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Kashapov, Mergalуаs M.

Academic rank:  professor

Degree:  doctor in Psychology

Demidov Yaroslavl State University
Yaroslavl, Russia

Publications by Kashapov, Mergalуаs M.

Kashapov M.M., Serafimovich I.V., Poshekhonova Yu.V. (2017). Components of metacognition and metacognitive properties of forecasting as determinants of supra-situational pedagogical thinking. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 80-94.

This article describes the functions of metacognition and the role of these functions in professional pedagogical thinking (PPT): the discovery of the emergence of a problemacy, the organization of cognition processes, and the management of the comprehension and resolution of the problem situation. Thinking is related to the metacognitive activity of a subject. Components and strategies of metacognition are included in the PPT process and define (by means of conscious or unconscious regulation) the efficiency of discovering and solving problems in an interpersonal interaction situation that must be comprehended and transformed. One of the conditions providing for realization of the supra-situational thinking of professionals is a high level of metacognitive activity, although the level of the pronouncedness of metacognitive activity does not depend on the subject’s possessing basic professional education.

We have created and tested new psychodiagnostic techniques aimed at defining the level of forecasting in problem (conflict) situations and at evaluating metacognitive knowledge and activity. The sample group included about 800 people (university lecturers, school teachers, and teachers who train college students). It was proved that the metacognitive focus of forecasting stimulates the formation and development of various forecasting types: proactive, retroactive, and interactive. Forecasting is viewed as a metacognitive component of supra-situational thinking and a component of the cognitive side of communication. Situational and supra- situational types of pedagogical thinking are shown to have different properties and different orientations toward forecasting activity; these properties and orientations determine the differentiation and hierarchization of these types of thinking. It was discovered that the metacognitive properties of supra-situational thinking are achieved through a high degree of integration of all basic forecasting qualities (analyticity, depth, awareness, flexibility, prospectiveness, and validity).

The efficiency of our devised and tested program aimed at perfecting PPT is evident in the dynamics of its objective and subjective properties (an increased level of suprasituativity of thinking among the program participants and the participants’ subjective evaluations of transformation in coping with difficulties in conflict situations). The formation of supra-situational thinking—in particular, of components such as forecasting (in both a narrow and a broad context)—is closely connected with envisaging prospects, including those for one’s own professional and personality development.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0106
Pages:  80-94
ThemesEducational psychology / Cognitive psychology
Keywords:  metacognition, metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive activity, forecasting, supra-situativity of professional thinking

Available Online: 03.01.2017

Kashapov M.M., Leybina A. V. (2009). Motivation of Professional Creative Thinking. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 585-602

The aim of this study was to reveal correlation between motivation and creative professional thinking. Four hundred and seventy-one Russians of different trades participated in the study. It was supposed that motivational structure and level of creative professional thinking were interrelated. The connection between motivational components and professional thinking was revealed. Tendencies of transition form situational level of thinking to oversituational one were determined. It was found out that motivational structure of workers with situational thinking was much more consistent than that of workers with oversituational thinking.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0029
Pages:  585-602
ThemesOrganizational psychology / Psychology of creativity
Keywords:  creative professional thinking, motivation, values, motivation structure.

Kashapov M.M. (2010). Creative Thinking Training as a Means of Development of Conflict Competence of a Professional. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 463- 481

The psychological basis of creative thinking training as a means of development of conflict competence of a professional includes: in the first place, the knowledge of psychological nature of creative thinking of a professional; in the second place, recognition of above situational thinking as a leading quality in the structure of creative professional thinking; consideration of above situational thinking in the context of development of conflict competence of a professional, in the third place. In order to develop conflict competence, it is necessary to learn to get above the level of momentary requirements of a situation, to detect above situational problems, to set the goals, excessive from the point of view of the initial task. Pro­fessionals, thinking in terms of above situation, while analyzing a conflict situation, start to realize and actualize their own resources, which facilitates a creative way in problems resolving. It is the detection of above situational problems that forms the basis for creative thinking and is characterized by a set of key personal qualities necessary for his self-transformation as an agent.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2010.0022
Pages:  463- 481
ThemesPsychology of creativity / Applied psychology and psychotherapy / Organizational psychology
Keywords:  conflict competence, creative conflict resolution training, psychodiagnostics of metacognitive components of conflict competence, the analysis of cognitive characteristics of conflict interaction