in real time, the primary problems of clinical team communication and collaboration, both aspects being related to joint activity, are identified. As one way to approach such a problem, Tikhomirov’s theory on creative activity is explained in the context of information technology. Then, distributed cognition theory and creative activity theory are joined together and extended into distributedcreative activity theory, as an augmentation of complex interpersonal cognition through the use of health information technology.

About the authorsFaiola, Anthony
ThemesCognitive psychology; Theories and approaches; Media and cyber psychology
Pages:  120-133
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0410
Keywords:  creative activity, critical care, distributed cognition, health information technology

J.D. Babaeva (2013). Fundamental principles of the cultural-activity approach in the psychology of giftedness. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 109-119

This article examines the cultural-activity approach to the study of giftedness, which is based on the ideas of L. S. Vygotsky, A. N. Leontiev, and O. K. Tikhomirov. Three basic principles of this approach are described: the principle of polymorphism, the dynamic principle, and the principle of the holistic analysis of the giftedness phenomenon. The article introduces the results of empirical research (including a 10-year longitudinal study), which verifies the efficacy of the cultural-activity approach and its prospects for solving actual problems in the psychology of giftedness in light of the creation of new diagnostic procedures and methods of education and the development of gifted children.

About the authorsBabaeva, Yuliya D.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  109-119
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0409
Keywords:  giftedness, creativity, intelligence, dynamic theory of giftedness, culturalactivity approach, psychodiagnostic training, types of giftedness

M.A. Chumakova, S.A. Kornilov (2013). Individual differences in attitudes towards uncertainty: evidence for multiple latent profiles. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 94-108

This paper presents the results of an empirical study investigating individual differences in tolerance and intolerance for uncertainty, using a multidimensional approach. We hypothesized that individual differences in attitudes towards uncertainty are rooted in expectations regarding different sources and subjective evaluations of uncertainty. The results of structural equation modeling and latent profile analysis largely supported these hypotheses. Importantly, latent profile analysis identified four distinct profiles of attitudes towards uncertainty that represented, in addition to classically understood tolerance and intolerance for uncertainty, intolerance for uncertainty with respect to different sources of uncertainty (environment vs. personal relationships).

About the authorsKornilov, Sergey A. ; Chumakova, Maria A.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  94-108
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0408
Keywords:  uncertainty, tolerance for uncertainty, latent profile analysis, dynamic regulative systems

S.M. Jakupov, A.A. Tolegenova, N.S. Zhubanazarova, N.K.Toksanbaeva, M.S. Jakupov (2013). From the conceptual ideation theory on joint-dialogical cognitive activity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 82-93

In the article, we are going to consider the possibilities of a conceptual framework of the semantic theory of thinking, which could allow us to develop a concept of joint and dialogical cognitive activity. This paper demonstrates O.K. Tikhomirov’s creative influence on the development of cognitive activity psychology. The role of aim-forming in thinking as a process of cognitive activity and genesis of reflection is emphasized. The possibilities of joint and dialogical cognitive activity formation as a result of informative purposes assigned to learners are shown. The role of ethnic prejudices as representations of semantic barriers, during the studying of the virtual mono-ethnic subgroups modeling method (in the conditions of a pilot study of the ethno-psychological phenomena) is considered and is specially allocated. In the present article, the mechanisms of psychotherapeutic influence are also considered and possible intervention programs for an emotional condition are described. Evidences of efficiency of formation and the transformation of personality-semantic education are provided in joint and dialogical counseling, realizing a semantic approach and its development, based on the principles of joint and dialogical cognitive activity.

About the authorsJakupov, Satybaldy M.; Jakupov, Maksat S.; Tolegenova, Aliya A.; Zhubanazarova, Nazirash S.; Toksanbaeva, Nurgul K.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  82-93
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0407
Keywords:  semantic theory of thinking, aim forming, joint and dialogical cognitive activity, semantic barriers, ethnic prejudices, semantic educations of the personality, joint and dialogical consultation.

Y. Solovieva, L.Q. Rojas (2013). In memory of professor Oleg K. Tikhomirov. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 73-81

The article “In memory of professor Oleg K. Tikhomirov” offers the personal memories of the authors and the testimony of the students and psychologists from Mexico who had the opportunity of witnessing the presence of Russian psychologist Prof. O.K. Tikhomirov at Puebla Autonomous University in 1994-1995. The article describes the circumstances of arrival and professional work of O.K. Tikhomirov as a lecturer within Mater Program in Neuropsychological Diagnosis and Rehabilitation at Psychology Faculty of Puebla University. The work of Prof. O.K. Tikhomirov in Puebla had positive consequences in academic preparation of students and specialists in psychology and neuropsychology and in fulfillment of theoretical and methodological research in following years. The authors of the article express their gratitude for the opportunity of collaboration with O.K. Tikhomirov and with Psychology faculty of Moscow State University in general. The conclusions reflect the evidence of positive effects of academic contacts and mutual experience on preparation and education of young generation of psychologists in Mexico, particularly within historical and cultural psychology and activity theory.

About the authorsSolovieva, Yulia; Quintanar, Luis Rojas
ThemesTheories and approaches; Events
Pages:  73-81
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0406
Keywords:  Russian psychology, academic experience, contacts between universities, historical and cultural psychology, activity theory.

G.M. Breslavs (2013). Moral emotions, conscience, and cognitive dissonance. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 65-72

One of the central topics in the studies of O. K. Tikhomirov and his collaborators was the link between cognitive and emotional processes. It is important not only how emotions are involved in the process of the productive performance of thinking tasks but also how cognitive processes mediate the involvement of the emotions in the regulation of activity. The efficacy of this regulation is represented through goal achievement and also through the correction of one’s actions in the case of wrongdoing. Reformation of one’s errors is the best way to improve one’s abilities and skills. In moral philosophy the central instance of this reformation is conscience, which ensures positive or negative self-appraisal of one’s own and others’ actions. Unfortunately, in psychology this concept remains unclear. The goal of this article is to clarify it in the context of the contemporary psychology of emotion. Studies of emotions have shown the significance of appraisal in determining particular feelings. The special role of moral emotions, mainly guilt and shame, in the self-correction of one’s actions is emphasized. According to this model, guilt and shame in particular can represent twinges of conscience in the mind because the cognitive dissonance between our (or others’) actions and values shapes the basis of all these phenomena.

About the authorsBreslavs, Gershon M.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Personality psychology
Pages:  65-72
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0405
Keywords:  moral emotions, conscience, guilt, shame, cognitive dissonance

Е.Е.Vasyukova, О.V. Mitina (2013). The principle of activity specificity in episodic memory. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 47-64

The effect of chess skill, age, and conditions for memorization on the efficiency of the recall of sequences of opening chess moves was studied. Thirty-nine chess players of different skill levels (from category 2 to grandmaster) and ages (from 17 to 81 years old) were divided into four groups (ELO > 2000 before and after the age of 40; ELO < 2000 before and after the age of 40). They were asked to remember the sequences of moves under three conditions (passive perception, use of imagination, physical generation of moves) and to recall (reproduce) the sequences by making the moves. It turned out that in the passive-perception condition the younger chess players, on the one hand, and the more highly skilled players, on the other, recalled the moves significantly better than did the other groups. Also, in almost all the groups of players the efficiency of memory grew as the condition for memorization and that for reproduction converged, with the highest growth rate found among chess players older than 40 years with ELO > 2000. The current memory of the chess experts was to a greater extent mediated by opening schemes and knowledge than was that of the intermediate players. A hypothesis about the activity specificity of the coding in episodic memory was confirmed and concretized.

About the authorsVasyukova, Ekaterina E. ; Mitina, Olga V.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  47-64
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0404
Keywords:  episodic memory, principles of the specificity of coding and activity specificity, chess skill, age, situations for imprinting the sequences of opening chess moves, structural modeling

E.M. Pavlova, T.V. Kornilova (2013). Creativity and tolerance for uncertainty predict the engagement of emotional intelligence in personal decision making. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 34-46

The current study investigated the relationships among creativity, tolerance for uncertainty (TU), and emotional intelligence (EI) in a selected sample of undergraduate students (n=145). We found differential patterns of intercorrelations among these constructs in students majoring in psychology, music, and stage directing, and we also established group differences in these constructs in the three groups of students. Thus, the use of emotional information in personal decision making in different subsamples is assumed to be achieved through hierarchies of diverse processes. Overall, creativity, EI, and TU acted as predictors of the use of emotional information in decision making.

About the authorsKornilova, Tatiana V. ; Pavlova, Elizaveta M.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Psychology of creativity; Theories and approaches
Pages:  34-46
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0403
Keywords:  personal choice, creativity, emotional intelligence, tolerance for uncertainty, creative professions

E.V. Galazhinskiy, V.Y. Klochko (2013). Contemporary cognitive science: the transdisciplinary approach and the problem of consciousness. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 24-33

The current state of cognitive science is discussed in this article. It is argued that cognitive science as it currently exists is not a separate, independent science. It is represented by a scientific interdisciplinary community focused on meeting the key challenges posed by the present time. The objective of the discourse in this interdisciplinary space is to generate new knowledge that it is impossible to generate within the frameworks of separate scientific disciplines. Some features of this new (transdisciplinary) stage are emerging within on-going interdisciplinary research. One of the signs of the new stage is the outlining of a merger of humanitarian and natural-scientific knowledge. It is claimed that the transdisciplinary approach can be considered as “a creative polylogue” of monodisciplines capable of generating knowledge that is not available to any science and the acquisition of which is beyond the abilities of any science.

About the authorsGalazhinskiy, Eduard V. ; Klochko, Vitaliy Y.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Methodology of psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  24-33
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0402
Keywords:  cognitive science, development of scientific cognition, interdisciplinary stage, transdisciplinary stage, “creative polylogue” in science, natural-scientific approach, humanitarian approach, complementary interaction, complimentary interaction

Y.D. Babaeva, N.B. Berezanskaya, T.V. Kornilova, I.A. Vasilyev, A.E. Voiskounsky. (2013) Contribution of Oleg K. Tikhomirov to the methodology, theory and experimental practice of psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 4-23

The contribution of Oleg K. Tikhomirov (1933-2001), his disciples and representatives of Tikhomirov’s school in psychology of thinking is analyzed. Tikhomirov was the initiator of the Personal Meanings Theory of thinking, one of the leading schools of cognitive studies in Russia. Tikhomirov is known outside Russia as well: more than once, he presented his work at international congresses and conferences; his writings have been translated into several European languages. The paper includes brief biographical information about Tikhomirov. The main components of the Personal Meanings Theory are presented, such as the regulative function of (intellectual) emotions during problem solving, the actual genesis of goal-setting, the formation of personal meanings during the processes involved in thinking, and the personality-related determinants of decision making. Tikhomirov’s pioneering ideas in the studies of creativity, including jointparticipation in creative activities, are discussed in the paper. In the last section of the paper, Tikhomirov’s studies of the impact of information and communication technology on the psychological transformations undergone by adepts of high technologies and technology’s effect on their intellectual and communicative activities are discussed; these studies accelerated a new field of research in Russia, namely cyberpsychology or Internet psychology.

About the authorsKornilova, Tatiana V. ; Voiskounsky, Alexander E. ; Babaeva, Yuliya D.; Berezanskaya, Natalia B.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  4-23
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0401
Keywords:  personal meanings theory of thinking, cultural psychology, activity theory, emotions, motivation, goals, goal-setting, creativity, problem solving, computers

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2013). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (4), 2-3

This issue is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of O.K. Tikhomirov’s birth (1933 —2001). O.K. Tikhomirov was a professor of psychology at Lomonosov Moscow State University. He is widely known for the development of the Personal Meanings Theory of thinking that creatively extended and synthesized leading conceptions of Russian national psychology: cultural-historical and activity-based methodological approaches. At the same time, O.K.Tikhomirov was an expert in diverse Western psychological theories, and the person who brought Russian psychological traditions to America and Europe.

The extensive special section presents papers written by foreign and Russia colleagues of O.K. Tikhomirov as well as researchers who continue their working the frames of his scientific school. It opens with the review article “Contribution of Oleg K. Tikhomirov to the methodology, theory and experimental practice of psychology” by Julia D. Babaeva and colleagues. A very personal report by Yulia Solovieva and Luis Quintanar, illustrated with unique photos, tell us about O.K. Tikhomirov’s academic and educational work at Autonomous University of Puebla (UAP) in Mexico.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0400
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art Volume 6, Issue 4, 2013, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Andrey V. Sidorenkov, Irina I. Sidorenkova (2013). Model of trust in work groups. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 164-176

A multi-dimensional model of trust in a small group has been developed and approved. This model includes two dimensions: trust levels (interpersonal trust, micro-group trust, group trust, trust between subgroups, trust between subgroups and group) and types of trust (activity-coping, information-influential and confidentially-protective trust). Each level of trust is manifested in three types, so there are fifteen varieties of trust. Two corresponding questionnaires were developed for the study. 347 persons from 32 work groups participated in the research. It was determined that in a small group there is an asymmetry of trust levels within the group. In particular, micro-group trust is demonstrated the most in comparison with other trust levels. There is also an asymmetry in the manifestation of interpersonal trust in a group structure. This is demonstrated by the fact that in informal subgroups, in comparison with a group as a whole, interpersonal confidential and performance trust is the most manifested. In a small group and in informal subgroups there are relationships between trust levels which have certain regularities.

About the authorsSidorenkov, Andrey V.; Sidorenkova, Irina I.
ThemesOrganizational psychology; Social psychology
Pages:  164-176
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0314
Keywords:  small group, informal subgroup, trust, trust levels, types of trust.

