Background. An inner health picture (IPH) includes a person’s image of him- or herself as healthy, and knowledge of the methods needed to achieve the behavior necessary to maintain his (her) health. The IPH of a preschooler is formed by his (her) parents, and the high level of physical activity which is needed for supporting his (her) IPH could change a child’s capacity to orient in sensory flow.
Objectives. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to compare the children’s IPH with that of their parents, and 2) to study the connection between a child’s IPH with his (her) capacity to recognize consistent patterns in the structure of a stream of sensory signals.
Design. 82 primary school children and their mothers participated in the study. The study was conducted in two stages. During the first stage, the internal picture of health (IPH) of the children and their parents was evaluated by means of a questionnaire. To describe a child’s ability to discern some kind of order in a stream of sensory signals, the models of simple and complex sensorimotor reactions were used.
Results. Parents whose children have a well-developed IPH steer their children toward a healthy lifestyle, whereas they themselves do not do what is necessary to maintain their own health. The process of developing an IPH is accompanied by an increase in control during performance of a serial reaction task, which is reflected in a decrease in the number of lapses or missed stimuli.
Conclusion. An IPH is an internal mental model that not only predetermines a child’s notion of themselves as a healthy person; it also has a psychological basis in the form of a system that strengthens the child’s control over his (her) own actions.
Keywords: an internal picture of health, simple and complex sensorimotor reactions, primary school children
Introduction. Analysis of the literature suggests that the particular nature of the interplay between a person’s creativity and intelligence is determined not only by the conditions in which a person develops and their personality traits, but also their age.
Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the interaction between the levels of creativity and intelligence of 7 to 8 year-old children and 12 to 13 yearold teenagers, by studying how 7–8 year-old children and young teenagers (12–13 years old) with different levels of intelligence and creativity assimilate stochastic signals.
Design. A total of 160 children took part in the study, 80 first- and secondgraders who were 7–8 years old (37 boys and 43 girls), and 80 fifth-graders, aged 12–13 (40 boys and 40 girls). We used the following procedures: Raven’s Progressive Matrices; a battery of creative thinking tests, amounting to a modification of the Guilford and Torrance’s tests in a Russian adaptation created by E. Tunik; and the computer reflexometric method.
Results. Our findings showed that the relationship between the level of intelligence and the level of creativity is different in the two age groups. With 7–8 year-olds, the two parameters are independent of each other, whereas with 12–13 year-olds, there is a weak but significant link between them. With the 7–8 year-old children, the level of creativity predetermines the child’s ability to detect the structure of a sensory stream that is organized in a complex way. At the ages of 12–13, neither the level of creativity nor the level of intelligence is correlated with the parameters of sensorimotor integration, but the two parameters are interconnected.
Keywords: creativity, intelligence, children, teenagers, reaction time, simple and complex sensorimotor reactions
Objective. To detect possible dysfunctions of subcortical brain structures in children with severe disorders of language development and to study the association of such dysfunctions with linguistic and cognitive development, particularly the development of nonverbal intelligence on the level of the norm.
Design. 45 children with severe speech disorders, aged 4 to 7 years, took part in the study: 9 girls and 36 boys who were patients at the Prognoz neurological clinic for children (Saint Petersburg). The diagnoses according to ICD-10 were the following: F.80.1 – expressive speech disorder – 35 children; F.80.2 – receptive speech disorder – 10 children. The functional state of the brain stem was assessed by the auditory brain stem response (ABR) method. A modified stimulus was used to register peak VI, that is, a short tone burst with a frequency of 4,000 Hz, plateau duration of 0.5 ms, initial front of 0.5 ms, and intensity of 70 dB above the hearing threshold.
Results. Analysis of the evoked potentials gave the following results: Deceleration of vestibular and/or auditory information conduction on the level of brain stem structures was detected in 98% of the children. Deceleration of vestibular information conduction was manifested in increased latency of the positive wave P13 cVEMP in comparison with the normative value. Deceleration of auditory information conduction was shown in an increase of the peak intervals of ABRs in comparison with normative values.
Conclusions. All the children displayed conduction disturbances in the auditory and vestibular systems. Conduction disturbances in the auditory system were directly connected with the severity of their speech problems. Conduction disturbances in the vestibular system were associated with lower nonverbal intelligence.
Keywords: cognitive processes, language, subcortical structures of the brain, children, severe disorders of language development.