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Latanov A. V., Anisimov V. N., Chernorizov A. M. (2016). Eye movement parameters while reading show cognitive processes of structural analysis of written speech. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(2), 129-137.

This paper gives an overview of the published data on eye movement parameters while reading sentences in different languages with both local and global syntactic ambiguity. A locally ambiguous sentence contains a syntactically problematic phrase that leads to only one interpretation, while a globally ambiguous sentence has more than one distinct interpretation. In the first case the ambiguity persists only to the end of the sentence, when it is successfully resolved; in the second case the ambiguity is still present after reading the whole sentence. The obvious difficulty in analyzing the structure of locally and globally ambiguous sentences leads to increased reading time compared with unambiguous sentences. The syntactic ambiguity increases two major parameters: the fixation duration when reading words critical for interpreting the sentence, and the frequency of regressive saccades to reread those words. The reading time for critical words, disambiguating the local ambiguity, depends on the principle of early/late closure (i.e., high/low attachment): preferring a recurrent pattern to associate the critical word with a distant or closer word, respectively (as determined by its position in the sentence), and differs across languages. The first study of eye movement parameters in reading globally syntactic ambiguous sentences in the Russian language is reported in this paper. Our findings open up the prospects of quantitative studies of syntactic disambiguation in Slavonic and Romano-Germanic languages.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0210
Keywords:  reading, psycholinguistics, syntactic ambiguity, gaze fixations, regressive saccades, review
About the authorsChernorizov, Alexsander M.  / Latanov, Alexander V. / Anisimov, Victor N.

Available Online: 06.30.2016

Chernorizov, A.M., Asmolov, A.G., Schechter, E.D. (2015). From physiological psychology to psychological physiology: Postnonclassical approach to ethnocultural phenomena. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 4-22.

In modern science, along with the “classic” and “non-classical” approach to solving fundamental and applied problems, there is an actively developing “postnonclassical” research paradigm. This renovation of general scientific methodology has been accompanied by the emergence of new experimental technologies and new scientific research directions based on them. “Social psychophysiology” is one such direction. It is formed within the frame of postnonclassical methodology at the intersection of neuroscience and psychology. This work is devoted to the analytical review of the methods, achievements and prospects of contemporary social neuroscience and social psychophysiology studying brain structures that are specifically related to the implementation of social forms of behavior and intercultural communication. Physiological studies of brain activity during social interaction processes, which are simulated using virtual reality environments, are analyzed, and the physiological approach to the study of the brain mechanisms associated with social perception, social cognition and social behavior is used. Along with the analysis of psychophysiological studies of the mechanisms of social perception and social cognition, we discuss the theories of “Brain Reading” and “Theory of Mind” and the underlying data concerning “Gnostic neurons recognition of persons and recognition of emotional facial expressions”, “mirror neurons”, “emotional resonance” and “cognitive resonance”. Particular emphasis is placed on the discussion of a fundamentally new trend in the study of the relationship between the brain and culture (i.e., “cultural neuroscience”). Related to this connection, the following topics are raised: physiological mechanisms protecting the “individual distance” in communication between members of a personified community, psychophysiological approaches to the study of cross-cultural differences, physiological mechanisms of social classification (particularly the formation of attitudes toward representatives of various social groups and toward the content of socially oriented information), and psychophysiological approaches to the study of processes of social classification in the field of intercultural relations (racial perception, stereotypes and prejudices).

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0401
Keywords:  postnonclassical approach, psychological physiology, cultural neuroscience, virtual reality, brain activity, ethnocultural identity, intercultural and interethnic attitudes, cross-cultural differences
About the authorsChernorizov, Alexsander M.  / Asmolov, Aleksandr G.  / Schechter, Eugeniya D.

Available Online: 12.30.2015

Kovyazina, M.S., Khokhlov, N.A., Morozova, N.V. (2015). The connection of hemispheric activity in the field of audioverbal perception and the progressive lateralization of speech and motor processes. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 72-82.