Alexander I. Dontsov, Alexandra I. Kabalevskaya (2013). Gender Stereotypes among Road Users. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 150-163

This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

About the authorsDontsov, Aleksander I. ; Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.
ThemesGender psychology
Pages:  150-163
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0313
Keywords:  Gender stereotype, stereotyping, gender behaviour, road behaviour

A.B. Leonova, T.A. Zlokazova, A.A. Kachina, A.S. Kuznetsova (2013). Determinants of professional distortion development in medical personnel, teachers and psychologists, working in the industrial disaster zone. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3)

This article presents research results regarding the determinants and individual predictors of professional distortions in the medical personnel, teachers, and psychologists who were involved in long-term programs of human relief assistance after a catastrophic accident at the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station. The research aim was to analyze the factors influencing the increase in and the accumulation of occupational stress in the groups investigated. The stress studied was caused by strong emotional tension in 3 months of intensive work after the accident. The extraordinary situation served as a challenge, a kind of “strength test” for individual adaptation, which led to the manifestation of extreme adaptation options (destructive and constructive forms) and allowed us to clarify the factors that contributed to their development. The research showed that, in this situation, psychological (in particular, emotional) resources and individual coping characteristics played a determinative role in professional adaptation.

About the authorsLeonova, Anna B. ; Zlokazova, Tatyana A.; Kachina, Anastasiya A.; Kuznetsova, Alla S.
ThemesOrganizational psychology
Pages:  132-149
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0312
Keywords:  occupational stress, coping behavior, emotional intelligence, individual predictors, professional distortions, stress management

Alla K. Bolotova, Milana R. Hachaturova (2013). The role of time perspective in coping behavior. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 120-131

This article describes research on the role of time perspective in a person’s choice of coping strategies in interpersonal conflicts. The interrelationship between different types of coping strategies (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral) and the orientation of time perspective are considered. P. G. Zimbardo’s technique, which defines the orientation of time perspective, and E. Heim’s technique, which is directed at exploring coping strategies, are used in our research. The sample consisted of 295 participants: 156 women and 139 men, with an average age of 32 years. The research shows that a future orientation is directly connected with the choice of cognitive and behavioral coping strategies in interpersonal conflicts, while an orientation to the negative past results in emotional coping strategies. A person’s orientation to the fatalistic present engenders retreat and avoidance of conflict resolution, which are nonadaptive behavioral strategies that include few coping techniques.

About the authorsBolotova, Alla K. ; Hachaturova, Milana R.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  120-131
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0311
Keywords:  time, time perspective, coping strategies, interpersonal conflict

Ludmila N. Liutsko (2013). Proprioception as a basis for individual differences. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 107-119

In this chapter the author summarises the descriptions of proprioceptive sense from different perspectives. The importance of proprioceptive sense has been shown in developmental psychology, in both the earlier and later stages of individuum formation. The author emphasises in this chapter the role of proprioception as a basis of personality and the individual differences construct. The importance of assessing behaviour at multiple levels has been pointed out by experiments of classic and modern researchers that should include not only verbal tests that would be more important for conscious mental description, but also techniques that could assess other behavioural characteristics, including automatic unconscious and pre-reflexive behaviour. The author also describes the effects of altered proprioception in humans, such as the Pinocchio effect, and other spatial perception distortions. In this chapter the importance of proprioception in acquiring new skills (embodied knowledge) as automatic and conditioned reflexive behaviour has also been highlighted. Finally, the complete picture of the individuum has been presented as a multi-layered level of a body-mind union approach.

About the authorsLiutsko, Liudmila N.
Pages:  107-119
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0310
Keywords:  proprioception, individual differences, multi-layered personality, embodied knowledge, automatic movements.

Anna S. Silnitskaya, Alexey N. Gusev (2013). Character and temperamental determinants of prosodic parameters of natural speech. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 95-106

The study was undertaken to find relationships between personality and temperamental traits (estimated with the help of the Adult Personality Traits Questionnaire by Manolova, Leonhard and the Russian version of the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (STQ) by Rusalov V. & Trofimova I. (2007)) on the one hand, and parameters of intonation (mean ΔF0, tone span, speech rate, duration of speech and mean duration of syllables interval) on the other hand. The parameters of intonation were measured on sample recordings produced by 30 male and female participants. 60 recordings of natural monologues on proposed topics were obtained in situations of the presence and absence of a conversation partner. Demostrativity (as a personality trait according to Leonhard’s typology) was found to significantly affect mean ΔF0, tone span and speech rate in the presence of an interlocutor. Social Tempo (as a dimension of temperament according to Rusalov’s model) affects the speech rate. In the absence of an interlocutor, only an interaction effect of Demonstrativity and Communication Activity on the same group of vocal parameters was obtained. The presence of an interlocutor proved to be a special condition for the most explicit appearance of Demonstrativity. Temperamental indices that describe the Communication realm seem to moderate the appearance of Demonstrativity in different conditions. Most explicitly, the key feature of people with strong Demonstrativity is a high speech rate.

About the authorsSilnitskaya, Anna S.; Gusev, Alexey N.
ThemesPersonality psychology
Pages:  95-106
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0309
Keywords:  Prosody, voice analysis, speech communication, temperament, personality traits.

Yu.P.Zinchenko,E.I. Pervichko,O.D.Ostroumova (2013). Psychophysiological mechanisms of mental stress reactions in patients with “hypertension at work” and patients with essential hypertension: a comparative analysis. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

In the study, psychological and physiological features were assessed during an experimentally designed stressful situation in 85 subjects with hypertension (HTN) in the workplace, 85 patients with essential HTN, and 82 healthy individuals.

It was showed, that patients with HTN in the experimental situation were characterized by a complex of physiological and psychological features, which distinguish them from healthy participants. A reliably greater increase In systolic blood pressure (BP) was recorded in these patients in comparison with healthy individuals (on average by 14 and 3 mmHg respectively). The aspiration level (AL) of these patients was characterized by a reliably greater height, inadequacy, and instability; as for nonverbal behavior, it revealed a reliably greater amount of gestures, and frequent changes in voice tone against similar features of healthy individuals.

The group of patients with HTN at work, when compared with essential HTN patients, was characterized by a reliably greater increase of systolic BP (on the average by 16 and 4 mmHg respectively) as a reaction to emotional stress. The systolic BP increase in this group was revealed in combination with an initially reliably lower catecholamines’ level (CA), a gradual decrease of CA level in urine, and renin and angiotensin-1 in blood plasma during the experiment. This combination is an indicator of chronic stress and psychophysiological exhaustion. The patients did not manifest any increase of anxiety during the experiment; they were characterized, however, by a greater frequency of AL inadequacy and instability. The behavior of patients with HTN at work during the experiment was marked by a limited repertory of poses and gestures, but more vigorous facial expressions, and frequent pitch jumps. Obtained results lead us to confirm that the repression of emotions comes as a significant pathogenetic factor in the genesis of psychosomatic syndrome among patients with HTN at work, as opposed to patients with essential HTN.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Pervichko, Elena I. ; Ostroumova, Olga D.
Themes“Science in Dialogue” — 10th Sino-German Workshop Selected Papers; Clinical psychology
Pages:  78-94
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0308
Keywords:  hypertension at work, essential hypertension, mental stress, state anxiety, psychophysiological mechanisms, aspiration level, emotion regulation, repression of emotions.

Janna M. Glozman, Pavel Krukow (2013). The social brain. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 68-77

This article considers different aspects of the new neuropsychological theory of the social brain and its relationship to Luria’s and Vygotsky’s understanding of a human as a social and biological unity. The main functions of social cognition are described. Five aspects of these functions and five groups of evidence are analyzed: the negative consequences of brain damage on social behavior and social cognition; the social features of early-childhood development; the double interaction between brain maturation and the formation of mental functions; the negative consequences of social neglect on brain development; and the social and cultural specificity of neuropsychological assessment methods. The proposed new understanding of the social brain is as the social and cultural regulator of brain functioning.

About the authorsGlozman, Janna M. ; Krukow, Pavel
Themes“Science in Dialogue” — 10th Sino-German Workshop Selected Papers; Social psychology
Pages:  68-77
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0307
Keywords:  neuropsychology, cultural-historical approach, brain functioning, social cognition

Vera I. Zabotkina, Elena L. Boyarskaya (2013). Sense disambiguation in polysemous words: cognitive perspective. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 60-67

In this paper the authors put polysemy research into the broader context of research into the mental lexicon, cognitive context conceptual priming, and probabilistic conceptual modelling. The article adopts a novel approach to the resolution of polysemy and puts it to an empirical test. The authors argue that priming plays a key role in the activation of an adequate meaning of a polysemous word. Mental structures, represented by a prime lexical unit, contain relevant conceptual information on the target word meaning. The prime triggers a cognitive context that influences the selection process of the target word sense.

About the authorsZabotkina, Vera I.; Boyarskaya, Elena L.
Themes“Science in Dialogue” — 10th Sino-German Workshop Selected Papers; Cognitive psychology; Psychosemantics
Pages:  60-67
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0306
Keywords:  mental lexicon, conceptual modelling, priming, polysemy, mental representations, sense disambiguation, cognitive contexts

Galina Ya Menshikova (2013). An investigation of 3D images of the simultaneous-lightness-contrast illusion using a virtual-reality technique. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 49-59

This article investigates the problem of lightness perception. To clarify the role of depth in lightness perception two current models—the albedo hypothesis and the coplanar-ratio hypothesis—are discussed. To compare them the strength of the simultaneous-lightnesscontrast (SLC) illusion was investigated as a function of three-dimensional (3D) configurations of the test and background squares. In accordance with both hypotheses the changes in the depth arrangements of the test and background squares should result in changes in the illusory effect. However, the reasons for and the directions of these changes should be different. Five different types of 3D configurations were created in which the test squares were tilted at different angles to the background squares. A virtual-reality technique was used to present stereo pairs of different 3D configurations. Thirty-seven observers took part in the experiment. The method of constant stimuli was used to obtain psychometric functions. The displacements of these functions for 3D configurations in comparison with the 2D configuration allowed the estimation of illusion strength. The analysis of individual values of illusion strength revealed two groups of subjects. For the first group (38% of all participants) the strength changed insignificantly depending on the 3D configurations. For the second group (62% of all participants) significant differences were obtained for those configurations in which the test and background squares were perceived as differently illuminated. The changes in the SLC illusion strength for the second group were consistent with predictions made by the albedo hypothesis. Thus, it seems that the perceived illumination of a surface should be considered the main parameter for lightness estimations in 3D scenes.

About the authorsMenshikova, G.Ya.
Themes“Science in Dialogue” — 10th Sino-German Workshop Selected Papers; Psychophysiology
Pages:  49-59
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0305
Keywords:  perception, visual illusions, lightness, perceived illumination, albedo hypothesis, coplanar-ratio hypothesis, virtual-reality technology

V.V. Galatenko, E.D. Livshitz, A.M. Chernorizov, Yu.P. Zinchenko et al. (2013). Automated real-time classification of functional states: the significance of individual tuning stage. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 41-48

Automated classification of a human functional state is an important problem, with applications including stress resistance evaluation, supervision over operators of critical infrastructure, teaching and phobia therapy. Such classification is particularly efficient in systems for teaching and phobia therapy that include a virtual reality module, and provide the capability for dynamic adjustment of task complexity.

In this paper, a method for automated real-time binary classification of human functional states (calm wakefulness vs. stress) based on discrete wavelet transform of EEG data is considered. It is shown that an individual tuning stage of the classification algorithm — a stage that allows the involvement of certain information on individual peculiarities in the classification, using very short individual learning samples, significantly increases classification reliability. The experimental study that proved this assertion was based on a specialized scenario in which individuals solved the task of detecting objects with given properties in a dynamic set of flying objects.

About the authorsGalatenko, Vladimir V.; Livshitz, Evgeniy D. ; Chernorizov, Alexsander M. ; Zinchenko, Yury P. ; Galatenko, Alexey V.; Staroverov, Vladimir M. ; Isaychev, Sergey A. ; Lebedev, Vyacheslav V. ; Menshikova, G.Ya.; Sadovnichy, Victor A.; Gusev, Alexey N.; Gabidullina, Rozaliya F.; Podol’skii, Vladimir E.
Themes“Science in Dialogue” — 10th Sino-German Workshop Selected Papers; Psychophysiology
Pages:  41-48
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0304
Keywords:  human functional state, EEG data, automated classification, individual tuning, stress.

Pavel N.Ermakov, Oxana S. Saakyan (2013). Peculiarities of brain electric activity in young males and females of different creativity levels. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 31-40

This article shows that the peculiarities of divergent and convergent thinking in young males and females of various creativity levels are stipulated by a definite EEG frequency-and-spatial arrangement. Young males and females of mixed and left lateral arrangement profiles demonstrate an expressed activity of occipital, central, and temporal areas of both cerebral hemispheres. In young males and females of right LAP (lateral arrangement profile), connections are clearly localized in case of solution of both convergent and divergent tasks. Solution of divergent and convergent tasks may condition certain frequency-and-spatial arrangement of EEG in young males and females with different levels of academic progress and a different lateral arrangement profile (LAP).

About the authorsErmakov, Pavel N. ; Saakyan, Oxana S.
Themes“Science in Dialogue” — 10th Sino-German Workshop Selected Papers; Psychophysiology
Pages:  31-40
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0303
Keywords:  creativity, lateral arrangement profile (LAP), intrahemispheric and interhemispheric coherent connections, convergent tasks, divergent tasks, academic progress, gender.

