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Developmental psychology

Bogdanova M. V., Rusyaeva I. A., Vyelgzhanina A. O. (2016). Gender and age aspects of child psychological defenses in child-mother relationships. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 141-158.

The high level of stress in modern society poses a need to study family factors and resources for the development of children’s defense mechanisms in the current social environment. This study investigates correlations between maternal and child psychological defense mechanisms, using interviews, a structured clinical survey, projective drawing, and a projective game. Analysis of data from 240 people (120 children and 120 mothers) revealed specifics of the formation of psychological defense mechanisms among children aged 4 to 12 years in child-mother relationships. We suggest that maternal and child defense mechanisms have some isomorphic traits, but the level and quality of isomorphism changes with each age period of the child. Certain defensive mechanisms of mother and child appear with the same frequency. The child’s gender influences the correlation between the mother’s and child’s psychological defense mechanisms. Initially, children are more likely to directly copy defense mechanisms observed from the mother’s behavior. As they grow older, they use defenses that they have learned consciously. Based on empirical data, we also found a correlation between the maturity of the maternal psychological defense mechanisms and specifics of child psychological defense mechanisms. We propose that the maturity of maternal psychological defense mechanisms has the greatest meaning for child psychological defense mechanisms at the earliest stages of ontogenesis — it provides consistency between the mother’s own psychological defense mechanisms and the psychological defense mechanisms that she teaches her child.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0310
Keywords:  psychological defense mechanisms, coping strategies, child-mother relationships, maternal teaching
About the authorsBogdanova, Maria V. / Rusyaeva, Irina A. / Vyelgzhanina, Anastasia O.

Available Online: 09.30.2016

Symanyuk E. E., Pecherkina A. A. (2016). Psychological predictors of inhibition development in educational environments. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 127-140.

This article examines psychological predictors of inhibition in educational environments as well as various aspects of pedagogical communication, including facilitation, which is aimed at enhancing educational effectiveness and developing students by means of using a particular communication style and the teacher’s personality. The need to study inhibition (the deterioration of teacher-children interactions; the negation of a student’s individuality; the inability to understand and accept students’ viewpoints; teacher-provoked conflicts; and emotional callousness) is substantiated. The essence of psychological predictors as independent variables, changes in which lead to changes in other dependent variables, allowing the prediction of inhibition development, is explained.

The research objective was to identify psychological predictors of the development of inhibition in pedagogical communication.

An empirical study was conducted using standardized techniques for diagnosing communicative attitudes (V. Boyko), developing general communicative tolerance (V. Boyko), identifying aggressiveness (A. Asinger), identifying the level of empathy (V. Boyko), and identifying the degree of pedagogical inhibition (L. Polosova). The sample contained 375 teachers from Yekaterinburg educational institutions, with participant selection made using stratified sampling.

The teacher’s personality features (a negative communicative attitude, low communicative tolerance and empathy, and higher levels of aggression) were shown to be key predictors of inhibition, which itself was found to depend on the length of teaching experience. At the beginning of one’s professional teaching career, the level of inhibition is minimal. However, the level of inhibition reaches its maximum level after 5-10 years of teaching, and after 20 years, there is a sharp decrease in the level of inhibition.

The conclusion of this study stresses the importance of developing strategies to prevent and correct inhibition, which is especially essential for school teachers with 5-10 years of experience.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0309
Keywords:  pedagogical communication, inhibition, facilitation, educational environment, psychological predictors of development
About the authorsSymanyuk, Elvira E. / Pecherkina, Anna A.

Available Online: 09.30.2016

Samokhvalova A. G., Kryukova T. L. (2016). Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 113-126.

Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100) and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30), auditory (n = 30), speech (n = 25) and motor (n = 15) impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts).

First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0308
Keywords:  impaired communication, communication difficulties, health impairments, teenagers, objective component of impaired communication, subjective emotional experiences
About the authorsSamokhvalova, Anna G. / Kryukova, Tatyana L.

Available Online: 09.30.2016

Muhamedrahimov R.J., Arintcina I.A., Solodunova M. Y., Anikina V. O., Vasilyeva M. J., Chernego D. I., Tsvetkova L. A., Grigorenko E. L. (2016). Structural characteristics of the institutional environment for young children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 103-112.

The research literature suggests that institutions for children left without parental care do not provide environments that adequately promote children’s development, and that characteristics of orphanages should be considered as an environmental factor influencing developmental difficulties in children living in institutions and later in post-institutional families. This study aimed to analyze the structural characteristics of the caregiving environment in two St. Petersburg (RF) orphanages—baby homes for children from birth to 4–5 years of age (BH A and BH B), and the maintenance of the structural interventions that were implemented in BH A during 2000-05 (The St. Petersburg–USA Orphanage Research Team, 2008). Both institutions belong to the Ministry of Health and are managed under the same medical regulations, providing about the same quality of medical care and nutrition. The results of the study show that the number of children living in each ward (4 to 6 in BH A and 5 to 8 in BH B), and the child–caregiver ratio (2 to 3 for BH A and 2.5 to 4 for BH B) in the two baby homes are about the same, while BH A have fewer staff members who are assigned to the ward (6–8 vs. 9–14 in BH B). The ward assistant teachers in BH A are assigned as the primary caregivers, working 5 days a week (39 hrs) vs. about 25 hrs a week for assistant teachers in BH B. While living in the baby home, children in BH A are integrated by age and disability (vs. segregation by age and partial disability integration in BH B), and are assigned to one ward (meaning the same caregivers, peers, rooms, etc.), while in BH B the children change their ward when they reach a certain age or developmental milestone (number of wards children experienced M(SD) = 1.1 (0.2) in BH A and 2.7 (1.1) in BH B). Our results support the hypothesis that the structural characteristics of institutional environment in the two baby homes are different, and that in comparison with BH B, the structural characteristics of BH A show more caregiving stability and consistency. The results also show that the interventions implemented in BH A within the St. Petersburg–USA Orphanage Research Project were maintained for many years after the project was finished. The specific features of an institutional caregiving environment should be taken into consideration in studies of the mental health and bio-behavioral development of children in institutions and postinstitutional families.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0307
Keywords:  institutions, children, caregiving environment, stability, consistency
About the authorsTsvetkova, Larissa A. / Grigorenko, Elena L.  / Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J. / Arintcina, Irina A. / Solodunova, Maria Y. / Anikina, Varvara O. / Vasilyeva, Marina J. / Chernego, Daria I.

