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Téllez A., Sánchez T. (2016). Luria’s model of the functional units of the brain and the neuropsychology of dreaming. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 80-93.

Traditionally, neuropsychology has focused on identifying the brain mechanisms of specific psychological processes, such as attention, motor skills, perception, memory, language, and consciousness, as well as their corresponding disorders. However, there are psychological processes that have received little attention in this field, such as dreaming. This study examined the clinical and experimental neuropsychological research relevant to dreaming, ranging from sleep disorders in patients with brain damage, to brain functioning during REM sleep, using different methods of brain imaging. These findings were analyzed within the framework of Luria’s Three Functional Unit Model of the Brain, and a proposal was made to explain certain of the essential characteristics of dreaming. This explanation describes how, during dreaming, an activation of the First Functional Unit occurs, comprising the reticular formation of the brainstem; this activates, in turn, the Second Functional Unit — which is formed by the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes and Unit L, which is comprised of the limbic system, as well as simultaneous hypo-functioning of the Third Functional Unit (frontal lobe). This activity produces a perception of hallucinatory images of various sensory modes, as well as a lack of inhibition, a non-selfreflexive thought process, and a lack of planning and direction of such oneiric images. Dreaming is considered a type of natural confabulation, similar to the one that occurs in patients with frontal lobe damage or schizophrenia. The study also suggests that the confabulatory, bizarre, and impulsive nature of dreaming has a function in the cognitiveemotional homeostasis that aids proper brain function throughout the day.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0407
Keywords:  dreaming, brain, neuropsychology, functional units, Luria´s model
About the authorsTéllez Arnoldo  / Sánchez, Teresa J.

Available Online: 12.01.2016

Glozman J. M. (2016). Vygotsky in applied neuropsychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 73-79.

The aims of this paper are: 1) to show the role of clinical experience for the theoretical contributions of L.S. Vygotsky, and 2) to analyze the development of these theories in contemporary applied neuropsychology. An analysis of disturbances of mental functioning is impossible without a systemic approach to the evidence observed. Therefore, medical psychology is fundamental for forming a systemic approach to psychology. The assessment of neurological patients at the neurological hospital of Moscow University permitted L.S. Vygotsky to create, in collaboration with A.R. Luria, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions and their relationship to cultural conditions. In his studies of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Vygotsky also set out 3 steps of systemic development: interpsychological, then extrapsychological, then intrapsychological. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria in the late 1920s created a program to compensate for the motor subcortical disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD) through a cortical (visual) mediation of movements. We propose to distinguish the objective mediating factors — like teaching techniques and modalities — from subjective mediating factors, like the individual’s internal representation of his/her own disease. The cultural-historical approach in contemporary neuropsychology forces neuropsychologists to re-analyze and re-interpret the classic neuropsychological syndromes; to develop new assessment procedures more in accordance with the patient’s conditions of life; and to reconsider the concept of the social brain as a social and cultural determinant and regulator of brain functioning. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria proved that a defect interferes with a child’s appropriation of his/her culture, but cultural means can help the child overcome the defect. In this way, the cultural-historical approach became, and still is, a methodological basis for remedial education.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0406
Keywords:  psychological theory and clinical practice, Vygotsky and Luria, Parkinson’s disease, mediation, cultural-historical approach
About the authorsGlozman, Janna M.

Available Online: 12.01.2016

Dikaya L. A., Dikiy I. S., Karpova V. V., Lavreshina A. Yu. (2016). Neurophysiological correlates of artistic image creation by representatives of artistic professions. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 51-72.