Stanislav A. Kozlovskiy, Maria M. Pyasik, Aleksander V. Vartanov, Evgenia Yu. Nikonova (2013). Verbal working memory: magnetic resonance, morphometric analysis and a psychophisiological model. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 19-30

Neuropsychological characteristics of verbal working memory (memory capacity, permanency, and different types of memory errors) of 43 healthy subjects of older age were compared with the anatomical characteristics of their brain structures (volume of the hippocampi and the caudate nuclei, size of the cingulate-cortex regions of both hemispheres). The obtained data demonstrate a correlation between the permanency of verbal- information maintenance and left caudate-nucleus volume and a positive correlation between associative-memory capacity and left hippocampus volume. A decline in the number of verbal-memory errors (confabulations) is related to the increased size of the left anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, verbal working-memory capacity and permanency correlate negatively with the size of the left posterior dorsal cingulate cortex, whereas the number of fluctuations and word replacements correlate positively with the increased size of this brain region. We suggest a psychophysiological model of verbalstimulus maintenance in working memory based on the results of our study and published research data.

About the authorsKozlovskiy, Stanislav A. ; Pyasik, Maria M.; Vartanov, Alexsander V. ; Nikonova, Evgenia Y.
Themes“Science in Dialogue” — 10th Sino-German Workshop Selected Papers; Psychophysiology
Pages:  19-30
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0302
Keywords:  magnetic resonance morphometric analysis, working memory, verbal memory, caudate nucleus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus, working-memory model

E. Pöppel, Yan Bao, S. Han, A.A. Sozinov, D.V. Ushakov, A.I. Kovalev, A.M. Chernorizov, G.Ya. Menshikova, Y.S. Zaytseva, V.I. Zabotkina (2013). Unasked questions and unused answers in psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 4-18

Contemporary psychology and cognitive neuroscience create many opportunities for studying the brain functions, but also generate numerous challenges. To date, scientists face common conceptual problems which are relevant to almost every research study/ case such as: classification of functions, unified methodological approaches, explanation of the psychological phenomenon etc. The Sino-German Workshop which took place in Hamburg in 2013 aimed to address unasked questions and unused answers, attracting scientists from different countries and different fields of psychology, neuroscience, medicine, history, and philosophy. The present discussion on the 9 unasked questions was initiated by Professor Ernst Poeppel and was held on by Russian participants from various academic institutions.

About the authorsPöppel, Ernst; Bao, Yan ; Han, Shihui ; Ushakov, Dmitry V.; Kovalev, Artem I.; Chernorizov, Alexsander M. ; Menshikova, G.Ya.; Zaytseva, Yuliya S.; Zabotkina, Vera I.; Sozinov, Alexey A.; Gutyrchik Evgeny
Themes“Science in Dialogue” — 10th Sino-German Workshop Selected Papers; Methodology of psychology
Pages:  4-18
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0301
Keywords:  contemporary psychology, cognitive neuroscience, 10th Sino-German Workshop Selected Papers

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2013). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (3), 2-3

Special section of the third issue of the 6th volume Psychology in Russia: State of the Art presents the papers of the workshop and faculty meeting of the Parmenides Foundation — international scientific community for multi-disciplinary cognitive research building bridges between natural, computer sciences and humanities. The 10th Sino-German Workshop in the Neurosciences and Psychology with 80 participants from 15 countries, held in Hamburg, Germany (1–4 September 2013), was dedicated to the general topic of neglected questions in the field.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0300
Keywords:  Editorial volum #6, 2, 2013 Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Bożydar Kaczmarek (2013). Review of the book by Janna M. Glozman “Developmental Neuropsychology”. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 118-120

Janna Glozman’s book provides a comprehensive information on both Russian and Western developmental neuropsychology. The reader, especially form the West, may find fist hand information on Vygotsky and Luria’s collaboration with emphasis put on social aspects of child development. At the same time the reader can learn about principles of Luria’s syndromological (qualitative) approach and Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development. Two important notions that had a great impact both on the neuropsychological and developmental studies...

About the authorsKaczmarek, Bożydar
ThemesBook review; Neuropsychology; Developmental psychology
Pages:  118-120
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0211
Keywords:  Review of the book, Developmental Neuropsychology

Eugene Aidman (2013). Review of the book by Vyacheslav A. Ivannikov “A New Introduction to Psychological Thinking”. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 114-117

First, a disclaimer: the book I am about to review is written by my mentor. Call me biased. I was fortunate enough to attend the lectures presented in this book. It was 35 years ago. I vividly remember how sought after was a good set of lecture notes from these lectures. Now this call has been answered by the author himself. It’s been a long wait, and the new generations of Russian-speaking psychology students — and instructors alike — are so much better off for it...

About the authorsAidman, Eugene
ThemesBook review; Methodology of psychology
Pages:  114-117
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0210
Keywords:  A New Introduction to Psychological Thinking, Review of the book

Marina A. Gulina (2013). The siege of Leningrad (1941–1944): memories of the survivors who have lived through the trauma. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 103-113

The article has discussed the Leningrad Siege (1941-1944), focusing on the individual and collective memories of survivors who had lived through that trauma during their childhood. Thus far there has been no psychological investigation of the feelings of extreme deprivation caused by that Siege, despite the reams of material published on Leningrad under siege. To deal with this shortfall, the critique has considered the effect of that experience on the future lives of the people concerned. The basic methodology, the paper maintains, combined quantitative and qualitative approaches and involved a comparison of two equal-sized groups: the experimental group, comprising 60 war survivors who lived through the Siege; and the control group, comprising 60 war survivors who were evacuated from Leningrad during the Siege and consequently did not experience the trauma. The review related that the groups were matched by age and by gender distribution. Data for the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis-based qualitative analysis (QA) were collected according to psychometric measures (containing scales for depression, general satisfaction with life, and stress) applied in semi-structured interviews. The QA, for its part, used methods such as correlation, factor- and cluster-analysis to measure data segments. The nature of the suffering and the persistence of the human threat (past and present) were reconstructed within the framework of the psychological experiences (under extreme conditions) faced by the experimental group. The report, in conclusion, has stated that these experiences were evaluated via psychoanalytic tools dealing with child development, mourning and symbolization of traumatic events. These enabled it to identify psychological phenomena such as child grief and the impact of trauma on the adult life of the former Siege victims.

About the authorsGulina, Marina A.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  103-113
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0209
Keywords:  Siege, strain trauma, cumulative trauma, child development, attachment, traumatic disorganization, resilience

Yury P. Zinchenko, Elena I. Pervichko, Anatoliy I. Martynov. (2013). Psychological underpinning of personalized approaches in modern medicine: syndrome analysis of mitral valve prolapsed patients. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 89-102

The article aims to demonstrate a high efficiency of the methodological means suggested by psychological syndrome analysis approach (Vygotsky-Luria school) for solving theoretical and applied issues in contemporary person-centered medicine. 

This is achieved through an example of empirical study meant to construct a psychosomatic syndrome for 290 patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Analysis of all collected data was based on psychological syndrome analysis concept (Vygotsky–Luria school) and A.R. Luria’s principles for psychological factors (causes) selection, which determine the logic and structure of a neuropsychological syndrome. It demonstrated the association between characteristics of emotional experiences and clinical symptoms manifested in MVP patients. This correlation was statistically verified. The results proved that the most important syndrome-establishment factor (radical) is a specific emotionality and dysfunction of emotion regulation and emotional control in MVP patients (excessive emotional repression with insufficient reflection of emotional experiences). Features of the motivation sphere of MVP patients appear as a second psychological syndrome-establishment factor: these are domination of the motive of failure avoidance and unsatisfied self-approval need. 

We argue that psychological syndrome analysis can be used as a means to approach not only diagnostic but also prognostic tasks both in clinical psychology and medicine, as well as for the development and implementation of the person-centered integrative diagnosis model. 

We maintained that this approach, applied in theoretical and practical fields of clinical psychology and mental health care is highly efficient at the current stage of the science evolution due to prospects revealed by s new methodological context of postnonclassical model of rationality and a comprehensive character of the cultural-historical concept regarding an individual and his mind as a self-developing open systems.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Pervichko, Elena I. ; Martynov, Anatoliy I.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  89-102
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0208
Keywords:  person-centered integrative diagnostic model, psychological syndrome analysis, Vygotsky-Luria school, psychosomatic syndrome, mitral valve prolapse, postnonclassical model of scientific rationality, self-developing system.

Elena T. Sokolova (2013). Cultural-psychological and clinical perspectives of research on phenomena of subjective uncertainty and ambiguity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 78-88

The article analyzes certain socio-cultural and personal predispositions, which determine the modern diversity of subjective uncertainty and ambiguity manifestations. It stresses that for the creation of ‘realistic’ clinical psychology (in terms of A.R. Luria) one needs to retrace the relations between the resourceful and the psychopathological aspects of the ambiguity phenomenon and the cultural environment with its destructive ideals and mythologems, manipulative media-technologies and all-pervading idea of ‘deconstruction’. Methods for modeling the experiences of ambiguity in experimental settings, in pathopsychological examination and in projective psychological diagnostics are put in comparison. The arguments are adduced for the interpretation of deficient manifestations of subjective uncertainty as a criterion for diagnostics of the severity of personality disorder.

About the authorsSokolova, Elena T.
ThemesClinical psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  78-88
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0207
Keywords:  subjective uncertainty (ambiguity) phenomena, socio-cultural, personal and clinical predispositions, experimental modeling, projective paradigm, individual styles of ambiguity transformations, borderline personality organization and psychopathology.

N. Veraksa, A. Belolutskaya, I. Vorobyeva, E. Krasheninnikov, E. Rachkova, I. Shiyan, O. Shiyan (2013). Structural dialectical approach in psychology: problems and research results.Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 65-77

In this article dialectical thinking is regarded as one of the central cognitive processes. Because of this cognitive function we can analyze the development of processes and objects. It also determines the possibilities for the creative transformation of some content and for solving problems.

The article presents a description and the results of experimental studies. This evidence proves that dialectical thinking is a specific line of cognitive development in children and adults. This line can degrade during school time if the educational program follows formal logical principles, or it can become significantly stronger if the pedagogy is based on dialectical methodology.

About the authorsVeraksa, Nikolay E. ; Belolutskaya, Anastasiya K. ; Vorobyeva, Irina I.; Krasheninnikov, Eugene E. ; Rachkova, Elena V. ; Shiyan, Igor B. ; Shiyan, Olga A.
ThemesEducational psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  65-77
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0206
Keywords:  structural-dialectical approach, dialectical thinking, dialectical tasks, strategy of mental handling of oppositions

Vladimir D. Shadrikov (2013). The role of reflection and reflexivity in the development of students’ abilities. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 55-64

This article analyzes different approaches to defining reflection and reflexivity. The mastery of intellectual operations reveals the role of reflexivity in the development of abilities. The operational aspect of reflection is emphasized in the article. The study is premised on the expectation that the effective realization of intellectual activities and the development of abilities determined by these activities are conditioned by adequate reflection on conscious acts directed toward the performance of educational-cognitive tasks. The data from the experiment show that reflexivity as a personality trait is highly developed in students with high indexes of general intellectual operations. The research findings indicate the role of reflexive mechanisms in students’ acquisition of intellectual abilities. The implications of these findings are discussed.

About the authorsShadrikov, Vladimir D.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  55-64
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0205
Keywords:  activity subject, ability, reflection, reflectivity, development, intellectual operations

Dmitry A. Podolskiy (2013). Multimethod approach to measuring values in a school context: exploring the association between Congruence — Discrepancy Index (CO DI) and task commitment. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 44-54

There are considerable differences among the value hierarchies revealed by different methods of measurement. The quantitative measure of such a difference can be referred as the Congruence-Discrepancy Index (CODI). The more congruent the results of different methods are, the higher the CODI is. In the present study I compared value hierarchies obtained by the Schwartz Value Survey and an original instrument based on the constant-sum scale in two samples of adolescents (those in special schools for at-risk adolescents and those in ordinary secondary schools). The results show that the CODI for ordinary school students is significantly higher than that for adolescents recruited from special schools. A significant correlation between the CODI and school engagement was revealed for the ordinary school sample. The possibilities of using the CODI in value research are discussed.

About the authorsPodolskiy, Dmitry A.
ThemesEducational psychology; Psychological assessment
Pages:  44-54
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0204
Keywords:  values, adolescents, measurement, value theory, ratings, rankings

Frédéric Yvon, Ludmila A. Chaiguerova, Denise Shelley Newnham (2013) Vygotsky under debate: two points of view on school learning. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 32-43

Vygotsky’s name has never been so evoked as it is at the present time, yet the educational scientific community faces an awkward situation. On the one hand, his works have been used as the basis for certain socioconstructivist school reforms that he would surely have completely disapproved of (Vygotsky, 1934/1987, p. 211). On the other hand, the recent collection of his writings (Yvon & Zinchenko, 2012) and other works (Brossard, 1999, 2004; Schneuwly, 2008b) lead us to another interpretation, in which the internal evolution of didactic content is at the forefront of Vygotsky’s precepts. Therefore, although it is unpleasant, we are confronted by different points of view on Vygotsky’s work that need to be investigated and exposed. This article sets out to achieve that objective.

About the authorsYvon, Frédéric; Chaiguerova, Ludmila A. ; Newnham, Denise Shelley
ThemesEducational psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  32-43
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0203
Keywords:  child’s intellectual development, school learning, interpretations of Vygotsky’s work

Aleksander I. Dontsov, Elena B. Perelygina (2013) Tense situations and the significance of stability for psychological security. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 20-31

Present reality gives rise to contradictory trends: the combination of new threats, tense situations, and destructive tendencies shapes awareness of the importance of identifying, assessing, and managing emerging situations and of developing new scientific paradigms. The polyfunctional interpretation of psychological security correlates with the perception of stability as a specific arrangement of interactional processes and the relatedness of stereotypes, standards, sociocultural attitudes, and social perceptions. A tense situation clearly indicates the separation of the potential of the person and the group from the notion of subject-action in security promotion and maintenance. The depersonification of social institutions is accompanied by each person’s growing attention to himself/herself and the increasing significance of this kind of attention in overcoming uncertainty and tension.