Available Online: 09.30.2016

Kuzmin M. Y., Konopak I. A. (2016). Distinctive features of adolescent hardiness in families of different composition. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 95-102.

This article analyzes the influence of family structure on the hardiness of adolescents aged 16-18 (average age 17.2). The aim was to investigate hardiness of subjects from full, single-parent, and large families. We used the Test of Hardiness Survey and the Noetic Orientations Test (SZhO). The sample comprised 200 subjects, first year university students from families with different compositions: 75 were brought up in a full family, 75 in a one-parent family, and 50 in a large family. A one-way analysis of variance and repeated measures MANCOVA showed that the subjects differ both in their hardiness and the distinctive features of its development. The authors conclude that subjects from full families are less hardy than those from single-parent families, but more hardy than those from large families. Also the hardiness dynamics of children from full, single-parent, and large families differ. Adolescents from single-parent families increase their hardiness further, whereas in students from full families it decreases. This can be explained by specific ways that the students survive the crisis of adolescence. And finally, students from large families demonstrate a similar level of hardiness in comparison with students from full families. This can also be explained by specific ways that they survive the crisis of adolescence. Later, when this crisis is almost over, their hardiness becomes similar to that of students from full families, which has decreased by that time.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0306
Keywords:  hardiness, commitment, control, challenge, family structure, adolescents
About the authorsKuzmin, Mikhail Y. / Konopak, Igor A.

Available Online: 09.30.2016

Kholodnaya, M., Emelin A. (2015). Resource function of conceptual and metacognitive abilities in adolescents with different forms of dysontogenesis. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 101-113.

This study investigated the level of conceptual and metacognitive abilities and their interaction in adolescents with different forms of dysontogenesis. The total sample (N= 173) included four groups of young adolescents (11-12 years old): with normal development, with infantile cerebral palsy (CP), with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and with delayed intellectual development (DID). We measured the adolescents’ performance on tests of conceptual abilities (the use of categories at different grades of generalization, the discovery of abstract meaning and implicit connections between concepts) and metacognitive abilities (attention selectivity, as measured by Mtinsterberg’s test and the understanding of hidden pictures, and attention organization, as measured by indices of cognitive styles). The results showed, first, that in comparison with normal adolescents, the adolescents with CP and ADHD had a deficit of metacognitive abilities, but they did not differ in rates of conceptual abilities. As for adolescents with DID, even though they had lower rates of conceptual abilities and attention selectivity, they did not differ from the “norm” group on some indices of attention organization. Second, a tendency for the disintegration of conceptual and metacognitive abilities (as measured by correlation and factor analysis) was most clearly seen in the adolescents with ADHD and DID. The adolescents with CP and ADHD had conceptual (categorial and generative) abilities as a mental resource, and the adolescents with DID had metacognitive abilities as a mental resource. The resource function of conceptual and metacognitive abilities was determined not only by their level but also by the extent of their interaction (integration).    

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0409
Keywords:  ndysontogenesis, infantile cerebral palsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, delayed intellectual development, conceptual abilities, metacognitive abilities, mental resource
About the authorsKholodnaya, Marina A. / Emelin, A.

Available Online: 12.30.2015

Lopukhova, O. G., Kashshapova, E. V. (2015). Fear of childbirth in pregnant women: External and internal factors. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 114-125.

Fear of childbirth (FOC) is an important psychological problem that is studied worldwide because it affects the well-being of pregnant women. However, in Russia, this problem does not receive adequate attention among researchers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conditionality of fear of childbirth (FOC) in pregnant women by external and internal factors, which we assumed were the reasons for this fear. As external factors, we considered socio-demographic indicators (e.g., age, marital status, level of education, housing, and the attitude of relatives towards pregnancy) as well as indicators of gynecological history (e.g., the term of pregnancy, the outcome of previous pregnancies, and pregnancy complications). As internal (psychological) factors of the fear of childbirth, we considered personal anxiety as well as general inclination towards and negative consequences of different fears (20 types of fears and phobias were examined). The study was conducted with a Russian sample of 76 women at different stages of pregnancy and with different socio-demographic indicators and gynecological histories. The analysis of the results showed the absence of significant differences between women who were pregnant with FOC and those without this fear in terms of the external factors considered in this study. According to the study’s data, a general inclination of women to fear is associated with fear of childbirth. However, the findings for the women with FOC did not indicate significant positive correlations between the level of this fear and exposure to any of the 20 types of fear and phobias measured in the study. Furthermore, the results did not detect relationships between the FOC level and women’s personal anxiety. The results allow us to conclude that FOC is a separate phenomenon that is not dependent on other phobias and fears. Fear of childbirth has a subjective and highly individual genesis. It is not a direct consequence of objective factors, and it cannot be predicted based on women’s personal characteristics (in particular, anxiety). For further study of this problem, we suggest that researchers identify different types of FOC and describe their content as a way to help develop practical methods of providing psychological assistance for women during pregnancy.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0410
Keywords:  fear of childbirth, FOC, pregnancy; personal anxiety, fears, phobias
About the authorsLopukhova, Olga G.  / Kashshapova, Elena V.

Available Online: 12.30.2015

Murafa S.V. (2015). Mnemonic abilities of primary school children with delayed mental development. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 98-112.