The steadily increasing demand for artistic professions brings to the fore the task of studying the phenomenon of art by researching the unique capacity of the human brain to create works of art in different spheres of creative activity. So far, only a few studies have investigated creativity-related brain activity in representatives of the creative professions. The aim of the empirical research was to study the neurophysiological correlates of artistic image creation by representatives of the artistic professions. The participants were 60 right-handed females aged 23-27, divided into three groups— artists (23 people), actors (17 people), and specialists who do not work in an artistic field (20 people). The mono-typing technique was used to model the creative artistic process. EEG signals were recorded in a resting state, and during four stages of the creation of an artistic image (viewing of monotypes, frustration, image creation, and thinking over the details) from 21 electrodes set on the scalp according to the International 10-20 System. We analyzed EEG coherence for each functional trial at theta (4.00–8.00 Hz), alpha1 (8.00–10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5–13.00 Hz), and beta (13.00– 35.00 Hz) frequency bands. For statistical analysis, we used MANOVA and post hoc analysis. We found that the neurophysiological correlates of creating an artistic image are different at different stages of the creative process, and have different features for artists and actors. The actors primarily show dominance of right hemisphere activity, while close interaction of the hemispheres distinguishes the brains of the artists. The differences revealed in brain cortex functioning when artists or actors create an artistic image reflect different strategies of imaginative creative work by representatives of these professions.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0405
Keywords:  brain hemispheres, cortex, EEG, coherence, frequency band, art, artistic image
About the authorsDikaya, Liudmila A. / Dikiy, Igor S. / Karpova, Viktorija V. / Lavreshina, Anastasiya Y.

Available Online: 12.01.2016

Chernorizov A. M., Zhong-qing J., Petrakova A. V., Zinchenko Yu. P. (2016). Face cognition in humans: Psychophysiological, developmental, and cross-cultural aspects. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 37-50.

Investigators are finding increasing evidence for cross-cultural specificity in face cognition along with individual characteristics. The functions on which face cognition is based not only are types of general cognitive functions (perception, memory) but are elements of specific mental processes. Face perception, memorization, correct recognition of faces, and understanding the information that faces provide are essential skills for humans as a social species and can be considered as facets of social (cultural) intelligence. Face cognition is a difficult, multifaceted set of processes. The systems and processes involved in perceiving and recognizing faces are captured by several models focusing on the pertinent functions or including the presumably underlying neuroanatomical substrates. Thus, the study of face-cognition mechanisms is a cross-disciplinary topic. In Russia, Germany, and China there are plans to organize an interdisciplinary crosscultural study of face cognition. The first step of this scientific interaction is conducting psychological and psychophysiological studies of face cognition in multinational Russia within the frame of a grant supported by the Russian Science Foundation and devoted to “cross-cultural tolerance”. For that reason and in the presence of the huge diversity of data concerning face cognition, we suggest for discussion, specifically within the psychological scientific community, three aspects of face cognition: (1) psychophysiological (quantitative data), (2) developmental (qualitative data from developmental psychology), and (3) cross-cultural (qualitative data from cross-cultural studies). These three aspects reflect the different levels of investigations and constitute a comprehensive, multilateral approach to the problem. Unfortunately, as a rule, neuropsychological and psychological investigations are carried out independently of each other. However, for the purposes of our overview here, we assume that the main factors that could influence the developmental, individual psychophysiological, and cross-cultural differences in face cognition are not only biological but also social and cultural. One of the principal tasks of this article is to draw the attention of psychologists to the physiology of face processing and to draw the attention of neuroscientists to the psychology of face cognition. Thus, the main goal of the article is to instigate a discussion among social psychologists, psychophysiologists, and neuroscientists about the mechanisms of face cognition, which, as in a mirror, reflect the basic, fundamental “psychophysical” problem of psychophysiology.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0404
Keywords:  face cognition, social psychophysiology, development, other-ethnicity effects, brain mechanisms
About the authorsChernorizov, Alexsander M.  / Zinchenko, Yury P.  / Zhong-qing Jiang / Petrakova, Anastasia V.

Available Online: 12.01.2016

Chernorizov A. M., Isaychev S. A., Zinchenko Yu. P., Znamenskaya I. A., Zakharov P. N., Khakhalin A. V., Gradoboeva O. N., Galatenko V. V. (2016). Psychophysiological methods for the diagnostics of human functional states: New approaches and perspectives. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 23-36.