The process of making decisions in a tense situation often includes the phenomenon of the illusion of control over the situation, which can pose a threat to psychological security. The social significance of the promotion of psychological security calls for consolidation of efforts aimed at the stability of the society and the prevention of stress-producing situations.

About the authorsDontsov, Aleksander I. ; Perelygina, Elena B.
ThemesSocial psychology; Security psychology
Pages:  4-19
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0202
Keywords:  tense situations, subject of psychological security, dynamic stability, social perceptions, social and psychological consequences of the terrorist threat

Takhir Yu. Bazarov, Yuri S. Shevchenko (2013) The executive leader in the postcrisis era. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 4-19

This article describes psychological challenges that executive leaders of companies face nowadays. The study of the social context is based on changes that took place with the development of information technologies. The analysis touches upon such phenomena as virtualization, involvement in the external sociocommunicative environment, and the emergence of multiple identity. It is suggested that in order to adapt to changing conditions one should follow the path of self-development—in particular, to develop attention, imagination, and willpower. In connection with the traits generally attributed to executive leaders, the article emphasizes self-adjustment; common sense as an integral part of intuition, emotions, and imagination; and the readiness to make choices in fifty-fifty situations.

About the authorsBazarov, Tahir Y. ; Shevchenko, Yuri S.
ThemesSocial psychology; Organizational psychology
Pages:  20-31
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0201
Keywords:  executive leader, virtualization, multiple identity, attention, imagination, will

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2013). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 2-3

The educational reform is Russia is in full swing, so the section of Psychology of education and learning is the most widely presented in the current issue. The international collective of authors Frédéric Yvon, Ludmila A. Chaiguerova and Denise Shelley Newnham considers different interpretations of the works of Lev Vygotsky — famous psychologist and methodologist. The authors suggest original ways of incorporating Vygotsky’s ideas into the modern educational system. Dmitry A. Podolskiy presents his study of value hierarchy among students and adolescence in the article “Multimethod approach to measuring values in a school context: exploring the association between Congruence — Discrepancy Index (CODI) and task commitment”. In the article “The role of reflection and reflexivity in the development of student’s abilities” Vladimir D. Shadrikov explores the role of reflection in the educational process. The group of authors headed by Nikolay E. Veraksa state that dialectical thinking is a specific line of cognitive development in children and adults and proves this statement by the empirical data (“The structural dialectical approach in psychology problematic and research results”).

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0200
Keywords:  Editorial volum #6, 2, 2013 Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Frolova T. I. (2013) Psychological aspects of the content strategies of the Russian media. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 128-137

This article looks at the content strategies of the Russian media and discusses whether they conform to humanitarian values. The content strategies that prevailed in different eras and the social and psychological effects that they engendered are compared. Special attention is paid to conflicts of values and other negative consequences of the communicative incompetence of the media in Russia; this lack of competence poses a threat to the information security of society.

About the authorsFrolova, Tatiana I.
ThemesMedia and cyber psychology
Pages:  128-137
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0112
Keywords:  anthropocentric scientific paradigm, current media processes, humanitarian media agenda, content strategies, lack of communicative competence, information security.

Zinchenko Yu.P., Pervichko E.I. (2012). The Methodology of Syndrome Analysis within the Paradigm of "Qualitative Research in Clinical Psychology". Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 157-184

This article considers the potential for applying contemporary philosophical theories (which distinguish classical, nonclassical, and postnonclassical types of scientific rationality) to the specification of theoretical methodological principles in the study of clinical psychology. We prove that psychological syndrome analysis (developed by the Vygotsky–Luria–Zeigarnik school), taken as a system of principles for organizing research as well as for interpreting its results, conforms to the epistemological complexity of the object of study in clinical psychology, which is understood in the postnonclassical scientific view as a self-developing system. We present an example of the formation of a psychosomatic syndrome in 290 patients with mitral-valve prolapse, applying methods of qualitative and statistical data analysis in a longitudinal clinical-psychological study. We prove that the syndrome is system-defined and has a multilevel character, and that its structure is determined by several factors: the motivational factor (with the domination of the failure-avoidance motive and the unsatisfied self-approval need); the factor of the emotional-regulation disorders, represented by both excessive emotional repression and lack of emotional control; and a psychophysiological factor. We argue that a psychosomatic syndrome can be used as a means for approaching not only diagnostic but also prognostic tasks both in clinical psychology and in medicine. We conclude that the results of our empirical study, conducted within the framework of postnonclassical philosophy and using the methods of psychological syndrome analysis, not only expand the scientific background on the nature of a particular disease (mitral-valve prolapse) but also pose further questions whose investigation will broaden our view of the psychological mechanisms of psychosomatic- syndrome genesis.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Pervichko, Elena I.
ThemesClinical psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  157-184
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0010
Keywords:  postnonclassical scientific rationality, self-developing system, psychological syndrome analysis, psychosomatic syndrome, psychological factors of psychosomatic-syndrome genesis, mitral valve prolapse, emotional tension, emotional regulation, failure-avoidance motive.

Kozlovskiy S.A., Vartanov A.V., Nikonova E.Y., Pyasik M.M., Velichkovsky B.M. (2012). The Cingulate Cortex and Human Memory Processes. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 231-243

This study presents data from a magnetic-resonance morphometric (MRMM) analysis of the main regions of the cingulate cortex (in both hemispheres) and their role in memory processes in a group of healthy, females of older age. The results demonstrate a statistically reliable correlation between overall performance and the type of errors in different neuropsychological memory tests and the relative size of these regions. The discovered pattern of correlations can be explained by hypothesizing the reciprocal functional influence of the two major areas of the cingulate cortex – its anterior and posterior dorsal parts – on performance in neuropsychological memory tests.

About the authorsKozlovskiy, Stanislav A. ; Vartanov, Alexsander V. ; Nikonova, Evgenia Y. ; Pyasik, Maria M.; Velichkovsky, Boris M.
Pages:  231-243
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0014
Keywords:  cingulate cortex, cingulate gyrus, magnetic-resonance morphometric analysis, human neuropsychology, memory.

Kotov A. A. (2017). A computational model of consciousness for artificial emotional agents. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 57-73.

Background. The structure of consciousness has long been a cornerstone problem in the cognitive sciences. Recently it took on applied significance in the design of computer agents and mobile robots. This problem can thus be examined from perspectives of phi­losophy, neuropsychology, and computer modeling.

Objective. In the present paper, we address the problem of the computational model of consciousness by designing computer agents aimed at simulating “speech understand­ing” and irony. Further, we look for a “minimal architecture” that is able to mimic the effects of consciousness in computing systems.

Method. For the base architecture, we used a software agent, which was programmed to operate with scripts (productions or inferences), to process incoming texts (or events) by extracting their semantic representations, and to select relevant reactions.

Results. It is shown that the agent can simulate speech irony by replacing a direct aggressive behavior with a positive sarcastic utterance. This is achieved by balancing be­tween several scripts available to the agent. We suggest that the extension of this scheme may serve as a minimal architecture of consciousness, wherein the agent distinguishes own representations and potential cognitive representations of other agents. Within this architecture, there are two stages of processing. First, the agent activates several scripts by placing their if-statements or actions (inferences) within a processing scope. Second, the agent differentiates the scripts depending on their activation by another script. This multilevel scheme allows the agent to simulate imaginary situations, one’s own imagi­nary actions, and imaginary actions of other agents, i.e. the agent demonstrates features considered essential for conscious agents in the philosophy of mind and cognitive psy­chology.

Conclusion. Our computer systems for understanding speech and simulation of irony can serve as a basis for further modeling of the effects of consciousness.

About the authorsKotov Artemy A.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  57-73
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0304
Keywords:  cognitive architectures, psychophysiological problem, theory of consciousness, emotional computer agents, machine humor, simulation of irony, text comprehension

Dubynin I. A., Shishkin S. L. (2017). Feeling of agency versus judgment of agency in passive movements with various delays from the stimulus. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 40-56.

Background. The sense of agency (SoA) provides us with the experience of be­ing a physical agent with free will. On a phenomenological basis, SoA can be di­vided into sensory components (feeling of agency, FoA) and more cognitive com­ponents (judgment of agency, JoA). Both these components can be independently measured.

Objective and Method. A new method was developed to test the possibility of preserving SoA and its components in the atypical conditions of passive movements. Parameters of the participant’s movement in response to a visual stimulus (reaction time, speed, and amplitude) were measured and used to control a servo that simu­lated the movement (executed passive movements). The scores on the psychometric scale of the agency and the event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for variable movement delays relative to the stimulus onset.

Results. It was found that the FoA was not present under passive movement con­ditions. At the same time, participants associated these movements with their own activity (JoA), even when their delay after the stimulus onset was too short to be ac­tively reproduced. The somatosensory ERPs’ amplitude decreased for the expected movements, demonstrating an inverse relationship with the agency scores. The lowest amplitude was observed when movements were actuated by another hand. The results can be explained using a predictive forward model, since the FoA was not observed in the absence of active movements. On the other hand, the ERPs’ data and the presence of JoA with various delays between the stimulus and movement support the postdic­tive model of agency, where the leading role is assigned to prejudice and contextual knowledge related to the action.

Conclusion. It seems that the “context pressure” of the situation, demanding a mandatory response to the stimulus, forms a cognitive prediction of movements without firm sensory representation.

About the authorsDubynin, Ignat A. ; Shishkin Sergei L.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  40-56
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0303
Keywords:  action, free will, mental chronometry, passive movement, feeling of agency, judgment of agency, sense of agency, somatosensory event-related potentials (ERPs)

Zabotkina V. I., Boyarskaya E. L.(2017). On the challenge of polysemy in contemporary cognitive research: What is conscious and what is unconscious. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 28-39.

Background. The problem of polysemy has attracted scholars’ attention since antiq­uity and interest in the phenomenon never lessens. A substantial number of works have been published on the cognitive nature of meaning ambiguity. Despite a new emphasis on the cognitive aspects of polysemy, little has been done towards an inte­grated approach to the study of this linguistic phenomenon.

Objective and Method. This work’s objective was to contribute to an integrated interdisciplinary theory of polysemy. To this end, we explored the cognitive founda­tion of meaning using empirical and theoretical research methods, but mostly relying on semiotic analysis of texts central to the humanities. In particular, we analyzed the dichotomy of conscious vs. unconscious processing in the acquisition and use of polysemy. For the identification of cognitive patterns of polysemy development in ontogenesis, we used probabilistic conceptual modeling.

Results. The acquisition of meaning is a conscious process: it is a conscious interaction of the speaker with an interlocutor and their common social environ­ment. On the other hand, meanings are unconscious unless a connection between the phonological, acoustic form and the concept is established. Correspondingly, polysemy is conscious when a new meaning is formed in the course of social inter­action. However, polysemy, as an inherent language phenomenon, remains uncon­scious for native speakers, who are unaware of its presence provided they are not involved in some form of intentional language games (pun, zeugma or intended ambiguity).

Conclusion. The present approach to the analysis of meaning ambiguity seems to be a productive endeavor. Further research into polysemy has to be based on a range of additional types of evidence, including those obtained by methods of cogni­tive neuroscience.

About the authorsZabotkina, Vera I.; Boyarskaya, Elena L.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  28-39
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0302
Keywords:  cognition, polysemy, meaning acquisition, development, language games, concept, consciousness, unconscious processes

Velichkovsky B. M., Krotkova O. A., Sharaev M. G., Ushakov V. L. (2017). In search of the “I”: Neuropsychology of lateralized thinking meets Dynamic Causal Modeling. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 7-27.

Background. Ideas about relationships between “I”, egocentric spatial orientation and the sense of bodily “Self ” date back to work by classics of philosophy and psychology. Cognitive neuroscience has provided knowledge about brain areas involved in self-ref­erential processing, such as the rostral prefrontal, temporal and parietal cortices, often active as part of the default mode network (DMN).

Objective and Method. Little is known about the contribution of inferior parietal areas to self-referential processing. Therefore, we collected observations of everyday be­havior, social communication and problem solving in patients with brain lesions local­ized either in the left inferior parietal cortex (LIPC group, n = 45) or the right inferior parietal cortex (RIPC group, n = 58).

Results. A key characteristic of the LIPC group was an overestimation of task com­plexity. This led to a prolonged phase of redundant and disruptive contemplations pre­ceding task solution. In the RIPC group, we observed disorders in reflective control and voluntary regulation of behavior. Abilities for experiencing emotions, understanding mental states, and social communication were to a great extent lost. Results are inter­preted within a multilevel framework of cognitive-affective organization (velichkovsky, 2002). In particular, we highlight the role of right-hemisphere mechanisms in self-refer­ential cognition, emotional and corporeal awareness. This is consistent with recent data on a profound asymmetry in connectivity of left and right hippocampi within the DMN (Ushakov et al., 2016)

Conclusion. It seems that the center of egocentric spatial representation plays a spe­cial role in accessing self-related data. Normally, the right hippocampus provides a holis­tic representation of surrounding and, thus, an easy-to-find gateway into much of what we used to call “subjective experience”. This heuristics becomes misleading in the case of right-sided brain lesions.

About the authorsUshakov, Vadim L.; Velichkovsky, Boris M. ; Krotkova Olga A.; Sharaev Maksim G.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  7-27
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0301
Keywords:  thinking, emotions, lateralization, hippocampal formation, neuropsychology, dynamic causal modeling (DCM), egocentric spatial orientation, Self-referential cognition, levels of cognitive organization

Velichkovsky B. M. (2017). Cognitive science: The art and its implications. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (3), 2-7.