This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls). The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls). The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students), mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test.
The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the type of underdevelopment of their perceptive abilities and attention abilities. Operational and regulative mechanisms of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays are determined to exist at early stages of their formation. Significant differences in productivity and mnemonic abilities in primary school students with developmental delays were observed in comparison with their typically developing peers. In both children with developmental delay, as well as typical children, gender did not present any significant differences in memorization or the employment of functional mechanisms of mnemonic abilities. The analysis shows, and this paper discusses possible causes for subjects’ inability to copy simple nonverbal material after its correct reproduction is shown.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0308
Keywords:  delay of mental development, mnemonic abilities, functional mechanisms, operational mechanisms, regulation mechanisms, effect of inability to redraw earlier remembered and correctly reproduced material
About the authorsMurafa, Svetlana V.

Available Online: 09.30.2015

Sobkin V.S., Adamchuk D.V. (2015). The attitudes of Russian teenagers toward sexual aggression. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 61-69.

The data reported in the article describe the attitudes of teenagers to problems concerning sexual violence and aggression. Given the lack of any national systems that could monitor negative factors in the teenage environment, including sexual aggression, special value lies in the data obtained through questionnaires, as these data allow us to evaluate the prevalence of such factors, and they also describe the typical lifestyles of modern Russian teenagers.
The main objective of the study was to describe the age dynamics and gender specifics of teenagers’ attitudes toward the problem of sexual aggression: its prevalence, probable reasons for it, ways of dealing with such situations.
This article is based on data from a research project conducted in 2012 in the Krasnoyarsk region. The research particularly addressed various aspects of schoolchildrens sexual behavior and their attitudes toward sexual violence. The main research method was a paper questionnaire. It was administered to 1,540 children in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grades.
The results showed that every tenth teenager indicated the presence of sexual-violence victims in their circle. According teenagers’ opinions about the reasons for sexual violence the main reasons are “bad luck,” “provocative appearance” “carelessness”. The majority of teenagers will seek help in case of rape.
The answers of teenagers who have sexual experience regarding possible solutions for sexually traumatic situations show their readiness to take responsibility for their behavior and its consequences, as well as for their mental and physical health. In this respect sexual experience can be viewed as an indicator of teenagers’ personal and psychological readiness to lead a grownup life independently of their parents.
To sum up, analyzing schoolchildren’s replies, even to those questions that were not asked directly but in oblique form, allows us to conclude that the teenage environment involves an aggressive (unlawful) component, which usually appears to be a “hidden layer” of interpersonal relations in the microsocial circle of a schoolchild. As a result, the threat of becoming a victim of bullying (ostracism) can block a teenager’s search for help.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0305
Keywords:  puberty, prevalence of sexual aggression, reasons for sexual aggression, sup¬port for victims of sexual violence, demographic and socially stratified factors
About the authorsSobkin, Vladimir S. / Adamchuk, Dmitry V.

Available Online: 09.30.2015

Manukyan V.R., Golovey L.A., Strizhitskaya O.Yu. (2015). Formation of personality psychological maturity and adulthood crises. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 99-112.

Based on theoretical analysis, in the present paper, we defined the structure of the characteristics of personality psychological maturity, which is considered an adult development criterion. The objective of this paper was to identify the mechanisms that contribute to the formation of psychological maturity in adulthood development. We first assumed that one of the possible mechanisms is the normative crisis of development. In turn, previously formed psychological maturity traits can relieve the experiences associated with this normative crisis. The aim of the present study was to analyze the formation of psychological maturity during periods of emerging and middle adulthood, with a specific focus on normative crisis experiences. The study design included cross-sectional and longitudinal methods. The participants included 309 adults. The emerging adulthood group ranged in age from 18 to 25 years, and the participants in the middle adulthood group were between 38 and 45 years of age. To study crisis events and experiences, we used three author-designed questionnaires. A self-actualization test by E. Shostrom (SAT), the Big Five personality test by Costa and MacCrae, a value and availability ratio in various vital spheres technique by E.B. Fantalova, a purpose-in-life test by D.A. Leontiev, and a coping test by Lazarus were used to define the personality characteristics used to overcome difficult life situations.

In this paper, we described experiences specific to the crises associated with emerging adulthood and middle adulthood in the context of developmental tasks. Using cluster analysis, we defined groups with different intensities of crisis experiences and analyzed psychological content of crisis experiences in different groups. Using ANOVA, we found that participants with low intensity crisis experiences show more developed characteristics of psychological maturity. During emerging adulthood, the overcoming of crises associated with the separation from family contributes to the formation of such aspects of psychological maturity as self-management, life organization and responsibility. In a longitudinal study of midlife crises, the data suggest that in groups where there are more intense crisis experiences, there are more significant dynamics in the meaning and value sphere over the course of a year that lead to the achievement of greater personal integrity and congruence.

The current study proved the hypothesis regarding the role of the crisis mechanism of psychological maturity development in two phases of adulthood. It also proved that psychological maturity contributes to a decrease in the intensity of crisis experiences.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0209
Keywords:  development, adulthood, psychological maturity, crisis, crisis experiences, meaning and value sphere
About the authorsManukyan, Victoria R. / Golovey, Larisa A. / Strizhitskaya, Olga Yu.

Available Online: 06.30.2015

Solovieva Yu., González-Moreno C.X., Quintanar L. (2015). Indicators of reflection during acquisition of symbolic actions in preschool Colombian children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 61-72.

The background of the study is the historic and cultural conception of development, which considers symbolic activities significant for preschool-age children. Our objective was to identify indicators of reflection as an essential feature of preschool development during the acquisition of symbolic actions at three levels: materialized, perceptive, and verbal. The design of the study was descriptive with qualitative and quantitative analysis applied. Included in this assessment of the development of symbolic function were 180 children of preschool age (from 5 to 6 years old) who were in the third year of formal preschool education in Bogotá, Colombia. Qualitative analysis of the results pointed out specific indicators of symbolic development at each level. On the materialized level such indicators were the sequencing of actions with substituted objects, the generalization of the symbolic features of objects, and a verbal, coherent explanation of the mode of substitution. On the perceptive level the indicators were the generalization of features in graphic representations, the possibility of using an image as a strategy for voluntary memorization, and a verbal explanation of the use of an image as a substitution. On the verbal level reflective explanation of verbal substitution was established as the positive indicator. The results permit us to posit the usefulness of clear qualitative indicators for assessment of a child’s level of psychological development and readiness for school learning at the end of preschool.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0206
Keywords:  symbolic development, preschool age, reflection, psychological development, actions with objects, symbolic actions
About the authorsSolovieva, Yulia / González-Moreno, Claudia Ximena / Quintanar, Luis Rojas

Available Online: 06.30.2015

Sobkin V.S., Skobeltsina K.N. (2015). Shared activities of parents with their preschool children during family pastime. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 52-60.

