Veraksa A.N., Leonov S. V. (2009). Cognitive Aspects of Athlete Activity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 603-618
Article is devoted to the issues of symbolic mediation and diagnostic of time perception in sport. Distinction between iconic and symbolic mediation is discussed. Evidences of effective implementation of symbolic mediation in sport are examined. Means of optimization of sportsmen and sportswomen training by the instrumentality of symbol are considered. The results of time perception diagnostic of Russian synchronized swimmers are described. It was shown that sportswomen are greatly varied in accuracy and stability of reproduction of long (2–5 sec) and estimation of short (less than 250 ms) time intervals, which were filled with different contents – ticks of metronome, persistent sound, pressuring the button and etc. The improvement of individual characteristics of time perception is an important psychological resource of sports achievements increase.
Keywords: sport psychology, symbol, icon, image, situation of uncertainty, synchronized swimming, time perception.
About the authors: Veraksa, Aleksandr N. / Leonov, Sergey V.
Veraksa A.N., Gorovaya A.E. (2011). Effect of Imagination on Sport Achievements of Novice Soccer Players. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 495-504
This article describes the connection between the use of types of mental imagery by athletes and the level of their imagination. Taking the model of imagery use suggested by K. Martin, S. Moritz and C. Hall, the authors used a Russian version of “The Sport Imagery Questionnaire” (SIQ) with soccer players 8, 10 and 14 years old. The data shows that subjects with a higher level of imagination are more inclined to use mental imagery in their practice. Age differences in types of imagery usage are shown. The results indicated that mental-imagery training can result in enhanced performance among junior athletes.
Zinchenko Yu.P., Men'shikova G.Ya., Chernorizov A.M., Voyskunskiy A.E. (2011). Technologies of Virtual Reality in Psychology of Sports of Great Advance: Theory, Practice and Perspectives. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 129-154
The article is devoted to the problem of using a new experimental technology of “virtual reality” (VR) in psychological research. Methods of virtual reality actively become embedded in tooling of up-to-date experimental psychology. Next in turn there is a task of embedding of VR technologies in various areas of applied psychology like sport psychology. Application of modern computer methods discovers new perspectives for sport psychology.
Keywords: virtual reality, experimental technology, computer methods, sports psychology, psychophysiology
About the authors: Zinchenko, Yury P. / Menshikova, G.Ya. / Chernorizov, Alexsander M. / Voyskunskiy, Aleksander E.
Vasyukova E.E. (2012). The Nature of Chess Expertise: Knowledge or Search? Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 511-528
In this article, we briefl y survey studies of the nature of expertise, and we present the results of research directed at evidence of the complicated nature of expertise, which is most eff ectively seen in experts’ use of a transfer mechanism. The phenomenon of the transfer of verbalized operational senses (VOS) is analyzed and is investigated on the basis of the sense theory of thinking, as proposed by Tikhomirov (1969, 1984).
It is shown that VOS transfer manifests itself in diverse forms. It seems to be dependent on the factors of chess position and the age and skill level of the player. Diverse forms of transferring are associated with a change in separate indices of VOS volume, structure, depth, and degree of consciousness in a connected position. VOS transfer is found more in skilled than in unskilled chess players; skilled players demonstrate selectivity of search in a connected position. VOS transfer is associated not simply with the repetition and copying of some forecasts, which give the direction of search, but also with using and transforming the results of previous verbal searches.
Keywords: chess expertise, knowledge, search, memory, thinking, verbalized and unverbalized operational senses, transfer
About the authors: Vasyukova, Ekaterina E.
Bespalov B.I., Leonov S.V. (2012). Characteristics of Silent Counting in Synchronized Swimmers. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 498-510
This article describes the temporal characteristics of silent counting as used during a competition by the Russian youth team of synchronized swimmers. The athletes listened to the music that accompanied their performance at the competition. Diff erent indices of silent counting were defi ned, such as the beginning and cessation of diff erent periods of counting, counting frequency, the stability of the temporal structure of silent counting, the degree of synchronization of silent counting at diff erent moments during the sports program. We studied the relationship of these characteristics of counting with expert estimates of the athletes’ sense of tempo, coordination of movements, and choreographic abilities.
Veraksa A.N., Gorovaya A.E., Leonov S.V., Pashenko A.K., Fedorov V.V. (2012). The Possibility of Using Sign and Symbolic Tools in the Development of Motor Skills by Beginning Soccer Players. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 473-497
This article analyzes the use of iconic and symbolic tools by young athletes in the development of concrete motor skills. The study involved 22 young athletes, aged 5–6 years, attending a soccer school in Moscow, Russia. The methodological procedure included using specifi cally designed mini-movies, which were short video clips employing different sign and symbolic tools for mastering alternate dribbling using the inner and outer side of the foot and the subsequent kick of the ball toward the net. The results showed the eff ectiveness of these tools when working with young soccer players. Those athletes who used metaphors as one of the tools for mastering motor skills exhibited better movement development than did the athletes who used sign tools.
Keywords: sport, sport psychology, motor skill, sign, symbol, metaphor, image
About the authors: Veraksa, Aleksandr N. / Gorovaya, Aleksandra E. / Leonov, Sergey V. / Pashenko, Aleksander K. / Fedorov, Valeriy V.