L. S. Vygotsky in his famous methodological essay “The historical meaning of psychological crisis” (1928) emphasized the importance of studying any psychological process or state as a “whole” — that is, as characterized from the subjective and objective sides at the same time. This position is fully relevant for studying the human functional states (FSes). Today the objective psychophysiological diagnostics of human FSes in activities associated with a high risk of technological disasters (in nuclear-power plants, transportation, the chemical industry) are extremely relevant and socially important. This article reviews some new psychophysiological methods of FS assessment that are being developed in Russia and abroad and discusses different aspects of developing integral psychophysiological FS assessment. The emphasis is on distant methods of FS diagnostics: the bioradiolocation method, laser Doppler vibrometry, eye tracking, audio and video recordings, infrared thermography. The possibilities and limitations of the most popular emotion atlases — the Facial Affect Scoring Technique (FAST) and the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) — in developing distant visual-range and infrared-range systems for automated classification of facial expressions are analyzed. A special section of the article concentrates on the problem of constructing an integral psychophysiological FS index. Mathematical algorithms that provide a partition of FS indicators into different FS types are based on various methods of machine learning. We propose the vector approach for construction of complex estimations of the human FSes.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0403
Keywords:  functional states, distant diagnostics, integral estimating, vector approach
About the authorsChernorizov, Alexsander M.  / Isaychev, Sergey A.  / Zinchenko, Yury P.  / Galatenko, Vladimir V. / Znamenskaya, Irina A. / Zakharov, Petr N. / Khakhalin, Andrej V. / Gradoboeva, Olga N.

Available Online: 12.01.2016

Solovieva Yu., Quintanar L. (2015). Qualitative syndrome analysis by neuropsychological assessment in preschoolers with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 112-124.

The basis of this article is A. R. Luria’s conception of the qualitative approach in neuropsychology. Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity is one of the most frequent clinical diagnoses given during preschool age. However, precise qualitative neuropsychological criteria for analysis of this clinical diagnosis do not exist and change from one approach to another. Our objective here is to propose such qualitative criteria for neuropsychological analysis of children with diagnoses of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity at preschool age. We follow clinical methodology that is traditional for historical and cultural neuropsychology and is an alternative for the psychometrical and cognitive approach. The methodology of the study was qualitative neuropsychological assessment of the syndrome followed by detailed consideration of the types of difficulties in each case. The study analyzes mistakes and typical examples of execution of the tasks of neuropsychological qualitative assessment by regular children and by children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. The results showed differences between these groups of children. The children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity made a lot of mistakes during assessments. Their difficulties are related to unfavorable conditions in the three functional brain blocks according to Luria’s conception. We conclude that “attention” cannot be considered the only or the main problem in children who receive this diagnosis by psychiatrists and neurologists.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0309
Keywords:  qualitative neuropsychology, process of attention, disorders of attention, neuropsychological assessment, child neuropsychology
About the authorsSolovieva, Yulia / Quintanar, Luis Rojas

Available Online: 09.30.2015

Murafa S.V. (2015). Mnemonic abilities of primary school children with delayed mental development. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 98-112.

This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls). The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls). The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students), mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test.
The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the type of underdevelopment of their perceptive abilities and attention abilities. Operational and regulative mechanisms of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays are determined to exist at early stages of their formation. Significant differences in productivity and mnemonic abilities in primary school students with developmental delays were observed in comparison with their typically developing peers. In both children with developmental delay, as well as typical children, gender did not present any significant differences in memorization or the employment of functional mechanisms of mnemonic abilities. The analysis shows, and this paper discusses possible causes for subjects’ inability to copy simple nonverbal material after its correct reproduction is shown.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0308
Keywords:  delay of mental development, mnemonic abilities, functional mechanisms, operational mechanisms, regulation mechanisms, effect of inability to redraw earlier remembered and correctly reproduced material
About the authorsMurafa, Svetlana V.

Available Online: 09.30.2015

Dikaya L.A., Skirtach I.A. (2015). Neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity: The example of improvisation. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 84-98.

Since the turn of this century, a substantial body of research has been published on the neuroscience of creativity. Now, it is necessary to study the neurophysiological correlates in true-to-life, professionally specific situations. The aim of our empirical research was to study the neurophysiological correlates of musical improvisation, a spontaneous creative activity. The participants were 136 right-handed practicing musicians aged 19 to 36 (102 males and 34 females), divided into two groups—professionals (56 people) and amateurs (80 people). EEG signals were recorded in a resting state (eyes closed) and during three types of internal musical activity (perceiving, mentally reproducing, and mentally improvising) from 21 scalp electrodes according to the International 10-20 System. For statistical analysis, we used ANOVA and post hoc analysis. For the main neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity, we revealed higher values of EEG spectral power in the delta band and the dominance of long-distance functional cortical connections in the high-frequency bands. Variable neurophysiological correlates were differentiated according to emotions and the professional level of the musicians. The distinguishing EEG pattern in the professional musicians during improvisation was the predominant activation of the left- hemisphere cortical regions simultaneously with high interhemispheric integration in the high-frequency band along the “creativity axis.” The revealed neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity during improvisation included basic and variable components and were characterized by a specific frequency-spatial organization of bioelectric cortical activity in the musicians.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0307
Keywords:  musical creativity, improvisation, brain cortex, EEG, spectral power, co¬herence, frequency band
About the authorsKorobeynikova, Elena V. / Zakharova, Lyudmila N.