This article studies the structure of the pastime of contemporary preschool children and the importance and prevalence of various kinds of activities that parents and their children share. The emphasis is on those features of parental behavior that are determined by gender role (mother/father), family status (two-parent/separated family), style of parentchild relationship, and also child’s gender. The work is based on data from 1,936 questionnaires received from parents of preschool children (from 1.5 to 7 years old) who were attending Moscow kindergartens. The research was carried out in 41 kindergartens in 9 districts of Moscow. The survey uncovered several social-psychological features of the position parents take while organizing their shared pastime with preschool children: the influence of traditional gender-role models of parental behavior; the “complementary” principle of mother’s and father’s social-role positions in the upbringing of a daughter; the distortion of traditional maternal behavior in the upbringing of a son in a separated family; the reduced organization of shared play with a child in a separated family; the influence of the style of the parent-child relationship on the participation of parents in their children’s activities. The dynamics show how the parents’ position changes as their children grow older (from 1.5 years to 7 years): namely, the decrease of parents’ organization of and participation in a preschool child’s activities has a negative impact on their emotional state while interacting with the child.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0205
Keywords:  preschool childhood, family pastime, shared activity of parents and children, parental position, parent-child relationship
About the authorsSobkin, Vladimir S. / Skobeltsina, Ksenia N.

Available Online: 06.30.2015

Shvedovskaya A.A., Archakova T.O. (2015). Styles of parent-child interactions in families with preschool-age children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 36-51.

With regard to cultural-historical and activity approaches, collaborative activity with an adult, including communication as a type of meta-activity, is considered to be the necessary mechanism of child development. A child is considered to be an active partner, possessing his/her own motives, and is guided by mental representations of the parent and interactions with him/her. Russian psychologists have developed a range of parenting style classifications; however, these styles primarily emphasize a parent’s position, contrary to methodological perspectives, with inadequate consideration of a child’s own agency. The aims of the current research were to investigate actual goal-oriented interactions between preschoolers and their parents and to outline certain patterns (types) of interactions, considering both partners and analyzing interac- tions according to the activity model. A total of 75 parent-child dyads (children aged from 4.6 years to 6.11 years) participated in “collaborative activity trials” in which the observational method was based on the activity approach. Cluster analysis (k-means clusterization) revealed five different groups of parent-child dyads: conflictual, harmonious, distant and two-fold dominant (with dominant parent or dominant child). Between-group comparisons (Mann-Whitney U test) showed significant differences in a range of parameters of activity and emotional components of interactions. The harmonious type of interactions is not prevalent, although subgroups with different types of domination are the most common, which may be attributed to cultural peculiarities. Domination-subordination misbalance does not seem to seriously distort the normal developmental trajectory; however, in cases of conflictual and distant dyads, interactional issues might hinder the course of goal-oriented activity, which might serve as a predictor for potential difficulties in further learning.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0204
Keywords:  parent-childhood interactions, parenting styles, collaborative activity, parental scaffolding, preschooler
About the authorsShvedovskaya, Anna A. / Archakova, Tatyana O.

Available Online: 06.30.2015

Vorobyeva I.V., Kruzhkova O.V., Krivoshchekova M.S. (2015). The genesis of vandalism: From childhood to adolescence. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 139-156.

This study was developed because vandal behavior is an increasing threat in the world. Countries, commercial companies, and individuals experience great damage to property as a result of individual vandal acts. In addition, vandalism threatens not only “tangible assets” but also the cultural and historical heritage of modern humanity. Despite the threatening spread of vandalism, the study of its psychological foundations, including its origins, in the context of individual life courses is in many ways terra incognita. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genesis of vandal behavior and the sociopsychological and individual personality factors in the formation of readiness to destroy public property and the property of others. A comprehensive study of children, adolescents, and young adults (N=1522), as well as of their social environment, revealed mechanisms of the readiness to commit vandal acts that were present since childhood. The study was conducted by examining four age groups: preschoolers (4–6 years), primary school pupils (7–9 years), adolescents (12–15 years), and young adults (17–22 years); the instruments used were specific-age batteries, observation, expert techniques, and questionnaires. We found that the characteristics of parent-child relationship are is the basis for forming the boundaries of the permissible activity of the child; disturbance in the parent-child relationship can lead to the development of forms of vandalism in children. We describe the specificity and intensity of the vandal activity of adolescents and young adults in the context of their environment, and we look at the individual characteristics that promote deviant behavior. Thus, vandal activity is not only a specific characteristic of adolescents and young adults, and it is not always very destructive. Basic vandal activity originates in the early stages of ontogenesis as a result of a deformation in social interaction that becomes fixed and converted into the destructive actions of people trying through this form of activity to understand themselves in social space.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0112
Keywords:  vandalism, genesis of vandal behavior, preschool age, primary school age, adolescence, youth, personality and environmental factors in the development of vandal behavior
About the authorsVorobyeva, Irina V.  / Kruzhkova, Olga V.  / Krivoshchekova, Marina S.

Available Online: 03.31.2015

Alekhin A.N., Koroleva N.N., Ostasheva E.I. (2015). Semantic structures of world image as internal factors in the self-destructive behavior of today’s teenagers. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 125-138.