This article discusses the connection of hemispheric control over audioverbal perception processes and such individual features as “leading hand” (right-handedness and lefthandedness). We present a literature review and description of our research to provide evidence of the complexity and ambiguity of this connection. The method of dichotic listening was used for diagnosing audioverbal perception lateralization. This method allows estimation of the right-ear coefficient (REC), the efficiency coefficient (EC), and the effectiveness ratio (ER) of different aspects of audioverbal perception. Our research involved 47 persons with a leading right hand (mean age, 29.04±9.97 years) and 32 persons with a leading left hand (mean age, 29.41±10.34 years). Different hypotheses about the mechanisms of hemispheric control over audioverbal and motor processes were assessed. The research showed that both the leftand right-handers’ audioverbal perception characteristics depended mainly on right-hemisphere activity. The most dynamic and sensitive index of the functioning of the two hemispheres during dichotic listening was the efficiency coefficient of stimuli reproduction through the left ear (EC of the left ear). It turns out that this index depends on the coincidence/noncoincidence of the leading hemispheres in speech and motor processes. The highest efficiency of audioverbal perception revealed itself in the left-handers with a leading left ear (the hemispheric-control coincidence), and the lowest efficiency was in the left-handers with a leading right ear (the hemispheric-control divergence). The right-handers were characterized by less variation in values, although the influence of the coincidence/noncoincidence of the leading hemispheres in speech and motor processes also revealed itself as a tendency. This consistent pattern points out the necessity for further research on asymmetries of the different modalities that takes into account their probable interaction. The results of our study comport with scientific data showing genotypic left-handers with subzero right-ear coefficient (REC) values to be more efficient than left-handed persons who display high REC values.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0406
Keywords:  left-handers, right-handers, dichotic listening, right-ear coefficient (REC), efficiency coefficient (EC), leading hemisphere in the process of audioverbal perception
About the authorsKovyazina, Marija S.  / Khokhlov, Nikita A. / Morozova, Natalya V.

Available Online: 12.30.2015

Saakyan, O. S. (2015). Electrophysiological analysis of the cognitive component of social creativity in young males and females with different individual characteristics. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 83-90.

This article sets forth the problem of studying social creativity from the psychophysiological perspective. Presented here are the first experimental records of studying the cognitive component of social activity. This article describes the peculiar hemispheric activity during the resolution of interpersonal problems by students of different individual peculiarities and professional achievement levels. The author shows that when the solution to a verbal divergent task by young males and females of high creativity and professional achievement is reached, the frequency-spatial EEG indexes are higher in the parietal and frontal brain regions. In the solution of a convergent task, these indexes are higher in the frontal, central and cervical brain zones. In case of young males and females of low creativity and average and low levels of professional achievement, the solution of a convergent task is accompanied by increased EEG power in the central, frontal, parietal zones of both hemispheres.

Thus, the assessment of the psychophysiological mechanisms of the cognitive component in social activity has shown that a definite picture of hemispheric activation stipulates the peculiarities of divergent and convergent thinking in young males and females of various levels of creativity and professional success.

This difference, revealed at the initial stage of investigation, demands a deeper study of the phenomenon of social creativity in the professional training of a personality that is inclusive of this personality’s individual peculiarities.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0407
Keywords:  social creativity, creativity level, EEG power peculiarities, lateral arrangement profile (LAP), gender
About the authorsSaakyan, Oxana S.

Available Online: 12.30.2015

Verkhlyutov V.M., Ushakov V.L., Sokolov P.A., Velichkovsky B.M. (2014) Large-scale network analysis of imagination reveals extended but limited top-down components in human visual cognition. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 4-19.

We investigated whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in a group of 21 healthy adult subjects during perception, imagination and remembering of two dynamic visual scenarios. Activation of the posterior parts of the cortex prevailed when watching videos. The cognitive tasks of imagination and remembering were accompanied by a predominant activity in the anterior parts of the cortex. An independent component analysis identified seven large-scale cortical networks with relatively invariant spatial distributions across all experimental conditions. The time course of their activation over experimental sessions was task-dependent. These detected networks can be interpreted as a recombination of resting state networks. Both central and peripheral networks were identified within the primary visual cortex. The central network around the caudal pole of BA17 and centers of other visual areas was activated only by direct visual stimulation, while the peripheral network responded to the presentation of visual information as well as to the cognitive tasks of imagination and remembering. The latter result explains the particular susceptibility of peripheral and twilight vision to cognitive top-down influences that often result in false-alarm detections.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0401
Keywords:  perception, imagination, remembering, fMRI, large-scale cortical networks, resting states, mirror neuron system, real-world visual stimuli
About the authorsVelichkovsky, Boris M.  / Verkhlyutov, Vitaliy M. / Ushakov, Vadim L. / Sokolov, Pavel A.