Contemporary cognitive science is the latest version of the century-long quest for a better understanding of the human mind and brain. Various disciplines have brought together empirical methods and theoretical models from their fields of study to further this effort. Many of the authors of this special issue are not psychologists by training, and they do their professional work in fields as varied as mathematical physics, neuroimaging, molecular biology, and the pragmatics of communication. Nevertheless, their contributions to the journal’s topic, and, ito the future of psychology as a science, are preeminent.

About the authorsVelichkovsky, Boris M.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  2-6
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0300
Keywords:  cognitive science, cognitive psychology

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2013). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (1), 2

Since the publication of its first issue in 2008, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art had served as a flagship journal for the Russian Psychological Society and has played an important and unique role for the field of psychology in Russia. And with the psychological science rapidly becoming increasingly international, integrated and multidisciplinary, the journal today enjoys a wide international readership and is becoming a source of scholarship in psychology worldwide.

This year marks the transition of Psychology in Russia: State of the Art from annual to quarterly publication to encourage exploration, development and validation of new scholarly discoveries in the field. This required our editorial team to streamline the journal’s review and publication processes to meet the challenge and see our journal evolve as it continues to grow in size and influence.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  2
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0100
Keywords:  Editorial volum #6, 1, 2013 Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

Lebedeva, Nadezhda M., Tatarko, Alexander N. (2008). Ethnic Identity, Group Status and Type of Settlement as Predictors of Ethnic Intolerance. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 102-119

The results of the field research of intergroup attitudes in Southern Russia (N=723) demonstrated that the relationships of the valence and uncertainty of ethnic identity, perceived discrimination and the level of religious identity with intergroup attitudes depend on a group status (majority-minority) and the type of settlement (dense - sparse). The perceived discrimination predicts the intolerance of intergroup attitudes among the majority group members whereas, the valence and uncertainty of ethnic identity - among the minorities members. The salience of ethnic identity and high level of religious identity predict intolerant attitudes among migrants with the dense way of settlement, the valence of identity and perceived discrimination predict intolerant attitudes among the migrants with the sparse type of settlement. The willingness to distinguish between people by religion provides the maintenance of their group boundaries and identity in multicultural regions of Russia. The growth of uncertainty of ethnic identity, decrease of perceived discrimination and the level of religious identity as well as general ethnic tolerance provide better adaptation of migrants in multicultural regions of Russia.

About the authorsLebedeva, Nadezhda M.; Tatarko, Alexander N.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  102-119
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0007
Keywords:  Social Psychology, Ethnic Identity

Nazaretyan Akop P. (2008). Technology, Psychology, and Crises: Does World History Have a Psychological Dimension? Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 55-80

Data about the victims of social violence in different cultures and historical epochs are provided by wars, political repressions, and everyday violence. Rough calculations demonstrate that while demographic densities and the technical capacity for mutual destruction have increased throughout the millennia, the violent death rate - the quantity of deliberate killings per capita per time unit - has been decreasing. The resulting downward trend appears highly non-linear, dramatic, and mediated by man-made catastrophes, but still, in the long term, progressive. Obviously, some perfecting mechanism of cultural aggression-retention has compensated for technological developments; among those mechanisms was economic development. This issue is explored using the pattern of techno-humanitarian balance.

About the authorsNazaretyan, Akop P.
ThemesHistorical Psychology
Pages:  55-80
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0005
Keywords:  Historical Psychology, Technology, Psychology, and Crises: Does World History Have a Psychological Dimension?

Klochko Vitaly Y. (2008). Modern Psychology: Systems Meaning of a Paradigm Shift. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 25-40

The article is focused on the history of psychology from a perspective of its paradigm shifts. Based on the transspective analysis, the author identifies the grounds for progressive development of the psychological science as an open self-organizing theoretical system. The transspective analysis is also considered a methodological tool for studying self-organizing psychological systems. It is asserted that modern psychology is moving toward a post-non-classical paradigm within the framework of which psyche and consciousness acquire a new explanation.

About the authorsKlochko, Vitaliy Y.
ThemesPhilosophy of Psychology
Pages:  25-40
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0002
Keywords:  Modern Psychology, philosophy of psychology

Danilova, Nina N. (2008). Frequency-Selective Gamma Generators in Processing of Auditory Stimuli. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 299-308

Processing of sensory stimuli is controlled by the top-down influences that shape oscillations in the synchrony form revealed in the EEG. However, little is known about the nature of these influences. The present study investigated the contribution of "evoked oscillations" in the perception of auditory stimuli during passive and active attention from the position of pacemaker hypothesis on the origin of gamma rhythm. To analyze the problem, the author suggests a special method based on the narrow frequency filtering event-related potentials, localization of dipole sources of gamma oscillations over the structural MRI slices. Computation of equivalent dipoles for the discrete frequencies demonstrates interaction between prefrontal and auditory cortex during active attention to auditory stimuli. The obtained results are compatible with the pacemaker hypothesis.

About the authorsDanilova, Nina N.
Pages:  299-308
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0019
Keywords:  psychophysiology, methodology

Chernorizov, Alexsander M. (2008). Vector Encoding of Light Intensity in Neural Networks of Visual System. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 309-318

Intracellular research of land snail Helix lucorum L. eye demonstrates two types of visual cells responding to flashes of white light by slow sustained depolarization (D-type) and by slow sustained hyperpolarization (H-type), respectively. Peaks of spectral sensitivity of both cell types at 465-500 nm coincide with peak of spectral sensitivity of photopigment "rhodopsin". The two-channel vector model of achromatic vision of snail is proposed. According to the model, responses of D- and H-cells constitute two-dimensional 'excitation vector' of constant length, the direction of which is the code of light intensity. The two-dimensional vector model of light encoding in snails' eye is analogous with achromatic vision models of achromatic vision in vertebrates based on psychophysical and neurophysiological data in fish, rabbit, monkey and human. So, intracellular data in snail taken together with data on vertebrate animals testify in favor of the hypothesis that 2-dimensioanl module of "bright" and "dark" cells is the universal opponent mechanism of "vector encoding" of light intensity in neuronal nets for vision.

About the authorsChernorizov, Alexsander M.
Pages:  309-318
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0020
Keywords:  psychophysiology, methodology

Bogoyavlenskaya, Diana B. (2008). Two Paradigms — Two Vectors of Creating the New. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 153-161

At the current stage the history of researching creativity appears to have drawn a curve which agrees with the methodological conceptions of L.S. Vigotsky. His idea, that of a psychology which intends to study phenomena in their complexity, should replace the methods of dividing into elementary components (atoms) by methods which single out essential non-elemental units, and should make obvious the logic of understanding creative abilities, as it historically developed in the 19lh and 20lh centuries.

About the authorsBogoyavlenskaya, Diana B.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  153-161
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0010
Keywords:  cognitive studies

Allakhverdov, Viktor M. (2008). Awareness as a Result of Choice. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 136-152

The article describes various studies on awareness - unawareness processes conducted at the department of General psychology at St.-Petersburg State University, Russia. The topic under discussion is the aftereffect of the negative choice, which was discovered by the author. This phenomenon is related to some other well-known psychological phenomena. The article discusses the meaning of this phenomenon (the aftereffect of the negative choice) for the research program in the psychology of consciousness.

About the authorsAllakhverdov, Viktor M.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  136-152
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0009
Keywords:  cognitive studies

Barabanshchikov, Vladimir A. (2008). The Systemicity Principle in Modern Psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 120-135

The article reveals the subject-matter of the systemacity (consistency) principle in psychology and some forms of its realization. Basic statements of the original version of the system approach by major Russian psychologist and science institutor Boris F. Lomov are considered. The state and the tendencies of development of system approach in the modern period are discussed.

About the authorsBarabanshchikov, Vladimir A.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  120-135
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0008
Keywords:  cognitive studies

Ulanovsky, Alexey M. (2008). Phenomenology as a Style of Research and Practice. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 48-54

The paper presents analysis of principles, treatments and ways of using phenomenology in psychology. Six different ways of using phenomenological method in psychology are discerned: as

(1) a method of clarifying of phenomena of consciousness and concepts,
(2) a way of differentiation, description and analysis of psychopathological phenomena,
(3) a way of understanding and penetration to the living world of a person,
(4) a form of subjective self-reports of participants,
(5) a method of psychotherapeutic work with experience,
(6) a qualitative research strategy in academic psychology.

The approach to phenomenology as a special style of research and practice, which implies the intuitive, reflective, unprejudiced, descriptive, detailed approach to phenomena, is developed.

About the authorsUlanovsky, Alexey M.
ThemesPhilosophy of Psychology
Pages:  48-54
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0004
Keywords:  Phenomenology as a Style of Research and Practice

Mironenko, Irina A. (2008) On Some Difficulties in the Dialogue with Foreign Colleagues. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 41-47

Russian psychology which had been cut off from the world science for the greater part of the 20th century is now facing a challenge to join the international mainstream. To facilitate the integration of Russian psychology into the international mainstream, a certain hermeneutics is needed, applied to the explicit methodology and terminology Russian scientists used, as well as to the system of implicit beliefs and assumptions concerning human nature "embedded" into the Russian psychology. The latter is compared to its counterparts in major Western psychological theories.

About the authorsMironenko, Irina A.
ThemesPhilosophy of Psychology
Pages:  41-47
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0003
Keywords:  Difficulties in the Dialogue

Dunas D. V. (2013) The effect of the «last drop»: on the question of the media’s ability to have a harmful impact on the audience. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 144-152

Today, the media are often blamed for having a harmful influence on the moral, psychological, psychosexual, and social development of people. Indignant mothers, polemicists from politics and social fields, spiritual leaders, psychologists, and even researchers of the media attribute to the mass media truly horrific effects, such as the demoralization, perversion, and spiritual impoverishment of their audiences. The most blamed medium is television. Nowadays, television is considered to be the root of evil. The author tries to understand how justified such reproaches to the media are.

About the authorsDunas, Denis V.
ThemesMedia and cyber psychology; Social psychology
Pages:  144-152
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0114
Keywords:  media impact, media effects, the media and morality, harmful impact of the media.

Gladkova A. A. (2013) The role of television in cultivating the values of pluralism and cultural diversity in children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 138-143

This article examines the influence of the mass media and in particular television on the development of the values of pluralism and cultural diversity in children. The role of television is quite important in forming positive attitudes toward cultural, ethnic, and other groups and in inculcating an adequate perception of social reality and tolerant, multicultural awareness. The article also analyzes the functions and principles of public broadcasting, among which diversity of programming is one of the most significant.

About the authorsGladkova, Anna A.
ThemesMedia and cyber psychology; Psychology and culture
Pages:  138-143
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0113
Keywords:  pluralism, tolerance, multicultural awareness, diversity, public television, set of values.

Smirnova O. V. (2013) Women’s advancement in journalism: psychological characteristics. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 119-127

The feminization of journalism, a process taking place in numerous countries worldwide, has been advancing at a much higher rate in Russia than elsewhere. This trend is based on both global and specifically Russian factors. The gradual migration of journalism from being a typically male profession to being a predominantly female one brings about a number of inner transformations and creates a certain inner psychological climate. To fully understand these changes, researchers should set new goals for their studies based on an analysis of gender transformations in journalism and on investigations of possible problems and conflicts entailed in the process.

About the authorsSmirnova, Olga V.
ThemesMedia and cyber psychology; Gender psychology
Pages:  119-127
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0111
Keywords:  journalism, feminization of journalism, women’s promotion strategies, psychological characteristics.

Vartanova E. L.(2013) The media and the individual: economic and psychological interrelations. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 110-118

The mass media have become one of the crucial institutions of modern society; it is hard to overestimate their role in the formation of people’s beliefs, values, and physiological characteristics. The media industries are now an integral part of the leisure and entertainment industries. With free time becoming a key economic resource of society, the individual lives and psychological well-being of people are significantly influenced by the processes of mass communication and by media companies; this level of influence results in the emergence of a new human being—homo mediatis.

About the authorsVartanova, Elena L.
ThemesMedia and cyber psychology; Social psychology
Pages:  110-108
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0110
Keywords:  mass media, media industry, media psychology, media audience, homo mediates.

Mezzich J.E., Zinchenko Y.P., Krasnov V.N., Pervichko E.I., Kulygina M.A. (2013) Person-centered approaches in medicine: clinical tasks, psychological paradigms, and postnonclassic perspective. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 95-109

The article aims to demonstrate advances in methodological means suggested by Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept in association with a theoretical model of a Person-centered diagnosis and practical use of the construct for clinical psychology and medicine. This, to a greater extent, arises from the fact that the cultural-historical concept (due to its humanistic nature and epistemological content) is closely related to the person-centered integrative approach. But for all that the concept corresponds to the ideals of postnonclassical model of scientific rationality with a number of ‘key’ features. Above all it manifests its “methodological maturity” to cope with open self-developing systems, which is most essential at the modern stage of scientific knowledge.

The work gives consideration to ‘defining pillars’ of Person-centered approach in modern medicine, to humanistic traditions of the Russian clinical school, and high prospects in diagnostics of such mental constructs as “subjective pattern of disease” and “social situation of personal development in disease” - within the context of person-centered integrative diagnosis.

This article discusses the need for implementation a cross-cultural study of subjective pattern of disease and its correlation with a particular “social situation of personality development under disease conditions”. It aims at development and substantiation of the model of person-centered integrative approach, enhancement of its diagnostic scope and, consequently, improvement of the model of person-centered care in modern psychiatry and medicine.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Pervichko, Elena I. ; Mezzich, Juan E.; Krasnov, Valeriy N.; Kulygina, Maya A.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  95-109
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0109
Keywords:  Person-centered approach, Person-centered integrative diagnosis (PID), Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept , Subjective pattern of disease, Social situation of development, Postnonclassical model of scientific rationality, Self-developing systems.