This article presents the results of a theoretical and methodological analysis and empirical study of semantic formations in the structure of a world image as factors in teenagers’ self-destructive behavior in contemporary Russian society. During the teenage years the value-semantic bases of a world image are being formed. A world image is the integral, multilevel representation of the subject, which consists of social reality and himself/herself; it exists in the mind as a unity of sensual fabrications, significations, and personalized meanings. Transformations of semantic components of a world image that are inadequate for the environment or that are externally and internally rigid can serve as preconditions for disadaptation and for one of its extreme forms—self-destructive behavior. The purpose of our empirical research was to determine the main characteristics of basic conceptual formations in the structure of a world image—that is, attitudes, intentions, motives, and values— that serve as predictors of disadaptation in modern teenagers. The teenagers in the study were born in different generations with a ten-year interval (1990–1991 and 2000–2001). Our empirical research of the semantic world-image structures that serve as bases for the self-destructive behavior of modern teenagers consisted of two phases. The first phase provided a comparative analysis of the relationships, value preferences, and basic conceptual intentions that raise the possibility of disadaptation and self-destructive behavior among teenagers. In order to perform this analysis, we analyzed data from the Character-Pathological Diagnostic Poll (PDP) of A. E. Lichko. During the second phase, a comparative analysis was carried out of the basic semantic components of teenagers’ images of the world and self-destructive and normative behavior. The main conceptual world-image structures were defined with the help of projective methods: the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and the modification for teenagers and youth (TAT-Y), which was developed by A. N. Alekhin and others. The main changes in the value-semantic orientations and personality dispositions of Russian teenagers in the late 20th to early 21st centuries were defined. The features of the semantic organization of these teenagers’ world image as a precondition for disadaptive behavior were uncovered, and the personality preconditions for their self-destructive behavior were identified: their world image is fragmentary and self-contradictory; their personality features include cognitive distortions, a negative emotional state, ambivalence of motives and disposition, and disharmony with world-image semantic structures. The indicator for social disadaptation and behavioral deviation in modern Russian teenagers is evident deformation of personal relationships as the basic cognitive structure of their world image.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0111
Keywords:  teenager, contemporary society, sociocultural transformations, socialization, personality development, self-destructive behavior, disadaptation, value orientations, semantic formations, world image
About the authorsAlekhin, Anatoly N.  / Koroleva, Natalya N.  / Ostasheva, Eugeniya I.

Available Online: 03.31.2015

Teixeira R. (2014). Reaching Conversation Through Play: A Qualitative Change of Activity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 114-125.

This article illustrates the process of reaching conversation in the case of Anna, a 10- year-old girl, in a countryside Portuguese primary school, through neuropsychological habilitation and psychotherapy. This case identifies the theoretical and methodological concepts from Vygotsky’s cultural historical conceptualization in psychotherapy practice. Vygotsky introduced a new form of thinking in psychology, the concept of play, as a cultural and relational tool on a child’s (consciousness) development. During psychotherapy, Anna progressed through the following stages: 1) not playing (deploying the toys, with no relations between them or awareness of social rules); 2) worldplay (building worlds using wooden blocks and other toys, establishing relations between the characters and their possessions); and 3) imaginary situation (with no toys). At the end of this process, she was able to talk about her issues, communicating in a more adaptive way, especially in a schooled society. When she reached conversation, Anna’s activity was also changed. Therefore, there was a qualitative change regarding her needs, motives and ways of acting and reacting to herself, others, and cultural tools or events.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0310
Keywords:  Vygotsky, play, activity, consciousness, language
About the authorsTeixeira, Rute Gonçalves

Available Online: 09.30.2014

Vartanova I.I. (2014) The role of motivation and system of values in the development of upper secondary school pupils' personalities. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 27-38.

The motivation system in adolescent high school pupilsstudents of was studied (9th and 11th grade students) on the basis of a complex approach and a comparative analysis of emotional attitudes and a deliberate preference of values (general and educational). It was shown that the significance and accessibility of analyzed groups of values are, to a considerable extent, determined by a dominant motivation. Also, a tendency was found towards the contra-positioning of conscious and emotional attitudes with values — values which are highly attractive on the motivation-and-emotional level, but on the level of conscience, are underestimated compared with other ones. This also determines the further trend of development of a personality in the direction of acceptance of sociallyapproved general and educational values, and leads to the convergence of personality development of schoolchildren at that stage of their life. Also revealed were certain gender- related features of value orientations, which were relatinged to the more advanced development of girls when compared to boys of the same age.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0203
Keywords:  motivation, values, personality, upper secondary school children
About the authorsVartanova, Irina I.

Available Online: 06.30.2014

Kokurina I. G., Solina E. I. (2014). Representations of happiness and life satisfaction in the group of educated and socially active young people. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 83-95.

The paper examines the differences in the social representations of happiness among optimists and pessimists in the group of socially active, educated young members of the international youth organization Association Internationale des Etudiants en Sciences Economiques et Commerciales . To assess the degree of optimism and pessimism we used the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) developed by E. Diener, while social representation, divided into the nucleus and peripheral zones, were examined using Verges’ technique within the framework of the concept of social mindsets offered by S. Moskovichi.

It has been shown that, irrespective of the optimism or pessimism of the participants, the nucleus of their representations of happiness contains such a value as love. However, only in optimists’ representations is this value combined in the nucleus with the values of family and friendship. In the pessimists’ nucleus zone of the representation of happiness, love is presented as an independent value, primarily associated with striking emotional experiences, which has aspects of psychological addiction. Considerable differences between optimists and pessimists have also been found in the peripheral zone of the representation of happiness. Only optimists have such associations as “knowledge”, “children”, and “faith” in their peripheral area. In our opinion, the major scale of differences between optimists and pessimists is formed by the factor of sociocentricity and egocentricity.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0109
Keywords:  life satisfaction, optimism, pessimism, social representations of happiness, socially active educated young people, social and economic crisis
About the authorsKokurina, Irina G.  / Solina, Elena I.

Available Online: 03.30.2014

Avakyan T. V., Volikova S. V. (2014). Social anxiety in children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 73-82.

Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanage near the Moscow region, aged 10 to 16 years old. The control group comprised 66 students from a general school, aged 10 to 15 years old, and all living with their families. Differences were found in the parameters studied. The orphans were characterized by higher levels of social and general anxiety. On the one hand, they strove for the attention and approval of adults, but, on the other hand, they were more worried than their peers who lived with their families about the impression they made on others. They were afraid of receiving a negative evaluation.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0108
Keywords:  orphaned children, anxiety, social anxiety, fear of social evaluation, depressiveness, situation at school
About the authorsAvakyan, Tamara V.  / Volikova, Svetlana V.

Available Online: 03.30.2014

Filippova E. V., Pivnenko T. V. (2014). Psychological boundaries of “I” in the role play of peer-unaccepted children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 62-72.

This article examines the psychological peculiarities of children who are not accepted by their peers in the course of play. Problems in peer communication are analyzed in respect to the violation of “I” psychological boundaries. The phenomenology of the psychological boundaries of “I” and their violation in the course of play are investigated. New data are provided on the peculiarities of play (mainly its subject matter, including also specific plots, roles, and the organization of play space) in children who are not accepted by their peers; differences between children with low sociometric status and children from a control group were ascertained. Projective methods and observations of children’s play and communicative behavior in different situations were used. The sample included 140 children from 5 to 6 years old, 70 of whom were not accepted by their peers. Additionally 80 mothers (40 of them mothers of children who were not accepted by their peers) participated in the research. The link between the peculiarities of the children’s play, their peer relations, and violations of the psychological boundaries of “I” is described. The work provides elaboration of the notions of play developed within the framework of L. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0107
Keywords:  psychological boundaries of “I”, role play, role, subject matter, play contact, acceptance by peers
About the authorsFilippova, Elena V.  / Pivnenko, Tatyana V.

Available Online: 03.30.2014

Carla Anauate (2013). Psychological problems of late adoption as observed in Brazil through a cultural-historical approach. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 176-185

This work discusses certain cultural-historical concepts relating to late adoption. This term is used for the adoption of children over 2 years old. Unfortunately most people do not wish to adopt children over 2 years old. Generally they seek newborn babies, which are a rare population, probably because of birth control campaigns. The children who are available in orphanages are older children who are unwanted. This paper tries to deal with this issue emphasizing that relationships are built within a family, transforming those involved. It lays out principles for a successful adoption and illustrates this matter with a case study. Relationships should be provided so that people can interact. This interaction will lead to the transformation of all of those involved within the established relationship, which constitute the human being. We intend to demystify the difficult matter of late adoption, which is one of the key aspects concerning the return of the child to an orphanage. The adaptation of late adopted children is said to be more difficult, but when we believe that human beings can change and be modified through the relationships they establish, we see a promising possibility for late adoption. Late adoption can be successful when we view it from a relational point of view, stressing that relationships transform all the individuals involved within the group.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0416
Keywords:  adoption, relationship, mediation, transformation, children, cultural-historical
About the authorsAnauate, Carla

Available Online: 01.15.2014

Bożydar Kaczmarek (2013). Review of the book by Janna M. Glozman “Developmental Neuropsychology”. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 118-120

Janna Glozman’s book provides a comprehensive information on both Russian and Western developmental neuropsychology. The reader, especially form the West, may find fist hand information on Vygotsky and Luria’s collaboration with emphasis put on social aspects of child development. At the same time the reader can learn about principles of Luria’s syndromological (qualitative) approach and Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development. Two important notions that had a great impact both on the neuropsychological and developmental studies...

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0211
Keywords:  Review of the book, Developmental Neuropsychology
About the authorsKaczmarek, Bożydar

Available Online: 11.11.2013

Akhutina T.V., Pylaeva N.M. (2011). L.Vygotsky, A.Luria and Developmental Neuropsychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 155-175

This article is devoted to Lev Vygotsky’s and Alexander Luria’s contribution to the theory and methods of neuropsychology, and particularly, developmental neuropsychology. The first part of the article covers the principle foundations of neuropsychology as elaborated by Vygotsky and Luria. The goal of the second part is to show what interpretation of learning disabilities can be derived from it.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2011.0009
Keywords:  neuropsychology, cultural-historical psychology, higher mental functions.
About the authorsAkhutina, Tatyana V.  / Pylaeva, Nataly M.

Lebedinsky V.V (2009). Autism as a Model of Abnormal Emotional Development. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 404-412

The theoretical model of the establishment of the syndrome of early infantile autism is elaborated including all the stages of this establishment. According to Vygotsky and his ideas about the hierarchical organization of pathological syndromes, there is the definition of the difference between the structure and the function of the primary (biological) and secondary (sociological) phenomena of the syndrome of early infantile autism.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0020
Keywords:  autistic syndrome, autistic syndrome model, affective disorders.

Burmenskaya G.V. (2009). Child's Attachment to Mother as the Basis of Mental Development Typology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 385-403

The article shows the role of the attachment system (child-mother interactions) in development of a wide spectrum of individual personality characteristics. Emotional attachment of the child to mother is considered as a complicated system of internal regulation and a basis of typology of mental development. Results of a series of empirical studies show the connection between the type of attachment, formed at the early stages of child development, and characteristics of his/her autonomy, consciousness (self-concept and self-esteem) and empathy in preschool and middle childhood.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0019
Keywords:  attachment, typology of mental development, autonomy, self-concept, self-esteem, empathy, preschool and middle childhood.
About the authorsBurmenskaya, Galina V.

Malykh S.B., Gindina E.D., Nadyseva V.V. (2009). Genetic and Environmental Influences on Temperament in Adolescence. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 361-384

This study, which is a part of a Moscow longitudinal twin project, aims to explore genetic and environmental contributions to inter-individual variability of temperamental traits in adolescence on the basis of a Russian sample. 85 monozygotic (MZ) and 64 same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs aged 12 – 14 years completed the children version of Rusalov Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (C-STQ). The results of model-fitting analyses indicate considerable hereditary determination of individual differences in 3 out of the 8 C-STQ dimensions - social tempo, objectrelated emotional sensitivity, and social emotional sensitivity. Non-shared environmental effects explained the rest of the total variance in these dimensions. Individual differences in the other STQ dimensions were due to environmental factors.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0018
Keywords:  monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, adolescents, individual differences, temperament, genotype, environment.
About the authorsMalykh, Sergey B.  / Gindina, Elena D.

