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ISSN - 2074-6857
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The 2nd Russian-Japanese forum of social sciences and humanities

Zinchenko Yu. P., Zotova O. Yu. (2014). Security in the worldview of Russians. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 50-61.

This article deals with the role of security in shaping an individual’s standpoints, opinions, attitudes, and unique world picture. It is argued that security/insecurity is a subjective notion of individuals about the absence/presence of threats to their existence. The results of a study of the security notions maintained by Russians are described. The data obtained give grounds to suggest that the following characteristics exist in the ordinary consciousness of Russians: security is perceived as a state associated with inactivity; security is seen as the basis of harmonious interpersonal relations; security is considered a kind of “ideal world” and is understood as powerful. A typology of Russians based on the specifics of these security notions is presented.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0106
Keywords:  security, world picture, ordinary consciousness, typology, security factors
About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.  / Zotova, Olga Yu.

Available Online: 03.30.2014

Dontsov A. I., Perelygina E.B. (2014). Interpersonal confidence as a factor in the prevention of disorganized interaction. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 40-49.

Human communities are based on a certain set of everyday attitudes, on the coordination of the actions of “the self ” in a group, and on the regulation of social practices. The results of this study show that a number of factors act as determinants of trust/ distrust ambivalence: the multidimensionality and the dynamics of interactions among people; the high level of subjectivity in evaluating risks resulting from openness and from confidence in partners involved in an interaction; and a subject’s contradictory attitude toward the personal traits of an interacting partner (power, activity, honesty, trustworthiness). Japanese scholars have proved the necessity of taking into account quality of life (QOL) as one of the determinants of the development of interpersonal confidence. The study demonstrates that people try to bring trust into their daily routines as a way of organizing conscientious, emotionally open interactions that take into account the interests of all parties. Mistrust blocks access to the emotional, intellectual, and activity-related resources supporting life and undermines faith in the possibility of virtue and morality. Yet a supplementary study (using instant diagnostics) indicates that in practice respondents did not demonstrate a high level of confidence (in two cities it was 0%; in one city, it was 4.6%). In spite of emotionally positive views regarding trust, as well as constructive estimates of its moral/behavioral potential, a considerable number of respondents were not open and oriented to the interests of others. A tendency toward caution, inwardness, and constrained sincerity leads to nonconformity in one’s actions in a group and to changes in the vector of social practices from socio-partner regulation to disorganized interaction.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0105
Keywords:  social interaction, disorganization, conscientiousness, psychological security, confidence
About the authorsDontsov, Aleksander I.  / Perelygina, Elena B.

Available Online: 03.30.2014

Raevskiy A.E. (2014). Psychological aspects of the Aum Shinrikyo affair. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 34-39.

Terrorism has become a highly important problem for humanity, and psychology tries to make its contribution to the study of this complex phenomenon. In the current work we analyze not a typical terrorist case, but an unusual one: the sarin attack which took place in Japan in 1995. The current study combines the cultural-historic approach of L.S. Vygotsky, and research on Japanese mentality and collectivistic psychology. The results show the importance of several key factors that led a religious sect to become a terrorist organization. In spite of the uniqueness of the Japanese psychology, in the Aum Shinrikyo case we can see some common aspects of terrorist motivation and behavior.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0104
Keywords:  Japan, religious terrorism, religion, terrorism in Japan, Aum Shinrikyo, social behaviour, conformity
About the authorsRaevsky, Aleksandr E.

Available Online: 03.30.2014

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2014). Extremism from the perspective of a system approach. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 23-33.

Extremism is seen as a complex, multilevel, and multicomponent phenomenon. The problems of modern science in understanding extremism are revealed. The following bases of extremism as a system phenomenon are singled out: social factors, latent extremism, and extremist acts. It is demonstrated that a system approach makes it possible to shape a notion of a subject as a system, to identify patterns of the manifestations of the given phenomenon, and to translate them into concrete practices.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0103
Keywords:  extremism, system approach, latent extremism, security, extremist outlook
About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.

Available Online: 03.30.2014

Sakai N. (2014). The psychology of eating from the point of view of experimental, social, and applied psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 14-22.

In this article, eating behavior is discussed from the point of view of various areas of psychology. First, tasting food and the perception of food palatability are discussed from the viewpoints of sensory and perceptual psychology and of physiological psychology. Second, the phenomenology of some social-psychological effects on eating behavior are introduced – for example, communication at the table, sociocultural variations in food liking/disliking, and emotional changes after eating. Third, these topics are integrated and are applied to food businesses. Two conclusions can be drawn: (1) understanding human eating behavior leads one to understand human beings themselves; (2) a psychological understanding of eating behavior not only gives one broad knowledge of psychology but also provides businesses and governments with hints for improving quality of life.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0102
Keywords:  eating behavior, taste, food liking/disliking, communication at the table, food business
About the authorsSakai Nobuyuki

Available Online: 03.30.2014

Abe T., Wiwattanapantuwong J., Honda A. (2014) Dark, cold, and hungry, but full of mutual trust: Manners among the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake victims. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 4-13.

It was reported with praise by the worldwide media that victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami disaster endured the aftermath in a civil manner. We analyzed official crime statistics and investigated data that were collected from residents in disaster-stricken areas. Official statistics showed that crime decreased during the disaster period. Collected data suggest that criminal and deviant behavior were extremely rare, and that the victims helped each other, apparently altruistically. Further research on actual behavior in post-disaster environments is necessary in order to sufficiently prepare for future disasters.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0101
Keywords:  emergent norm, crime, panic, looting, post-disaster utopia, tsunami
About the authorsAbe Tsuneyuki  / Wiwattanapantuwong Juthatip  / Honda, Akio

Available Online: 03.30.2014