Available Online: 12.30.2014

Kovyazina M.S., Roshchina E.I. (2014) Methods of dichotic listening as a research methodology for hemispheric interaction. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 64-72.

Experimental data was obtained from a dichotic listening test by patients with unilateral brain lesions and corpus callosum pathology (agenesis, cysts, degenerative changes, etc). Efficiency index analysis shows that interhemispheric interaction in the audioverbal sphere depends to a greater extent on the right hemisphere state. The dichotic listening technique is not an informative means of studying hemispheric interaction, since it does not allow a clear distinction between hemispheric symptoms and symptoms of pathology of the corpus callosum. Thus, violations of hemispheric relations caused by disorders of the corpus callosum and cerebral hemispheres change worth more right hemisphere activity.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0206
Keywords:  interhemispheric interaction, brain pathology, dichotic listening
About the authorsKovyazina, Marija S.  / Roshchina, Elena I.

Available Online: 06.30.2014

Tous Ral J.M., Liutsko L. (2014) Human errors: their psychophysical bases and the Proprioceptive Diagnosis of Temperament and Character (DP-TC) as a tool for measuring. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 48-63.

Human error is commonly differentiated into three different types. These are: errors in perception, errors in decision and errors in sensation. This analysis is based on classical psychophysics (Fechner, 1860) and describes the errors of detection and perception. Decision- making errors are evaluated in terms of the theory of signal detection (McNicholson, 1974), and errors of sensation or sensitivity are evaluated in terms of proprioceptive information (van Beers, 2001).

Each of these stages developed its own method of evaluation that has influenced the development of ergonomics in the event of errors in perception and the verbal assessment of personality (stress, impulsiveness, burnout, etc.) in decision-making errors. Here we represent the method we have developed, the Proprioceptive Diagnosis of Temperament and Character (DP- TC) test, for the specific assessment of errors of perception or expressivity which are based on fine motor precision performance.

Each of the described errors types are interdependent of each other in such a manner that observable stress in behaviour may be caused due to: the inadequate performance of a task due to the perception of the person (i.e. from right to left for a right-handed person); performing a task that requires attentive decision-making to be performed too hastily; undertaking a task that does not correspond to the prevailing disposition of the person.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0205
Keywords:  human error detection, Proprioceptive Diagnostic of Temperament and Character (DP-TC), diagnosis, prevention, expressivity, perception
About the authorsLiutsko, Ludmila N. / Tous i Ral, Josep Maria

Available Online: 06.30.2014

Sakai N. (2014). The psychology of eating from the point of view of experimental, social, and applied psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 14-22.

In this article, eating behavior is discussed from the point of view of various areas of psychology. First, tasting food and the perception of food palatability are discussed from the viewpoints of sensory and perceptual psychology and of physiological psychology. Second, the phenomenology of some social-psychological effects on eating behavior are introduced – for example, communication at the table, sociocultural variations in food liking/disliking, and emotional changes after eating. Third, these topics are integrated and are applied to food businesses. Two conclusions can be drawn: (1) understanding human eating behavior leads one to understand human beings themselves; (2) a psychological understanding of eating behavior not only gives one broad knowledge of psychology but also provides businesses and governments with hints for improving quality of life.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0102
Keywords:  eating behavior, taste, food liking/disliking, communication at the table, food business
About the authorsSakai Nobuyuki

Available Online: 03.30.2014

Ludmila N. Liutsko (2013). Proprioception as a basis for individual differences. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 107-119

In this chapter the author summarises the descriptions of proprioceptive sense from different perspectives. The importance of proprioceptive sense has been shown in developmental psychology, in both the earlier and later stages of individuum formation. The author emphasises in this chapter the role of proprioception as a basis of personality and the individual differences construct. The importance of assessing behaviour at multiple levels has been pointed out by experiments of classic and modern researchers that should include not only verbal tests that would be more important for conscious mental description, but also techniques that could assess other behavioural characteristics, including automatic unconscious and pre-reflexive behaviour. The author also describes the effects of altered proprioception in humans, such as the Pinocchio effect, and other spatial perception distortions. In this chapter the importance of proprioception in acquiring new skills (embodied knowledge) as automatic and conditioned reflexive behaviour has also been highlighted. Finally, the complete picture of the individuum has been presented as a multi-layered level of a body-mind union approach.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0310
Keywords:  proprioception, individual differences, multi-layered personality, embodied knowledge, automatic movements.
About the authorsLiutsko, Ludmila N.