Sergienko E.A. (2009). Revolution in the Cognitive Psychology of Development. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 327-343

The recent revolutionary changes in the cognitive psychology of development, touching upon the basic conceptions of psychology, are generalized in this article. The problem of theoretical changes connected with systemic evolutionary approach, dynamic nonlinear system theory, and connectionism, is discussed. The author analyses four basic theses of revolutionary changes: from sensory-motor infant to representative one; from the leading role of activity to the unity of perception and action; about the continuity of the subject formation, instead of axiom of subjectivity of the adult, mature person; about the continuance of genetic and environmental instead of social primacy in the mental development of a person. There are key arguments of new conceptions, obtained by the author and other researchers.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0016
Keywords:  revolutionary changes, cognitive development, early ontogenesis, representative infant, perception and action, ontogenesis of subjectivity, theory of mind, theories of mental formation.
About the authorsSergienko, Elena A.

Poddiakov A.N. (2011). Multivariable Objects for Stimulation of Young Children's Combinatorial Experimentation and Causal-Experimental Thought. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 397-420

An important direction of human cognitive development is the development of abilities at activities in complex dynamical environments containing multiple interacting structures (Dorner, Frensch & Funke, Spector, Voss). Cognition of the interacting structures by experimentation is the main function of causal-experimental thought (Demetriou). Usually preoperational children are not considered to have well-expressed abilities for causal-experimental thought. In the paper I describe heuristic rules for design of didactic multivariable objects stimulating preschoolers’ combinatorial experimentation and causal-experimental thought, the objects designed, and several studies of the children’s cognitive activity (exploratory learning) aimed at the objects and revealing their abilities to combinatorial experimentation. Participants: 623 children of 3-7 years old. It has been shown that the children successfully explore the objects containing hidden mechanical, logical and mathematical relationships by using strategies of combinatorial experimentation of various levels of complexity.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2011.0027
Keywords:  combinatorial experimentation, preschool children, causal-experimental thought, cognitive development, multivariable object.
About the authorsPoddiakov, Alexander N.

Feldstein D.I. (2011). A Changing Child in Changing World: Psychological and Educational Problems of the New School. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 383-396

The article is devoted to a number of urgent problems of mental and physical health of people who live in the global community. How we understand what is the world around us, what kind of society we live in and what are behavioural patterns and developmental features in the contemporary situation, and what the requirements of this society are. Changes in the modern child are influenced by an intense evolutionary self-development of modern man. Special attention should be paid to the development of science on the whole and psychological, psychophysiological, psychological and didactic branches in particular whose basis are stipulated in the textbooks and manuals of a qualitatively new generation.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2011.0026
Keywords:  psychology, education, New School, socialization.
About the authorsFeldstein, David I.

Glebov V.V., Arakelov G.G. (2010). Influences of Different Factors on Dynamics of Children's Aggression and Teenage Criminality (on an Example of the Moscow and Altai Regions). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 565- 578

The paper studies the degree of aggression among teenagers in different social, economic, and cultural conditions. The research was conducted for the Altai and Moscow regions. It also suggests the analysis of dynamics of juvenile delinquency which is often expressed by social inability to adapt in society. Sex distinctions in dynamics of aggressive behavior of teenagers were specially considered.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2010.0028
Keywords:  aggressive behavior, uneasiness, social teenager's disadaptation, minor offenders, the social environment
About the authorsGlebov, V.V. / Arakelov, Genadii G.

Barsky Ph.I., Gindina E.D., Lobaskova M.M., Malykh S.B. (2010). Perception of Family Environment with Russian Adolescent Twins: Possible Genotype-Environment Correlation. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 412- 430

Gene-environment correlations have been studied in behavior genetics since the beginning of the 1980s, including genetic effect on the perceived family environment; however, the majority of studies have been based on retrospective self-reports. The current study is meant to analyze the sources of variance (complementary genetic factors, shared and non-shared environmental variance) in perceived family environment with Russian adolescent twins. Perception of family environment was measured with the Russian version of Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 1981). The structural equation model in "Mx"(Neale, Boker, Xie, & Maes, 2004) was employed to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on adolescents' self-reports. The environmental variance components are prevalent for most FES scales (6 of 10). The shared environment was significant for 3 primary grades and the Organization factor, the complementary genetic variance was revealed for 2 primary grades and the Expressiveness-Control super-order factor. These results are generally consistent with previously reported moderate heritability of FES scales, although the heritabilities for the Conflict scale and the Structure super-order factor appear to be relatively high. The gene-environment correlation might be a possible explanation for these findings.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2010.0019
Keywords:  perceptions of family environment, environment, genotype, twins, gene-environment correlation, Family Environment Scale, adolescence
About the authorsBarsky, Philipp I. / Gindina, Elena D. / Lobaskova, Marina M. / Malykh, Sergey B.

Karabanova O.A. (2010). Social Situation of Child's Development - the Key Concept in Modern Developmental Psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 130-153

The present study is aimed to examine the role of the concept of social situation of development, suggested by L.S. Vygotsky, to define determinants of psychological development of a child in modern developmental psychology. Its heuristic character is exposed by the fact that further elaboration of fundamental and applied as­pects of developmental psychology does not make the concept less urgent New studies still enrich its content, opening perspectives for further research.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2010.0005
Keywords:  development, cultural-historical theory by L.S. Vygotsky, social situa¬tion of development, contextualism, social relations
About the authorsKarabanova, O.A.