Tsvetkova L. A., Antonova N.A.(2013) The prevalence of drug use among university students in St. Petersburg, Russia. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (1), 86-94

Over the last decade, the problem of young people's health has been among the most important and complicated ones for Russian society; these problems affect not only young children but also students in higher education institutions. The low level of physical and psychological health of young people has become an alarming characteristic of the demographic situation in modern Russia.

This study was carried out at the State University of St. Petersburg, which is one of the largest higher education institutions in Russia. The university consists of many academic departments, and thus it is possible to study the health-related behavior of students with different professional backgrounds.

The results show that drug use among students in Russia still remains relatively rare and episodic; in most cases, students use "light" drugs and thus have both slow rates of developing an addiction and an alternative but successful socialization in modern youth subculture. Such drugs are also not generally associated with significant health risks.

About the authorsZvetkova, Larisa A.; Antonova, Natalia A.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  86-94
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0108
Keywords:  risk behavior, drug use, university students, social aspects of drug use.

Sirota N. A., Fetisov B. A. (2013) Coping behavior of women with breast cancer with visible postsurgery deformity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 77-85

Research was carried out to explore coping strategies in cancer patients. In all, 70 women with breast cancer were studied: 35 of them had visible postsurgery deformity, and 35 did not have visible postsurgery deformity. The purpose of the research was to uncover their preferences for using various strategies and resources to cope with their illness. The results showed that both groups of women had a special set of strategies for coping with stress. The women with visible postsurgery deformity made significantly less use of resources for coping with their illness than did the subgroup of women without visible postsurgery deformity.

About the authorsSirota, Natalya A.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  77-85
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0107
Keywords:  coping strategies, coping resources, breast cancer, postsurgery deformity.

Bardyshevskaya M. K. (2013) The development of affective behavioral complexes: a level-based model. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 66-76

The author discusses sources for, problems in, and ways of forming a hierarchical model of the development of whole affective behavioral complexes, not just mechanisms of emotional regulation, as was done in the original level-based model elaborated by Victor Lebedinsky. The author describes specific traits of affective behavioral complexes and types of links between them on different levels. Primitive affective behavioral complexes, either isolated or rigidly linked, dominate on the lower three levels. On the fourth level attachment behavior plays a “star” role, mediating and regulating all vital behaviors. On the fifth level symbolic activity permanently rebuilds the experience obtained on the lower levels. The author discusses links between affective behavioral complexes and nuclear personality formations.

About the authorsBardyshevskaya, Marina K.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  66-76
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0106
Keywords:  development, affective behavioral complexes, regulation, attachment, symbolic activity.

Veraksa A.N. (2013) Symbol as cognitive tool of mental activity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 57-65

The article describes various aspects of symbolic mediation and is aimed at showing its specificity. The author views a situation of uncertainty as a structural element of a symbol and introduces the notion of a symbol being a special tool for orientation in such situations. On the one hand, a symbol is contrasted to a sign, and on the other, is regarded as a transitional form in the process of its mastering. Author pays special attention to understanding the role of symbol in connection with understanding of play and its role in child’s development. Emotional and cognitive functions of symbol are defined and illustrated by examples.

About the authorsVeraksa, Aleksandr N.
ThemesTheories and approaches; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  57-65
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0105
Keywords:  sign, symbol, mediation, developmental psychology, education.

Zinchenko Y.P., Pervichko E.I.(2013) Nonclassical and Postnonclassical epistemology in Lev Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach to clinical psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 43-56

The work presents historiographic and theoretical methodological study of establishment of fundamental theses of L.S. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept within the field of clinical psychology.

We prove potency in application of contemporary philosophical concepts, which help distinguish between the types of scientific rationality (classical, nonclassical, and postnonclassical), for scientific reflection over the development of psychology and designation of paradigmatic status of cultural-historic concept suggested by L.S. Vygotsky and Vygotsky-Luria syndrome approach at the contemporary stage of science.

Present study of scientific works of L.S. Vygotsky and his followers demonstrated that fundamentals of cultural-historic conception suggested by L.S. Vygotsky and further developed in methodology of Vygotsky-Luria syndrome approach, these fundamentals presented the origins of not only non-classical, but as well post-nonclassical model of scientific rationality. They are characterized by post-nonclassical understanding of the object and method of psychological study and post-nonclassical mode of thinking of the scientists.

As it was showed, in works of L.S. Vygotsky there formulated general methodological requirements to organization of mental studies, which, on the whole, go in tune with the requirements introduced for study of complex self-developing systems. There were produced arguments to prove that the concept of Vygotsky-Luria syndrome approach describes mental syndromes as dynamic structures, which display the features of self-organization, self-determination and adaptive rationality. Hence, they can be regarded as open self-developing systems.

We assume and verify the hypothesis that the syndrome analysis, due to the features of post-nonclassic modeling of scientific rationality it reveals, may be regarded as theoretically productive methodological approach at the modern stage of science.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Pervichko, Elena I.
ThemesTheories and approaches; Clinical psychology; Methodology of psychology
Pages:  43-56
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0104
Keywords:  nonclassical epistemology, postnonclassical epistemology, self-developing systems, cultural-historical psychology, Vygotsky-Luria school, psychological syndrome analysis, higher mental functions.

Bayanova L.F. (2013) Vygotsky’s Hamlet: the dialectic method and personality psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 35-42

This article presents an analysis of Vygotsky’s work on the psychology of art and his use of the image of Hamlet in the psychological analysis of personality. It also describes the capabilities of the dialectic method for assessing psychological problems. Reference to three dialectical oppositions—of the story and the plot, of the main character’s spinelessness and his insanity, and of subject and personality—allows the development of a theoretical analysis of the psychology of personality in its relationship to culture. Culture is defined as the system of normative situations. Keywords: image of Hamlet, dialectic method, culture, normative situation, personality, subject.

About the authorsBayanova, Larisa F.
ThemesPsychology and culture; Personality psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  35-42
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0103
Keywords:  : image of Hamlet, dialectic method, culture, normative situation, personality, subject.

Yurevich A.V., Ushakov D.V. (2013).The Psychological dynamics of modern Russian society: an expert estimate. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 21-34

Over the past several years, the possibilities for Russia’s economic growth have been discussed widely. This problem is unquestionably topical. However, do material factors alone determine the well-being of a society and its people? Since the mid-1980s, the overwhelming majority of indicators of the psychological state of Russian society have been demonstrating a negative tendency, and this trend not only reflects on the citizens’ sense of self but also creates obstacles on the way to the country’s innovative development.

About the authorsYurevich, Andrey V. ; Ushakov, Dmitry V.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  21-34
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0102
Keywords:  modern Russian society, psychological state, expert assessment

Asmolov A.G.(2013). Strategy and methodology for the sociocultural reform of education Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 3-20

This chapter explains the strategy for the sociocultural reform of education as a socialization institution that plays a key role in the focused development of value systems, standards, paradigms, and behavioral patterns in the population of Russia. The author reveals the role education plays in modeling such phenomena of social development as the social consolidation of society, the civil identity of representatives of various social groups and national cultures, the encouragement of social confidence, the successful socialization of oncoming generations, and the social stratification of the population of Russia. This chapter also considers the benefits of the sociocultural reform of education as a growth driver for the competitive strength of the individual, the society, and the state and for the further design of long-term programs for the social and economic development of Russia, including the federal education-development program.

About the authorsAsmolov, Aleksandr G.
ThemesMethodology of psychology; Educational psychology
Pages:  3-20
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0101
Keywords:  sociocultural remodeling of education, tolerance, activity, education standards, sociocultural development of education, growing generation’s, education reform.

Nourkova Veronika V., Bernstein Daniel M. (2008). Imagination Inflation After a Change in Linguistic Context. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 197-210

Participants in Experiment 1 completed a 36-item life events inventory (LEI) in their native language (Russian) two separate times, over a 1-week period. Between the two LEIs, participants got 12 items translated from Russian into English and 12 items in Russian. They performed a series of English-language exercises on translated items and Russian-language exercises on non-translated items. After performing exercises on items translated from Russian into English participants increased their confidence that these life events had occurred in their personal past. There was no similar effect for nontranslated items and for control items. Experiment 2 was run to examine if two factors - a change in linguistic context and a change in level of abstraction taken together boosted the effect. Participants completed a 24-item LEI in Russian two separate times, over a 1 -week period. Between the two LEIs, participants got 12 of these life events at the higher level of abstraction (e.g., "Got lost in a shopping mall" or "found yourself at an unfamiliar public place") translated from Russian into English. Participants translated the event from English into Russian and wrote a sentence using the gist of the item. After performing language exercises on items at the higher level of abstraction participants increased their confidence that these life events had occurred in their personal past. The magnitude of effect was almost twice bigger than in Experiment 1. These results indicate that a change in linguistic context can produce imagination inflation. We discuss our findings in terms of familiarity misattribution, whereby processing fluency is experienced as familiarity and misattributed to autobiographical memory.

About the authorsNourkova, Veronika V. ; Bernstein, Daniel M.
ThemesCognitive psychology
Pages:  197-210
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0013
Keywords:  cognitive studies

Petrenko V.F., Mitina O.V. (2008). Using Psychosemantic Methods in Political Psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 239-264

This articles concerns the relatively and new and specifically developed in Russia methodology of research of social consciousness. The purpose and in the same time the method of the research using this methodology is reconstruction the system of categories (superordinate personal constructs in the terminology of G. Kelly) through which people perceive world and events around him (her). Especially it is very powerful method when dealing with political and socio-cultural issues, because allows to explicate implicit stereotypes which typically are very deep and difficult for diagnostic. Several examples from different topics of political psychology will be presented.

About the authorsPetrenko, Viktor F. ; Mitina, Olga V.
Pages:  239-264
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0016
Keywords:  psychosemantic, methodology

Zinchenko Yu.P. (2008). Psychology of Safety and Resistance to Terrorism. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 81-101

The psychological component of terrorism in four major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction to terrorism, psychological training of experts and the psychological help to victims of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of "contributing events" as well as hypothesis "frustration-aggression" are investigated. Specific features and the external factors promoting involving into terrorism are analyzed. The system of measures of counteraction of transformation of groups of risk is presented to the potential terrorist organizations, including in aspect of the control over ideology, education, education and work of mass media. Features of work with victims of acts of terrorism and extreme situations, minimization of its negative consequences are made out. Psychological reactions of the experts, engaged by liquidation of consequences of actions of terrorism, resulting works with victims of extreme situations are revealed. Features of vocational training of the personnel working with victims of terrorism and extreme situations are specified. Ways of overcoming of the negative psychological consequences arising at experts as a result of long contact to victims of extreme situations are presented.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  81-101
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0006

Yurevich A.V. (2008). Cognitive Frames in Psychology: Demarcations and Ruptures. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 7-24

This article looks at the main symptoms of the crisis in psychology. The author believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent science, there have appeared some new symptoms. The author identifies three fundamental "ruptures": "vertical" ruptures between various schools and trends, "horizontal" ruptures between natural science and humanitarian psychology and "diagonal" ruptures between research (academic) and practical psychology. In the author's opinion, these manifestations of the crisis of psychology have recently been compounded by the crisis of its rationalistic foundations.

About the authorsYurevich, Andrey V.
ThemesPhilosophy of Psychology
Pages:  7-24
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0001
Keywords:  meta-theories, paradigms, sociodigms, metadigms

Zinchenko Yu.P., Petrenko V.F. (2008). Introduction. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 5-6

The present volume collects some examples of scientific work done by contemporary Russian psychologists, both empirical and theoretical, in different directions of research. Russian psychology in its development has undergone various times, some of them could be characterized as significant intensity of research, some could be described as essential decrease in volume of the leaded development. Those changes were mostly determined by the external reasons: political revolutions of the beginning and the end of the twentieth century, two World wars, which have influenced all areas of Russian life, economic and political shocks of the first half and the end of the same century, ideological restrictions (during the Soviet period) that were imposed on studied problems and treatment of the results of those studies, and also in the form of significant reduction of communication between the Russian and world psychology, etc.

About the authorsPetrenko, Viktor F. ; Zinchenko, Yury P.
Pages:  5-6
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0000

The Presidium of the Russian Psychological Society (RPS). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 637-639

Yury P. Zinchenko – President of the RPS, Doctor of Psychological Science, Professor,
Dean of the Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University
(international activity, executive duties, growth policy).

Pages:  637-639
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0032
Keywords:  RPS, history of psychology

Shmeleva I.A. (2009). The Methodology of Psychological Research of Ecological Consciousness. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 619-636

The paper examines the methodological principles of the psychological study of ecological consciousness as one of the urgent interdisciplinary problems of XX–XXI century, caused by the aggravation of global ecological problems and the need for the realization of the “sustainable development”ideas. Ecological consciousness is considered as multilayered, dynamic, reflexive element of human consciousness, incorporating multivariate, holistic aspects of interaction of the human being as the H.S. and the Humanity representative with the environment and the Planet. The possibility of the more active introduction of Russian psychology in the process is argued for in connection with the existing conceptual approaches, which compose the methodological basis for ecological consciousness research. Among these approaches are considered: the principles of holistic study of the human being by B. Ananyev, the methodology of system psychological description by V. Gansen and G. Sukhodolsky, the idea of reflexivity of consciousness by S. Rubinstein, the humanitarian- ecological imperative of the development of consciousness by V. Zinchenko, the theory of relations by V. Myasishev, consideration of ecological consciousness as relation to nature by S. Deryabo and V. Yasvin, theories of consciousness by V. Petrenko, V. Allakhverdov and other Russian psychologists. The value component of ecological consciousness is distinguished as the most significant. The possibility of applying the Values’ theory of the by S. Schwartz for studying the ecological values is discussed along with the prognostic potential of the universalism value.

ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  619-636
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0031
Keywords:  Ecological consciousness, sustainable development, holistic study of human being, system psychological description of consciousness, reflection, values, ecological values, universalism

Veraksa A.N., Leonov S. V. (2009). Cognitive Aspects of Athlete Activity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 603-618

Article is devoted to the issues of symbolic mediation and diagnostic of time perception in sport. Distinction between iconic and symbolic mediation is discussed. Evidences of effective implementation of symbolic mediation in sport are examined. Means of optimization of sportsmen and sportswomen training by the instrumentality of symbol are considered. The results of time perception diagnostic of Russian synchronized swimmers are described. It was shown that sportswomen are greatly varied in accuracy and stability of reproduction of long (2–5 sec) and estimation of short (less than 250 ms) time intervals, which were filled with different contents – ticks of metronome, persistent sound, pressuring the button and etc. The improvement of individual characteristics of time perception is an important psychological resource of sports achievements increase.

About the authorsVeraksa, Aleksandr N. ; Leonov, Sergey V.
ThemesSport psychology; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  603-618
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0030
Keywords:  sport psychology, symbol, icon, image, situation of uncertainty, synchronized swimming, time perception.

Kashapov M.M., Leybina A. V. (2009). Motivation of Professional Creative Thinking. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 585-602

The aim of this study was to reveal correlation between motivation and creative professional thinking. Four hundred and seventy-one Russians of different trades participated in the study. It was supposed that motivational structure and level of creative professional thinking were interrelated. The connection between motivational components and professional thinking was revealed. Tendencies of transition form situational level of thinking to oversituational one were determined. It was found out that motivational structure of workers with situational thinking was much more consistent than that of workers with oversituational thinking.

About the authorsKashapov, Mergalуаs M.
ThemesOrganizational psychology; Psychology of creativity
Pages:  585-602
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0029
Keywords:  creative professional thinking, motivation, values, motivation structure.

Voiskounsky A.E. (2009). Web Plagiarism: Empirical Study. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 564-584

A questionnaire measuring web plagiarism (or academic cheating), worked out by Underwood and Szabo (2003) has been adapted and applied to the population of undergraduate science students in Russia. The students at four technical universities are questioned (N=292). The study shows the students perform webplagiarizing, i.e. take materials from the Internet and hand these materials in as their own assignments. Russian students are reportedly competent in the use of the Internet; they report to have rather few moral barriers towards plagiarizing; they believe most of their mates do the same; they are not sure their tutors are able and willing to recognize cheating; finally, they are competent enough in English and are hypothetically able to plagiarize in two languages.

About the authorsVoiskounsky, Alexander E.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  564-584
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0028
Keywords:  plagiarism, cyberethics, moral development, science students, gender, academic year

Velichkovsky B.B. (2009). Primary and Secondary Appraisals in Measuring Resilience to Stress. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 539-563

Measuring resilience to stress (or stress resistance) validly and reliably is an important theoretical and practical problem. Process-oriented stress theories assume that primary and secondary appraisals play an important role in determining the level of resilience. In the present study, a model of resilience based on the analysis of the interplay between primary and secondary appraisal processes is developed. Resilience is high if benign primary appraisals of taxing situations are accompanied by secondary appraisals of coping resources as being sufficient for controlling stressors. In an implementation of the model, the quality of primary appraisals is assessed through the assessment of anxiety, anger and depression, which characterize the most typical cognitive-emotional reactions to demanding situations. The assessment of secondary appraisals is restricted to the analysis of psychophysiological (functional) resources, which are involved in all forms of coping activities. The implementation of the model gives rise to a measure of resilience, which is shown to successfully predict the outcome of the stress process in a sample of Russian police officers.

About the authorsVelichkovsky, Boris B.
ThemesPersonality psychology
Pages:  539-563
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0027
Keywords:  resilience, stress process, situation appraisal, psychophysiological resources, assessment, validity.

Leonova A.B. (2009). The Concept of Human Functional State in Russian Applied Psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 517-538

The concept of human functional states (HFS) is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers’ states are discussed. Three different strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplified with the help of two empirical studies concerned with reliability of fire-fighters’ work in the Chernobyl Zone and effects of interruptions in computerized office environment. A general framework for applied HFS research is proposed in order to develop new ecologically valid psychodiagnostic procedures that can help to create efficient stress-management programs for enhancing human reliability and performance in complex job environment.

About the authorsLeonova, Anna B.
ThemesMethodology of psychology
Pages:  517-538
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0026
Keywords:  activity regulation, job analysis, microstructure of cognitive processes, human functional state, workability, fatigue, mental effort, stress, interruption effects, computerized work

Petrenko V.F., Sapsoleva O.N. (2009). Psychosemantic Approach to Art (on a Material of Cinema). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 492-516

This article discusses an application of psychosemantic methods for the analysis of viewer understanding. As an example, the movie “Sibirskiy Tsiryulnik” (“The Barber of Siberia”, directed by a famous politician N. M ikhalkov) is taken, where Russian and American mentalities are juxtaposed. Basing on the works by M. Bakhtin and G. Kelly the concept of “art construct” is introduced. For the construction of semantic spaces of film perception the method of attribution of motives to film characters’ deeds was elaborated and used with the G. Kelly’s triadic method, followed by factor analysis.

About the authorsPetrenko, Viktor F. ; Sapsoleva, Olga N.
ThemesPsychosemantics; Psychology and culture
Pages:  492-516
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0025
Keywords:  Art psychology, psychosemantics, film perception, personal and art constructs, understanding, deed, semantic space, factor analysis.

Tkhostov A.Sh., Surnov K.G. (2009). Needs of Terrorist. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 477-491

This article reveals the motives of the terrorist activity. It analyzes psychological mechanisms of basic human needs that are implemented at different stages of involvement in terrorist organizations. The authors also discuss the causes of psychological attractiveness / desirability of terrorism in the context of influence of modern technologies on the dynamics of norm and pathology standards.

About the authorsTkhostov, Alexander Sh. ; Surnov, Konstantin G. (1953 - 2012)
ThemesSecurity psychology
Pages:  477-491
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0024
Keywords:  psychology of terrorism, modern technologies, culture and pathology, personal psychology, motivation, basic needs.

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2009). Mass media as an Effective Tool for Prevention of Socio-psychological Factors in the Development of Terrorism. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 459-476

Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction to terrorism, and using mass media for prevention the development of terrorism. Specific features and the external factors promoting involving into terrorism are analysed. Role of mass media in covering the information about terrorism events is analysed from point of view related to prevention of development of terrorism. Some key recommendations on counterterrorism activity using mass media means are formulated.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
ThemesMedia and cyber psychology; Security psychology
Pages:  459-476
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0023
Keywords:  psychology of terrorism, prevention of terrorism, socio-psychological factors of terrorism, psychology of mass media.

Nikolaeva V.V., Arina G.A. (2009). Clinical Psychology of Corporeality: Principles of Cultural-Historical Subject Analysis. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 441-456

The psychology of corporeality is a new and intensively elaborated branch of science. The theoretical foundations of its subject differ significantly from those of medical psychosomatics. In a given article some new concepts of this approaching discipline are introduced and the role of symbolic mediation in genesis of different psychosomatic diseases is discussed.

About the authorsNikolaeva, Valentina V. ; Arina, Galina A.
ThemesClinical psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  441-456
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0022
Keywords:  Nikolaeva V.V., Arina G.A. (2009). Clinical Psychology of Corporeality: Principles of Cultural-Historical Subject Analysis.

Sokolova E.T. Burlakova N.S. (2009). Reconstructin of Inner Dialogue in the Psychotherapeutic Process (A Case Study). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 413-440

Basing on Vygotsky’s cultural-historical methodology, Bakhtin’s conception of inner dialogue, and some ideas of object relations theory, the authors propose an integrative approach to self-awareness in psychotherapy. Serious attention is paid to the predictors of borderline personality disorders and comorbid illnesses: pathogenic family conditions of personality development and, in consequence of them, splitting and structural distortions of self-awareness. The descriptive-analytic, semiotic and dialogical procedures of analysis of verbal communications between patient and psychotherapist were elaborated and approbated.

About the authorsSokolova, Elena T. ; Burlakova, Nataliya S.
ThemesApplied psychology and psychotherapy
Pages:  413-440
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0021
Keywords:  case study, inner dialogue, transference-countertransference, dynamics of Self-Other representations, borderline personality structure.

Lebedinsky V.V (2009). Autism as a Model of Abnormal Emotional Development. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 404-412

The theoretical model of the establishment of the syndrome of early infantile autism is elaborated including all the stages of this establishment. According to Vygotsky and his ideas about the hierarchical organization of pathological syndromes, there is the definition of the difference between the structure and the function of the primary (biological) and secondary (sociological) phenomena of the syndrome of early infantile autism.

ThemesClinical psychology; Developmental psychology
Pages:  404-412
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0020
Keywords:  autistic syndrome, autistic syndrome model, affective disorders.

Burmenskaya G.V. (2009). Child's Attachment to Mother as the Basis of Mental Development Typology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 385-403

The article shows the role of the attachment system (child-mother interactions) in development of a wide spectrum of individual personality characteristics. Emotional attachment of the child to mother is considered as a complicated system of internal regulation and a basis of typology of mental development. Results of a series of empirical studies show the connection between the type of attachment, formed at the early stages of child development, and characteristics of his/her autonomy, consciousness (self-concept and self-esteem) and empathy in preschool and middle childhood.

About the authorsBurmenskaya, Galina V.
ThemesFamily psychology; Developmental psychology
Pages:  385-403
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0019
Keywords:  attachment, typology of mental development, autonomy, self-concept, self-esteem, empathy, preschool and middle childhood.

Malykh S.B., Gindina E.D., Nadyseva V.V. (2009). Genetic and Environmental Influences on Temperament in Adolescence. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 361-384

This study, which is a part of a Moscow longitudinal twin project, aims to explore genetic and environmental contributions to inter-individual variability of temperamental traits in adolescence on the basis of a Russian sample. 85 monozygotic (MZ) and 64 same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs aged 12 – 14 years completed the children version of Rusalov Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (C-STQ). The results of model-fitting analyses indicate considerable hereditary determination of individual differences in 3 out of the 8 C-STQ dimensions - social tempo, objectrelated emotional sensitivity, and social emotional sensitivity. Non-shared environmental effects explained the rest of the total variance in these dimensions. Individual differences in the other STQ dimensions were due to environmental factors.

About the authorsMalykh, Sergey B. ; Gindina, Elena D.
ThemesBehavioral genetics; Developmental psychology
Pages:  361-384
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0018
Keywords:  monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, adolescents, individual differences, temperament, genotype, environment.

Poddiakov A.N. (2009). 'Trojan Horse" Teaching. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 344-360

An advanced strategic behavior, which we term, “Trojan horse” teaching (THT), is described. In this type of counteractive behavior, a “teacher”, ostensibly helping his or her rival to learn something, really teaches the rival useless or disadvantageous things. This interaction is an object of interdisciplinary research related to the theory of human capital, the theory of agency, knowledge management, the theory of conflict, and to social and educational psychology. Examples of THT in real life, and results of experiential studies, including the administration of a survey concerning people’s beliefs about teaching “with evil intent”, and a set of experiments with participation of adults and children, have been described. Possible directions of artificial intelligence systems development related to THT are described. General relations between: (a) counteraction to learning, and (b) development in spite of the counteraction are discussed.

About the authorsPoddiakov, Alexander N.
ThemesMethodology of psychology; Educational psychology
Pages:  344-360
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0017
Keywords:  teaching, learning, competition, conflict, deceiving, Trojan horse teaching.

Sergienko E.A. (2009). Revolution in the Cognitive Psychology of Development. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 327-343

The recent revolutionary changes in the cognitive psychology of development, touching upon the basic conceptions of psychology, are generalized in this article. The problem of theoretical changes connected with systemic evolutionary approach, dynamic nonlinear system theory, and connectionism, is discussed. The author analyses four basic theses of revolutionary changes: from sensory-motor infant to representative one; from the leading role of activity to the unity of perception and action; about the continuity of the subject formation, instead of axiom of subjectivity of the adult, mature person; about the continuance of genetic and environmental instead of social primacy in the mental development of a person. There are key arguments of new conceptions, obtained by the author and other researchers.

About the authorsSergienko, Elena A.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Developmental psychology
Pages:  327-343
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0016
Keywords:  revolutionary changes, cognitive development, early ontogenesis, representative infant, perception and action, ontogenesis of subjectivity, theory of mind, theories of mental formation.

Kornilova T.V. (2009). Academic Achievement in College: the Predictive Value of Subjective Evaluations of Intelligence and Academic Self-concept. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 309-326

The study examined the relationship between self-, peer- and test-estimated intelligence, academic self-concept and academic achievement. Subjective evaluations of intelligence and academic self-concept had incremental predictive value over conventional intelligence when predicting achievement accounting for more than 40% of its variance. The obtained pattern of results is presented via SEM-model which accounts for 75% variance in the latent factor of academic achievement. Author suggests the importance of further studying complex sets of achievement predictors from ability, personality and mediating domains.

About the authorsKornilova, Tatiana V.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  309-326
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0015
Keywords:  subjective evaluations, intelligence, self-estimated intelligence, academic self-concept, academic achievement

Nazarov A.I. (2009). From Reflectory Ring to Multivariable System. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 289-306

Some special features of feedback functioning in live movement control are discussed. Taking into account the multicoupling nerve structure of movement apparatus we inevitable are faced with a question about principles based in clousing of chanals’ central endings ensemble, which afferentiates movement, on effector centres ensemble which controls muscle periphery. When we speak about movement skill development such afferent-efferent connections (reciphering, as N.A.Bernstein named them) which would be adequate to perform given motor task do not exist in advance and they must to be developed during performing that task. The main role here play human perception of the information resulted from movement performance on the level of motor-sensory transition, when multidimensional vector of muscle dynamics transforms into dynamics of outer object environment. On the basis of selection of perseptual data new feedback structure is created which ensures steady functioning of the effectory patterns finded durng practice.