Available Online: 12.15.2013

Galina Ya Menshikova (2013). An investigation of 3D images of the simultaneous-lightness-contrast illusion using a virtual-reality technique. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 49-59

This article investigates the problem of lightness perception. To clarify the role of depth in lightness perception two current models—the albedo hypothesis and the coplanar-ratio hypothesis—are discussed. To compare them the strength of the simultaneous-lightnesscontrast (SLC) illusion was investigated as a function of three-dimensional (3D) configurations of the test and background squares. In accordance with both hypotheses the changes in the depth arrangements of the test and background squares should result in changes in the illusory effect. However, the reasons for and the directions of these changes should be different. Five different types of 3D configurations were created in which the test squares were tilted at different angles to the background squares. A virtual-reality technique was used to present stereo pairs of different 3D configurations. Thirty-seven observers took part in the experiment. The method of constant stimuli was used to obtain psychometric functions. The displacements of these functions for 3D configurations in comparison with the 2D configuration allowed the estimation of illusion strength. The analysis of individual values of illusion strength revealed two groups of subjects. For the first group (38% of all participants) the strength changed insignificantly depending on the 3D configurations. For the second group (62% of all participants) significant differences were obtained for those configurations in which the test and background squares were perceived as differently illuminated. The changes in the SLC illusion strength for the second group were consistent with predictions made by the albedo hypothesis. Thus, it seems that the perceived illumination of a surface should be considered the main parameter for lightness estimations in 3D scenes.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0305
Keywords:  perception, visual illusions, lightness, perceived illumination, albedo hypothesis, coplanar-ratio hypothesis, virtual-reality technology
About the authorsMenshikova, G.Ya.

Available Online: 12.15.2013

Vladimir V. Galatenko, Evgeniy D. Livshitz, Alexander M. Chernorizov, Yury P. Zinchenko, Alexey V. Galatenko, Vladimir M. Staroverov, Sergey A. Isaychev, Vyacheslav V. Lebedev, Galina Ya. Menshikova, Alexey N. Gusev, Ekaterina M. Lobacheva, Rozaliya F. Gabidullina, Vladimir E. Podol’skii, Victor A. Sadovnichy (2013). Automated real-time classification of functional states: the significance of individual tuning stage. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 40-47

Automated classification of a human functional state is an important problem, with applications including stress resistance evaluation, supervision over operators of critical infrastructure, teaching and phobia therapy. Such classification is particularly efficient in systems for teaching and phobia therapy that include a virtual reality module, and provide the capability for dynamic adjustment of task complexity.

In this paper, a method for automated real-time binary classification of human functional states (calm wakefulness vs. stress) based on discrete wavelet transform of EEG data is considered. It is shown that an individual tuning stage of the classification algorithm — a stage that allows the involvement of certain information on individual peculiarities in the classification, using very short individual learning samples, significantly increases classification reliability. The experimental study that proved this assertion was based on a specialized scenario in which individuals solved the task of detecting objects with given properties in a dynamic set of flying objects.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0304
Keywords:  human functional state, EEG data, automated classification, individual tuning, stress.
About the authorsGalatenko, Vladimir V. / Livshitz, Evgeniy D.  / Chernorizov, Alexsander M.  / Zinchenko, Yury P.  / Galatenko, Alexey V. / Staroverov, Vladimir M.  / Isaychev, Sergey A.  / Lebedev, Vyacheslav V.  / Menshikova, G.Ya. / Sadovnichy, Victor A. / Gusev, Alexey N. / Gabidullina, Rozaliya F. / Podol’skii, Vladimir E.