Available Online: 09.30.2015

Pluzhnikov I.V., Kaleda V.G. (2015). Neuropsychological findings in personality disorders: A.R. Luria’s Approach. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 113-125.

There is a lack of information concerning the features of cognitive processes in personality disorders, as well as the brain mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these diseases. Luria’s neuropsychological approach demonstrated its heuristicity in estimating the cognitive status of patients with mental disorders and can be employed to identify the brain bases of non-psychotic mental disorders (including personality disorders).

The objective of this research is to study the features of neurocognitive functioning in patients with schizoid personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder (against the norm), employing Luria’s neuropsychological methodology. Hypotheses: 1) While both types of personality disorders are related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the specificity of the neurocognitive functioning of each personality disorder will be observed in addition to general neuropsychological signs. Specific neuropsychological symptoms point to different brain deficits, which allows conclusion to be drawn regarding differences in the pathogenesis of each personality disorder; and 2) Luria’s methodology neuropsychology is adequate for the study of neurocognitive functioning in personality disorders.

The study was conducted using qualitative and quantitative analyses (according to Luria) of neuropsychological testing data in a group of fifty male patients aged 19,2±3,7 years with pathocharacteristic domain disorders. The group consisted of 30 schizoid personality disorder patients and 20 schizotypal personality disorder patients.

Statistically significant differences (p <0,005) in neurocognitive function (regulatory processes, memory, spatial function) between the healthy controls and patients with personality disorders were observed.

Specific cognitive disorders pointing to the dysfunction of front-thalamoparietal connections were characteristic of both groups. Lateral differences were discovered for both patient groups. The neuropsychological symptoms related to left hemisphere dysfunction were characteristic of the patients with schizotypal personality disorder. Neurocognitive deficits related to right hemisphere deficiency characterized the patients with schizoid personality disorder.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0210
Keywords:  neuropsychology, cognitive functions, personality disorders, cerebral mechanisms, pathogenesis
About the authorsPluzhnikov, Ilia V. / Kaleda, Vasily G.

Available Online: 06.30.2015

Bożydar Kaczmarek (2013). Review of the book by Janna M. Glozman “Developmental Neuropsychology”. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 118-120

Janna Glozman’s book provides a comprehensive information on both Russian and Western developmental neuropsychology. The reader, especially form the West, may find fist hand information on Vygotsky and Luria’s collaboration with emphasis put on social aspects of child development. At the same time the reader can learn about principles of Luria’s syndromological (qualitative) approach and Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development. Two important notions that had a great impact both on the neuropsychological and developmental studies...

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0211
Keywords:  Review of the book, Developmental Neuropsychology
About the authorsKaczmarek, Bożydar

Available Online: 11.11.2013

Akhutina T.V., Pylaeva N.M. (2011). L.Vygotsky, A.Luria and Developmental Neuropsychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 155-175

This article is devoted to Lev Vygotsky’s and Alexander Luria’s contribution to the theory and methods of neuropsychology, and particularly, developmental neuropsychology. The first part of the article covers the principle foundations of neuropsychology as elaborated by Vygotsky and Luria. The goal of the second part is to show what interpretation of learning disabilities can be derived from it.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2011.0009
Keywords:  neuropsychology, cultural-historical psychology, higher mental functions.
About the authorsAkhutina, Tatyana V.  / Pylaeva, Nataly M.