Akopyan L.S. (2012). Conceptual Bases of Research of a Verbal and Nonverbal Pattern of Children’s Fears. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 446-457

The article presents the results of theoretical and experimental research on emotional states, in particular, on fears that worry young school-aged children. The approach used to study this phenomenon comprises quantitatively-qualitative, frequency-intensive, existential, micro- and macro surrounding, moral and selfregulation dimensions. Substantial characteristics of children’s fears, self-control of young school-aged children, and ways of coping with fears in various conditions of social situations of development are considered. The studied spectrum of emotions young school-aged children experience in everyday situations (at home, at school, during their leisure time) is described. Study on verbal and nonverbal patterns of fears of young school-aged children is presented. The original structural questionnaire developed by the author and the picturesque test composed the research apparatus. In a majority of drawings children tend to “counterbalance” the image of their fear with some additional images containing positive elements (positive plot). This finding confirms the assumption previously made by the author of the immanent nature of self-regulating processes that regulate coping with fear.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0028
Keywords:  emotional states, living conditions of young school-aged children, children’s drawings, fear, depicting fears, the verbal and nonverbal content of fears, methods of coping.
About the authorsAkopyan, Lubov S.

Kornev A.N. (2012). School Disadaptation in Children with Speech Underdevelopment and its Prevention. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 436-445

350 7 to 14-year-old students of a special school for children with severe speech and language disorders (SLD) were tested through psychological, neurolinguistic and clinical methods. It was a longitudinal study. During 4-5 years of studying at the special school, the majority of speech and language impairments reduce and communicative skills grow up. But the other students demonstrate regress of adaptation skills, intellectual efficiency and increase in restlessness, aggressive behavior, mood disorders, and neurotic disorders. We recognize it as the state of exacerbation. Comparative statistical analysis reveals that this state occurs mostly between 9.5 and 11.5 years of life. 50% of the decompensation cases observed occurs in this age range. The data obtained gave us an incentive to develop a prevention program. The target group included a population aged 9.5-10 with PSU (PPMI-program). The 2-year experience of incorporating the risk subgroup of SLIC into the PPMI-program gave a positive return. The amount of decompensations reduced significantly. Intensity of psychopatological disorders decreased.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0027
Keywords:  speech, language, disorders, exacerbation, prevention
About the authorsKornev, Alexander N.

Abramenkova V.V., Minyaev A.S. (2012). Child Safety in School Emergencies. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 422-435

The main research objective was to study characteristics of children community`s mutual activities that infl uence the eff ectiveness of implementing security in the children`s community. In the process of training course taught using diff erent programs followed by comparison of the resulted actions in an emergency situation of three school classes (N=527) the following conclusion was made: the class that had an integrated basic safety course and at the same time attended practical classes and psychological trainings, coped with an emergency situation more effectively, quicker and with fewer personal injuries.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0026
Keywords:  school community, emergency situation, interactive activity, simulated emergency situation, coping with the simulated situation by the school community
About the authorsAbramenkova, Vera V.  / Minyaev, Alexey S.

Shelina S.L., Mitina O.V. (2012). Moral Judgments of Modern Children and Teenagers in Russia. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 405-421

The article presents a study of moral judgments shared by children and teenagers. Its results form a foundation for further enquiry into sources and conditions developing young people’s normative control system, the flexibility of this system, and the “limits” of its development defined by a particular culture. It goes on to pose questions on research methodology at the levels of either hypothetical explanatory models or the means of diagnostics. J. Piaget's investigation of children's moral judgments was prototypical for this research. The technical equipment rendered possible a more subtle analysis of the children's judgments, which, in its turn, enabled us not only to define the general tendency of development, but also to determine a number of factors of how the normative regulation of children of different ages is functioning.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0025
Keywords:  moral judgments, regulating norms and values, collaborative skills development
About the authorsShelina, Svetlana L.  / Mitina, Olga V.

Shadrikov V.D. (2012). Students’ Development in the Learning Process. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 388-404

A system genetics approach has been employed to study students’ mental development. Ability development is considered in terms of mastering of intellectual operations. The study endeavors to identify the components of certain abilities consciously acquired by a student in the process of learning. The study was arranged in two directions: the teaching of students to master intellectual operations and use them in their work with training materials, and psychological testing of control and experimental student groups before and after training tests to diagnose the level of intellectual development. The study involved teachers and students of primary and secondary school.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0024
Keywords:  ability, intellectual operations, mental development, training activities, subject of activity, system genetics approach
About the authorsShadrikov, Vladimir D.

Kornilov S.A., Rakhlin N.V., Grigorenko E.L. (2012). Morphology and Developmental Language Disorders: New Tools for Russian. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 371-387

We describe preliminary data from two studies aimed at investigating the psychometric properties and validity of newly developed measures of morphological knowledge and skills in Russian, namely, the Word Structure subtest, and the Test of Morphological Awareness, in two samples of young Russian-speaking children. Overall, both instruments demonstrated good psychometric properties when analyzed using both classical test theory and a Rasch-modeling IRT approach, and were positively associated with the criterion measures (i.e., the number of grammatical errors in elicited speech samples, spelling, and reading comprehension).

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0023
Keywords:  morphology, morphological awareness, word structure, language disorders, reading, spelling.
About the authorsKornilov, Sergey A.  / Rakhlin, Natalia V.  / Grigorenko, Elena L.

Belova A.P., Sabirova E.Z., Malykh S.B. (2012). Nature of Individual Difference in Liability to Depression in Russian Adolescents. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 133-141

The Influence of genetic and environmental factors on liability to depression in Russian teenage sample was investigated. 196 twin pairs aged 13 to 17 (M=15,2) from Moscow, Izhevsk and Bishkek took part in the survey. We have found out that genetic factors had an effect on individual difference in depressiveness among Russian teenagers: more than 50% of variance was explained by additive genetic factors which correspond to international results. The biggest genetic influence was obtained for such scales as negative emotions, negative self esteem and externalization which are the most replicable factor scales in CDI structure worldwide.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0008
Keywords:  behavioral genetics, twin study, depression, teenagers, Children depression inventory (CDI).
About the authorsBelova, Alexandra P.  / Sabirova, Elena Z.  / Malykh, Sergey B.