Available Online: 12.15.2013

Pavel N.Ermakov, Oxana S. Saakyan (2013). Peculiarities of brain electric activity in young males and females of different creativity levels. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 31-40

This article shows that the peculiarities of divergent and convergent thinking in young males and females of various creativity levels are stipulated by a definite EEG frequency-and-spatial arrangement. Young males and females of mixed and left lateral arrangement profiles demonstrate an expressed activity of occipital, central, and temporal areas of both cerebral hemispheres. In young males and females of right LAP (lateral arrangement profile), connections are clearly localized in case of solution of both convergent and divergent tasks. Solution of divergent and convergent tasks may condition certain frequency-and-spatial arrangement of EEG in young males and females with different levels of academic progress and a different lateral arrangement profile (LAP).

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0303
Keywords:  creativity, lateral arrangement profile (LAP), intrahemispheric and interhemispheric coherent connections, convergent tasks, divergent tasks, academic progress, gender.
About the authorsErmakov, Pavel N.  / Saakyan, Oxana S.

Available Online: 12.15.2013

Stanislav A. Kozlovskiy, Maria M. Pyasik, Aleksander V. Vartanov, Evgenia Yu. Nikonova (2013). Verbal working memory: magnetic resonance, morphometric analysis and a psychophisiological model. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 19-30

Neuropsychological characteristics of verbal working memory (memory capacity, permanency, and different types of memory errors) of 43 healthy subjects of older age were compared with the anatomical characteristics of their brain structures (volume of the hippocampi and the caudate nuclei, size of the cingulate-cortex regions of both hemispheres). The obtained data demonstrate a correlation between the permanency of verbal- information maintenance and left caudate-nucleus volume and a positive correlation between associative-memory capacity and left hippocampus volume. A decline in the number of verbal-memory errors (confabulations) is related to the increased size of the left anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, verbal working-memory capacity and permanency correlate negatively with the size of the left posterior dorsal cingulate cortex, whereas the number of fluctuations and word replacements correlate positively with the increased size of this brain region. We suggest a psychophysiological model of verbalstimulus maintenance in working memory based on the results of our study and published research data.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0302
Keywords:  magnetic resonance morphometric analysis, working memory, verbal memory, caudate nucleus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus, working-memory model
About the authorsKozlovskiy, Stanislav A.  / Pyasik, Maria M. / Vartanov, Alexsander V.  / Nikonova, Evgenia Y.

Available Online: 12.15.2013

Kozlovskiy S.A., Vartanov A.V., Nikonova E.Y., Pyasik M.M., Velichkovsky B.M. (2012). The Cingulate Cortex and Human Memory Processes. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 231-243

This study presents data from a magnetic-resonance morphometric (MRMM) analysis of the main regions of the cingulate cortex (in both hemispheres) and their role in memory processes in a group of healthy, females of older age. The results demonstrate a statistically reliable correlation between overall performance and the type of errors in different neuropsychological memory tests and the relative size of these regions. The discovered pattern of correlations can be explained by hypothesizing the reciprocal functional influence of the two major areas of the cingulate cortex – its anterior and posterior dorsal parts – on performance in neuropsychological memory tests.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0014
Keywords:  cingulate cortex, cingulate gyrus, magnetic-resonance morphometric analysis, human neuropsychology, memory.
About the authorsKozlovskiy, Stanislav A.  / Vartanov, Alexsander V.  / Nikonova, Evgenia Y.  / Pyasik, Maria M. / Velichkovsky, Boris M.

Available Online: 12.01.2012

Danilova, Nina N. (2008). Frequency-Selective Gamma Generators in Processing of Auditory Stimuli. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 299-308

Processing of sensory stimuli is controlled by the top-down influences that shape oscillations in the synchrony form revealed in the EEG. However, little is known about the nature of these influences. The present study investigated the contribution of "evoked oscillations" in the perception of auditory stimuli during passive and active attention from the position of pacemaker hypothesis on the origin of gamma rhythm. To analyze the problem, the author suggests a special method based on the narrow frequency filtering event-related potentials, localization of dipole sources of gamma oscillations over the structural MRI slices. Computation of equivalent dipoles for the discrete frequencies demonstrates interaction between prefrontal and auditory cortex during active attention to auditory stimuli. The obtained results are compatible with the pacemaker hypothesis.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0019
Keywords:  psychophysiology, methodology
About the authorsDanilova, Nina N.