Kovyazina M.S., Kuznetsova D.A. (2011). A Neuropsychological Study of Interhemispheric Integration of Involuntary Memory Processes. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 279-288

Split Brain Syndrome as it is described in neuropsychology includes impairments of perceptual and motor activity, more specifically the impairments in coordination of motor responses in bimanual tasks as well as in perception, speech and space impairments. There’s little evidence about the specification of memory processes impairments in the corpus callosum (cc) pathology. The conducted experiment demonstrated that cc performs the function of distribution of energy between the brain hemispheres and suppress the subdominant in the present activity, forcing the interhemispherical asymmetry, suppressing the identical process in the subdominant hemisphere. CC also significantly influences the process of selectivity in involuntary memory and learning.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2011.0017
Keywords:  neuropsychology, impairment, memory, interhemispheric integration
About the authorsKovyazina, Marija S.  / Kuznetsova, Darya A.

Glozman J.M. (2011). Remediation of Learning Disable Children Following L.S. Vygotsky's Approach. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 268-278

The paper defines remediating education, its peculiarities against trasitional education, main tasks and principles, based upon the cultural-historical theory of L.S. Vygotsky. Base functional systems formed during remediation are discussed. Peculiarities of individual, group and dyadic methods of remediation are described with regard to its potential for mediating child’s activity.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2011.0016
Keywords:  remediating education, learning disabilities, cultural-historical psychology, L.S. Vygotsky, mediation, play therapy.
About the authorsGlozman, Janna M.

Mikadze Y.V. (2011). Methodology of Neuropsychological Assessment:Qualitative (Metasyndromal Analysis of Cognitive Deficit Structure) and Quantitative (Psychometric Estimate) Aspects. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 261-267

Neuropsychological evaluation is a necessary step that precedes neurorehabilitation. It implies both qualitative and quantitative assessment of patient’s possible cognitive deficit. Qualitative approach aims to define the structure of the cognitive deficit while quantitative procedures give estimate of the magnitude of the deficit. Complex pathology affects multiple brain regions and reveals in a series of neuropsychological syndromes associated with these brain areas. Metasyndrome analysis is proposed as an approach to understanding the complex cognitive impairments. A new concept of metasyndrome is introduced in order to describe these repetitive patterns of observed cognitive deficits. Quantitative estimate allows to determine the degree of cognitive disorder and the dynamics of its change.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2011.0015
Keywords:  neuropsychology, metasyndromal analysis, neuropsychological evaluation
About the authorsMikadze, Yuri V.

Nikolaeva V.V. (2011). B.W. Zeigarnik and Pathopsychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 176-192

The present work suggests an analysis of B.W. Zeigarnik’s contribution into development of pathopsychology as a branch of clinical psychology. There are considered the main theoretical and methodological problems of pathopsychology which were elaborated in B.W. Zeigarnik’s works. The problems of coordination between pathopsychology, general psychology and psychiatry, formulated by B.W. Zeigarnik, as well as specific features of the subject matter of pathopsychology are also discussed.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2011.0010
Keywords:  pathopsychology, psychiatry, pathopsychological syndrome, psychological mechanisms of mental disorders.
About the authorsNikolaeva, Valentina V.

Glozman J.M. (2010). On the Fundamental Principles in the Contemporary Development of Russian Neuropsychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 433- 451

This paper deals with the development and main features of the cultural-historical approach in neuropsychology. A three step model of the evolution of Russian neuropsychology is proposed. The social and subjective features of disturbances in the pattern of mental functions and their dynamics in children and adults are discussed. The problems of the internal representation of defects, of the quality of life of patients and of their caregivers prove to be of fundamental value for contemporary neuropsychological investigations.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2010.0020
Keywords:  neuropsychology, A.R. Luria, L.S. Vygotsky, cultural-historical approach, mediation, care-givers, internal self-representation of disease
About the authorsGlozman, Janna M.

Arakelov G.G., Glebov V.V. (2010). Psychology Future in Development of Neurosciences. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 181-194

The article presents basic trends and prospects of development of neurosciences which study the problems of brain dysfunctions, thinking, memory, perception, and data processing It considers the questions raised by the research of brain elasticity of an adult person, the problem of individual consciousness, decoding of mechanisms of thinking, new trends in cross-cultural of studies.. The attention is focused on the important interdisciplinary researches in the field of studying stress / distress and various mental and psychosomatic frustrations which are caused by them.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2010.0008
Keywords:  психология, psychophysiology / психофизиология, neurosciences / нейробиология, brain activity, brain dysfunctions
About the authorsArakelov, Genadii G. / Glebov, V.V.