About the authorsNazarov, Аnatoly I.
ThemesMethodology of psychology
Pages:  289-306
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0014
Keywords:  reflectory ring, feedback, multicoupling (multilink), motor skill.

Suprun A.P. (2009). Relativist Psychology: a New Concept of Psychological Measurement. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 262-288

The article demonstrates the inadequacy in the traditional approach of psychology to the description of products of mental representation of perception. The principles of objective representation of subjective experience (principles of “mental map” construction) contain a whole range of contradictions. We propose a consistent mathematical description of the “mental map” based on psychosemiotic principles. Instead of the classical space of characteristics/properties we introduce semantic space that opens the way to a truly adequate representation of psychic reality. The article discusses metrics of the mental map, as well as substantiates the possibility of applying conservation laws to psychology. It is shown that it is possible to reach an adequate representation of research object in the humanities, equivalent to that of natural sciences in terms of accuracy. To verify a new approach, we make use of our theoretical deductions in the explanation of experimental data widely known in psychophysics and inconsistent with Stevens law.

About the authorsSuprun, Anatoly P.
ThemesMethodology of psychology; Psychological assessment
Pages:  262-288
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0013
Keywords:  relativist psychology, mental representation, mental map, psychosemiotic, semantic space, psychophysic.

Kozlov V.V. (2009). Integrative Psychology: the Return to the Subject of Psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 239-261

The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of psychic reality.

About the authorsKozlov, Vladimir V.
ThemesMethodology of psychology
Pages:  239-261
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0012
Keywords:  physiological, psychoanalytical, behavioral and existential-humanistic, transpersonal, communicative, integrative paradigm of psychology, subject of psychology.

Mironenko I.A. (2009). "Great Ideas" in Russian Psychology: Personality Impact on Psychophysiological Functions and Causal Approach to Self-determination. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 225-238

Russian psychology has brought into the world science at least two great ideas: the conditioned reflex (Pavlov) and the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky). These concepts were formulated before “iron curtain” fell. Since then Russian science dropped out from the view of western colleagues for decades. Now it is challenged to re-join international mainstream. Are we in a position to contribute? A key concept for Russian psychology is personality impact on psycho-physiological functions and causal approach to self-determination. The concept of selfdetermination appeared in Western theories in 1980-es and since then it has been developed in the context of teleological humanitarian approach. In Russian science the concept of self-determination dates back to 1934, when it was defined by Rubinstein as “sub’ekt”. Self-determination of ontogenesis of psychophysiological functions resulting from confluence of ontogenesis and social development was explicated by Russian scientists whose theoretical reasoning and empirical results are compared to Western counterparts.

About the authorsMironenko, Irina A.
ThemesTheories and approaches; Personality psychology
Pages:  225-238
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0011
Keywords:  self-determinatio; causal and teleological approaches; personality impact on psycho physiological processes; psychology in Russia.

Klochko V. Y., Galazhinsky E. V. (2009). Innovative Potential of Personality: Systemic Anthropological Context. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 210-224

Conceptual grounds of the system anthropological psychology, that allow to represent the innovative potential of a personality in the context of understanding the mechanisms of self-development of a person as an open self-organizing system, are discussed in the article.

About the authorsKlochko, Vitaliy Y. ; Galazhinskiy, Eduard V.
ThemesPersonality psychology
Pages:  210-224
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0010
Keywords:  innovative potential of a personality, innovative behaviour, system anthropological psychology.

Podolskiy A.I. (2009). On Scientific Status and Practical Significance of One Psychological Theory. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 187-209

Since the late 1950s, a significant number of authors tried to use Galperin’s approach (which is well-known as the “Theory of planned stage-by-stage formation of mental actions”, or the PSFMA Theory) to improve schooling processes and results. Looking back at the more than fifty‑year history of Galperin’s approach, one may note that the 1960s and the early 1970s were the periods of the great optimism concerning effectiveness and efficiency of its practical application. It seemed possible to transform radically the way and the traditional results of learning/teaching process. To compare the 60s-70s and the 80s-90s publications one could easily discover a significant decrease of a wave of optimism concerning the PSFMA’s application. Besides the obvious social‑economic and social‑psychological reasons there exists a methodological reason concerning the ways and means of the Galperin’s approach use. Historically, the substantial pedagogical results of planned stage‑by‑stage formation of mental actions first came to the fore. However, the proponents’ enthusiasm about really unusual and hopeful results had a reverse side: it led to the serious misunderstanding of the status of Galperin’s approach and transformed the last to some absolute knowledge like a sort of “philosophers’ stone”. The successful application of the statements of PSFMA does not mean a literal reproduction of some abstract general procedure, but a creative design of a system of necessary and sufficient psychological conditions adapted to a concrete schooling situation. The elaboration of such a procedure occupies an intermediate position between the fundamental psychological knowledge and the real process of schooling. The three-model system is considered to bridge a gap between the fundamental knowledge introduced by Galperin and the real circumstances of learning/teaching situation.

About the authorsPodolskiy, Andrei I.
ThemesMethodology of psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  187-209
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0009
Keywords:  internalization, stage-by-stage formation of mental actions, human action properties, psychological, psychological‑pedagogical, and technological models of the instruction situation, formation of attentiveness.

Alexandrov Yu.l., Sams M.E. (2009). Emotion and Consciousness: Ends of a Continuum. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 141-186

We suggest a united concept of consciousness and emotion, based on the systemic cognitive neuroscience perspective regarding organisms as active and goaldirected. We criticize the idea that consciousness and emotion are psychological phenomena having quite different neurophysiological mechanisms. We argue that both characterize a unified systemic organization of behavior, but at different levels. All systems act to achieve intended behavioral results in interaction with their environment. Differentiation of this interaction increases during individual development. Any behavioral act is a simultaneous realization of systems ranking from the least to the most differentiated. We argue that consciousness and emotion are dynamic systemic characteristics that are prominent at the most and least differentiated systemic levels, correspondingly. These levels are created during development. Our theory is based on both theoretical and empirical research and provides a solid framework for experimental work.

ThemesMethodology of psychology
Pages:  141-186
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0008
Keywords:  cognition, brain, learning, development, neuron, system.

Allakhverdov V.M. (2009). The Role of Consciousness in Human Cognitive Activity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 124-140

The problem of consciousness is examined in the article. It is argued that all the existing approaches to consciousness do not explain the role consciousness plays in human life. An attempt of revealing and describing the principles of the mind’s work is made. Experimental phenomena observed by the author and his followers, particularly, the tendency of previously non-realized ideas not to be realized subsequently, are reviewed. The discussion of these phenomena allows to formulate a novel view on the nature of consciousness.

About the authorsAllakhverdov, Viktor M.
ThemesCognitive psychology; Methodology of psychology
Pages:  124-140
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0007
Keywords:  consciousness, cognition, awareness, adequacy, emotions.

Asmolov A.G., Asmolov G.A. (2009). From We-Media to I-Media: Identity Transformations in the Virtual World. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 101-123

The blogs as the platform for a virtual personality construction are considered in the article on the assumption of the positions of Lev S. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach. Internet journalism practices are considered as the example for the processes of virtual “I” formation. The authors affirm that the appearance of consecutive and stable “I-representation” in Internet is the necessary condition for a change in dynamics of social nets development from motives which are out of Internet in physical space towards situation when a virtual personality is enough full-fledged to be a motive for new social interactions creation not leaving Internet. As a result a virtual personality turns into a net-creating factor and Internet loses its unoriginality in relation to physical space. Using Lev Vygotsky’s “internal speech” concept, the article suggests to consider this interaction as a dairy discourse – “A dialog of internal voices”, which turns a virtual personality from the product of self representation into the product of social interaction. The authors affirm that the ability to construct a virtual personality is the integral part for personality formation in the new information society and propose to regard journalism practices as one of the methods of effective self representation in Internet.

About the authorsAsmolov, Gregory A. ; Asmolov, Aleksandr G.
ThemesMedia and cyber psychology
Pages:  101-123
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0006
Keywords:  virtual personality, cultural-historical psychology, blogs, Internet journalism, social nets, social media.

Nazaretyan A.P. (2009). On the Mechanisms of Moral Development in Evolutionary Historical Psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 72-100

Rough calculations demonstrate that while demographic densities and the technical capacity for mutual destruction have increased throughout the millennia, the violent death rate – the average number of deliberate killings per capita per time unit – has been decreasing. The resulting downward trend appears highly nonlinear and mediated by man-made crises and catastrophes, but still, in the long term, consecutive. Meanwhile, there is no direct evidence of falling aggressiveness of the humans in the course of history – natural aggressive impulses were rather growing up with population concentration. Obviously, some perfecting cultural and psychological mechanisms of aggression-retention have compensated for technological and demographic growth. This issue is explored using the pattern of techno-humanitarian balance.

About the authorsNazaretyan, Akop P.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  72-100
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0005
Keywords:  Aggression, violence, non-violence, self-organization, technological might, mental regulation, Bloodshed Ratio, techno-humanitarian balance, internal sustainability, external sustainability, anthropogenic crisis, Homo praecrisimos syndrome, psychological fitting, phylogenesis, historical| development, cultural revolutions.

Indina T.A., Morosanova V.I. (2009). Personality and Self-regulation as Determinants of Rational Decision Making in a Political Voting Situation. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 57-71

The association of self-regulation and personality factors with rational decision making was investigated using an experimental model of political voting. The results revealed different sets of personality characteristics for rational and emotional voters. A self-regulation/personality typology of decision making was then constructed, and traits representing self-regulation, cognition, and personality were examined as predispositions toward rational decision making. As a result, specific connections among these variables were uncovered, through which the primary role of the conscious self-regulation system in the management of rational decision making in a political voting context was established.

ThemesSocial psychology; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  57-71
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0004
Keywords:  decision making, choice, rationality, emotionality, self-regulation, personality traits, psychological determinants, typology.

Yurevich A. V., Ushakov D. V. (2009). Quantitative Estimate of the Macropsychological State of Modern Russian Society. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 35-56

The authors give the quantitative estimation of the macropsychological state of modern Russian society based on its political, social and economic characteristics. For these purposes the composite index of the macropsychological state of society is developed. It combines two secondary indexes such as a societal psychological stability index and a societal socio-psychological well-being index.

About the authorsYurevich, Andrey V. ; Ushakov, Dmitry V.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  35-56
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0003
Keywords:  economic determinism, macropsychology, psychological state of society, composite index, social well-being, social optimism, reforms.

Zinchenko Yu.P. (2009). Les Aspects Methodologiques des Rapports entre Concepts du Signe et du Symbole dans la Theorie Historico-Culturelle de L.S. Vygotski. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 25-34

Dans le texte, il s’agit de sources de la compréhension des concepts du signe et du symbole dans la théorie historico-culturelle ainsi que de leur rôle dans le développement de l’enfant et dans le processus de la médiation. On y parle aussi de limites de l’approche historico-culturelle en ce qui concerne la compréhension du signe et du symbole et d’autres concepts liés avec eux.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
ThemesTheories and approaches
Pages:  25-34
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0002
Keywords:  Vygotski, théorie historico-culturelle, signe, symbole, signification, instrument, médiation.

Andreeva G.M. (2009). The Difficult Way of Social Psychology in Russia. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 11-24

The article describes the main stages and directions of the development of social psychology in USSR and Russia. The comparison of theoretical approaches of Russian and Western social psychology is carried out. Special emphasis is made on the problem of social cognition and coping, which are important in the conditions of changing reality. New professional tasks of social psychology are discussed. The necessity of finding a new paradigm in social psychological investigations in conditions of cardinal transformations and ambiguity is stated as well as vectors and tendencies of its elaboration.

About the authorsAndreeva, Galina M.
ThemesSocial psychology; Psychology and culture
Pages:  11-24
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0001
Keywords:  social psychology in USSR, social psychology in Russia, theoretical and methodological background, social changes, new paradigm.

Zinchenko Yu.P., Petrenko V.F. (2009). Introduction. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 6-8

This volume contains articles of Russian psychologists and is dedicated to the 11th European Congress of Psychology, which is held in July 2009, in Oslo, Norway. The main purpose of this edition is to introduce Russian contemporary psychology to international psychological community. The team of contributors occurred to be rather accidental. Most of them are psychologists who decided to participate in the Congress in Oslo and received travel grants from one of the national academic foundations: the Russian Foundation of Basic Research and the Russian Foundation for Humanities. A wish to participate in the European Congress, the financial support of the academic foundations and a manuscript in English, – these were the conditions of membership in this project. Such an occasional cast has both positive and negative aspects.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Petrenko, Viktor F.
Pages:  6-8
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0000
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 2009, history of psychology

Veraksa A.N., Gorovaya A.E. (2011). Effect of Imagination on Sport Achievements of Novice Soccer Players. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 495-504

This article describes the connection between the use of types of mental imagery by athletes and the level of their imagination. Taking the model of imagery use suggested by K. Martin, S. Moritz and C. Hall, the authors used a Russian version of “The Sport Imagery Questionnaire” (SIQ) with soccer players 8, 10 and 14 years old. The data shows that subjects with a higher level of imagination are more inclined to use mental imagery in their practice. Age differences in types of imagery usage are shown. The results indicated that mental-imagery training can result in enhanced performance among junior athletes.

About the authorsVeraksa, Aleksandr N. ; Gorovaya, Aleksandra E.