Chernorizov, Alexsander M. (2008). Vector Encoding of Light Intensity in Neural Networks of Visual System. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 1, 309-318

Intracellular research of land snail Helix lucorum L. eye demonstrates two types of visual cells responding to flashes of white light by slow sustained depolarization (D-type) and by slow sustained hyperpolarization (H-type), respectively. Peaks of spectral sensitivity of both cell types at 465-500 nm coincide with peak of spectral sensitivity of photopigment "rhodopsin". The two-channel vector model of achromatic vision of snail is proposed. According to the model, responses of D- and H-cells constitute two-dimensional 'excitation vector' of constant length, the direction of which is the code of light intensity. The two-dimensional vector model of light encoding in snails' eye is analogous with achromatic vision models of achromatic vision in vertebrates based on psychophysical and neurophysiological data in fish, rabbit, monkey and human. So, intracellular data in snail taken together with data on vertebrate animals testify in favor of the hypothesis that 2-dimensioanl module of "bright" and "dark" cells is the universal opponent mechanism of "vector encoding" of light intensity in neuronal nets for vision.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2008.0020
Keywords:  psychophysiology, methodology
About the authorsChernorizov, Alexsander M.

Ermakov P.N., Vorobyeva E.V. (2011). Achievement Motivation and EEG Spectral Power. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 448-466

Achievement motivation is a psychological category which implies a desire to achieve significant (powerful) results in certain sphere. According to the results of psychophysiological research people who are motivated for success are very active before they are instructed by the researcher which proves that they aimed at the perception of the referent situation and the intense level of expectations. One of the vital issues today is a problem how genes influence human behaviour. Thus on the basis of contemporary researches we can conclude that such influence is regulated by brain processes.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2011.0030
Keywords:  achievement motivation, brain process, psychology.
About the authorsErmakov, Pavel N.  / Vorobyeva, Elena V.

Isaychev S.A., Edrenkin I.V., Chernorizov A.M., Isaychev E.S. (2011). Event-Related Potentials in Deception Detection. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 438-447

The problem of lie detection has a long history. Main achievements in this field are concerned with registration of peripheral nervous system indicators. Our experiment provides possibility for development of a new lie detection technology, based on neurophysiologic correlates of cognitive processes diagnostics that underlie deception. The experiments were conducted by “Audio-Visual Slider” software (by Medicom MTD), which performed synchronized stimuli presentation and electrophysiological recording.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2011.0029
Keywords:  lie detection, nervous system, electroencephalogram, psychophysiology.
About the authorsChernorizov, Alexsander M.  / Isaychev, Evgenij S.  / Isaychev, Sergey A.  / Edrenkin, Iliya V.

Chernorizov A.M., Shekhter E.D. (2011). Modular Organization of Mechanisms of Achromatic Vision in Human and Animals. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 421-437

Psychophysiological research into achromatic vision in humans and vertebrates displays that light intensity is coded by a two-dimensional “excitation vector”. The components of that vector are responses of brightness and darkness neurons (or, according to another classification, on- and off -neurons). It means that a current sensation of brightness is determined by a corresponding interrelation between activities of those two systems responding in opponent way to light onset and off set. The present research is devoted to testing of a hypothesis asserting that two-module organization of achromatic vision is a universal principle of brightness coding in a wide raw of animals including invertebrates. The paper represents certain results of registration and analysis of electroretinogram and total activity of the optical nerve in snail Helix lucorum to diffuse light fl ashes of different intensities. The obtained experimental data, along with the already existing reference data, allow us to assume that on- and off -systems may constitute the neural basis for brightness coding in the invertebrates. The peculiarity of on- and off -systems in vertebrates is that they are formed already at the photoreceptor level.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2011.0028
Keywords:  achromatic vision, invertebrates, sensations of brightness, electroretinogram, optical nerve, on- and off -systems in vision, “brightness” and “darkness” neuronal modules.
About the authorsChernorizov, Alexsander M.  / Shekhter, Evgenija D.

Izmailov Ch.A., Chernorizov A.M. (2010). A Geometrical Approach to Research into Signal Recognition in Visual Systems of Humans and Animals. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 301-332

In the paper an attempt is made to justify the importance of geometrical language (especially metric space models) for the description of visual perception processing. The tradition to use geometry for the description of psychophysiological processes goes back to a Newtonian color circle. At present there are many examples of such models, as well as of examples from other areas of mathematics. However, we want to justify a position, that geometrical language is not simply one of formal languages used for the description of visual perception phenomena. We'll try to represent it as the approach, which includes both the formal description of psychological phenomena and neurophysiological mechanisms, as well as experimental techniques of research into these phenomena and mechanisms.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2010.0016
Keywords:  vector psychophysiology, categoriality of perception, perception of form and color, large (suprathreshold) interstimuli differences, multidimensional scaling, geometrical modeling of subjective perceptual spaces, spherical model of visual perception, neural modules (ensembles)
About the authorsIzmailov, Chingiz A. / Chernorizov, Alexsander M.

Danilova N.N. (2010). Imaging Processes of Working Memory by Localization of Activated Frequency-Selective EEG Generators. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 287- 300

The new method of microstructure analysis of oscillatory brain activity was pro­posed for studying the structure and dynamics of working memory. Mapping local network activity according to dipole localization of frequency-selective gamma and beta generators supports the leading role of frontal areas in processes of working memory. The retention of information during the delay interval is presented by joint activity of frequency-selective gamma and beta generators which provide the integration of frontal areas, associative, visual cortex and cerebellum. The joint activity of the gamma- and beta-generators has a wave-like character and is modulated by low-frequency wave activity.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2010.0015
Keywords:  working memory, oscillatory brain activity, frequency-selective gene¬rator, equivalent dipole, pacemaker neuron
About the authorsDanilova, Nina N.

Menshikova G.Ya. (2010). Facial Expression Recognition with the Use of Chimeric Face Technique. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 278-286

The aim of this study was to investigate holistic / feature processing for encod­ing face expressions employing the chimeric face technique. In the course of our experiment we tested the recognition accuracy of universal and "chimeric" countenance. As the study has revealed there was a considerable difference between distributions of subject responses depending on the localization of expression features (top/ bottom parts of the face). For chimeric face identification accuracy substantially decreased, there were considerable variations in the naming of face expression and the names assigned were hardly dictated by distinguishing features. The changes in recognition of facial expressions may be accounted for by disarrangement in holistic processing of expression encoding.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2010.0014
Keywords:  face expression recognition, holistic / feature processing for encoding face expressions, chimeric face technique, identification accuracy
About the authorsMenshikova, G.Ya.

Isaychev S.A., Chernorizov A.M., Korolev A.D., Isaychev E.S., Dubynin I.A., Zakharov I.M. (2012). The Psychophysiological Diagnostics of the Functional State of the Athlete. Preliminary Data. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 244-268

The original experimental scheme was developed to investigate athletes’ functional states (FS) dynamics. The procedure allowed modeling various FS important for predicting the professional success of athletes: psychological and physiological stress, fatigue, and optimal FS (OFS). There were two main criteria for differentiation of the FS under study: efficiency rates and the psychological and physiological costs of the achieved efficiency level. Analysis of the FS-dependent psychophysiological changes showed significant interindividual differences on a number of parameters. Thus, no single indicator could be used as effective diagnostics for the FS criteria. A minimum number of indicators need to be recorded included cardiovascular indicators (heart rate, ECG), respiration, muscle tension (EMG), and brain activity (EEG) in the range of alpha and beta waves. The main problem can be artifacts induced by movement and muscle tension. The special procedure for artifact rejection and reduction of the artifacts was developed. It allowed recording EEG, ECG, and EOG signals simultaneously. Another problem was related to the development of the mathematical algorithm to analyze individual data and differentiate patterns of the signals recorded from the athletes. An original approach to differentiate the FS – the k-means clustering algorithm – was offered based on seven psychophysiological indicators. Results of clustering showed that the k- means algorithm for seven-component vectors allows one with confidence to differentiate state of quiet wakefulness, states of psychological and physiological stress. As the number of parameters used is attenuated from seven to four (without the EEG parameters) the accuracy of distinguishing FS is significantly reduced. To construct a complete and accurate differentiation of an athlete’s FS one should collect some statistical data on the dynamics of each FS in different time periods of the person’s life – in the process of training, after successful competition, and after losing competition.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0015
Keywords:  sportsperson, functional state, psychophysiological indicators, integral evaluation.
About the authorsIsaychev, Sergey A.  / Chernorizov, Alexsander M.  / Korolev, Alexandr D.  / Isaychev, Evgenij S.  / Dubynin, Ignat A.  / Zakharov, Il’ya M.