doctor in Psychology
The release of this year's volume of Psychology in Russia: State of the Art is timed to the 30th International Congress of Psychology, that is hosted by South African Cape Town on July 22 this year, as the Russian Psychological Society as an official member of the European Federation of Psychological Associations, as well as the International Union of Psychological Science under UNESCO pays great attention to the current state of the psychological science around the world. It is precisely with this spirit of openness and shared knowledge that the society regularly publishes scientific research and participates in various forums, conferences and round-table discussions...
Keywords: Introduction volum #5 2012 Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
The current issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” provides diverse papers on theory and methodology, social psychology and such multidisciplinary topics as cognitive psychology, psychophysiology and clinical psychology.
Keywords: Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 8, Issue 4, 2015, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
The special issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” — “Multiculturalism and intercultural relations: Comparative analysis” — deals with urgent social issues facing contemporary society.
Keywords: Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 9, Issue 1, 2016, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
The current issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” provides papers on medical, social and personality psychology, as well as various works on speech, communication and semantic.
Keywords: Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 9, Issue 2, 2016, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
The current issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” provides the special section Mathematical learning: New perspectives and challenges, edited by Marina Vasilyeva, associate professor at Lynch School of Education, Boston College (USA).
Keywords: Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 9, Issue 3, 2016, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
This special issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” is dedicated to the 120th anniversary of Lev Vygotsky, an outstanding Russian (Soviet) psychologist whose cultural-historical approach has given rise to numerous theoretical advances, empirical research and applied methods in psychology and education worldwide.
Keywords: Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 9, Issue 4, 2016, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
This issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” is focused on the topic of psychology and education. It also introduces a new section on psychology and bioethics, and we hope to start a meaningful discussion in this proliferating field of research.
Keywords: Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 10, Issue 1, 2017, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
This issue of "Psychology in Russia: State of the Art", focused on sexual orientation and gender identity, is a step toward meeting that obligation of contributing to the welfare of a stigmatized population, through highlighting current research and theory related to LGBT concerns.
Keywords: Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 10, Issue 2, 2017, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
This special issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” — “Contemporary childhood research” — is devoted to the VI International Conference “Early Child- hood Care and Education” (ECCE 2017) that was held on May, 10–13 2017, in Moscow, Russia. It includes conference participants’ articles as well as regular sub- missions.
Keywords: Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 10, Issue 4, 2017, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
The study of ethnic attitudes during interactions with avatars in virtual environments
Background. Modern technologies provide a wide range of opportunities for studying different types of social processes and phenomena. Currently many original social studies have been done with the use of virtual reality technologies. The effectiveness of their application has been shown for the study of verbal and nonverbal communication; the processes of ethno-cultural identity; and for teaching social skills, as well as correcting social anxiety and ethnic attitudes. One of the very real question concerning spatial behavior during communication with partners from other ethnic groups, however, has not been studied very much.
Objective. In our study we explored proxemic behavior in subjects’ face-to-face interactions with avatars of in-group and out-group ethnic appearance. Using the CAVE virtual reality system, we studied preferred interpersonal distances in carrying out memory tasks during interaction with the avatars.
Design. Three virtual environments with avatars of different ethnic appearance were developed. Each virtual scene represented a room where three avatars of the same ethnicity were standing. Their appearance was associable with one of three ethnic groups– the Slavic, North Caucasian, or the Central Asian. The participants (all of whom identified themselves as Russians) were immersed in the virtual scenes with the help of the CAVE virtual reality system. They were instructed to keep in mind as many details of the avatars’ appearance as they could.
During the task’s execution the interpersonal distances between the participants and the avatars were registered. After leaving the CAVE, the participants were asked to answer questions about the details of avatars’ appearance, and to fill out a questionnaire assessing the Presence Effect in virtual environments. The identification accuracy of the avatars’ appearance details and the Presence effect were measured. The interpersonal distances were analyzed for the area around the direction of mutual gaze.
Results. The results showed that participants preferred to keep closer interpersonal distances from the avatars of the same ethnic group as their own. During interaction with avatars belonging to another ethnic group, significantly larger interpersonal distances were preferred. A significant correlation between the interpersonal distance and the Presence Effect was also revealed.
Conclusion. Virtual reality technology provides a unique and valuable tool for social researchers, including in ethnic attitude studies. A complex method of measuring interpersonal distances and the Presence Effect allows us to assess the main variables during social interaction with high accuracy. The virtual environments designed for this study can be applied successfully not only for studying proxemic behavior, but also for accomplishing other tasks, such as developing communication skills and forming positive attitudes towards ethnic out-groups.
Keywords: interethnic attitudes, proxemics, nonverbal communication, compensation effect, mutual gaze, CAVE virtual reality technology, avatar, Presence Effect
The V Congress of the Russian Psychological Society
This paper summarizes the organizational and scientific outcomes of the 5th Congress of the Russian Psychological Society. It shows the RPS's dynamics of development since its establishment to the present day, and presents a report on the Congress's major events, and the statistics in comparison with the other events of international scientific life. Scientific sections of the Congress are grouped that allowed to showing the main trends in modern psychology. The new directions of psychological research debuted on the Congress are shown, the most important domains of the psychological science are highlighted, and possible reasons for some of them not having succeeded are given. The new subjects and objects of psychological studies new to psychologists are identified. Based on the historical view of the contemporary psychology, were analyzed the future directions of its development.
Keywords: Russian Psychological Society, congress, history of psychology, development of psychology
Nonclassical and Postnonclassical epistemology in Lev Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach to clinical psychology
The work presents historiographic and theoretical methodological study of establishment of fundamental theses of L.S. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept within the field of clinical psychology.
We prove potency in application of contemporary philosophical concepts, which help distinguish between the types of scientific rationality (classical, nonclassical, and postnonclassical), for scientific reflection over the development of psychology and designation of paradigmatic status of cultural-historic concept suggested by L.S. Vygotsky and Vygotsky-Luria syndrome approach at the contemporary stage of science.
Present study of scientific works of L.S. Vygotsky and his followers demonstrated that fundamentals of cultural-historic conception suggested by L.S. Vygotsky and further developed in methodology of Vygotsky-Luria syndrome approach, these fundamentals presented the origins of not only non-classical, but as well post-nonclassical model of scientific rationality. They are characterized by post-nonclassical understanding of the object and method of psychological study and post-nonclassical mode of thinking of the scientists.
As it was showed, in works of L.S. Vygotsky there formulated general methodological requirements to organization of mental studies, which, on the whole, go in tune with the requirements introduced for study of complex self-developing systems. There were produced arguments to prove that the concept of Vygotsky-Luria syndrome approach describes mental syndromes as dynamic structures, which display the features of self-organization, self-determination and adaptive rationality. Hence, they can be regarded as open self-developing systems.
We assume and verify the hypothesis that the syndrome analysis, due to the features of post-nonclassic modeling of scientific rationality it reveals, may be regarded as theoretically productive methodological approach at the modern stage of science.
Keywords: nonclassical epistemology, postnonclassical epistemology, self-developing systems, cultural-historical psychology, Vygotsky-Luria school, psychological syndrome analysis, higher mental functions.
The contamination of young people’s notions about narcotics and psychoactive substances as a threat to psychological security
The study described in this article investigated contemporary young people’s perceptions of drugs and psychoactive substances (PAS). In the course of the research the following hypothesis was tested: in young people’s perceptions about drugs and PAS there are differences in emotional coloring, coherence, and tolerance. J.-C. Abric’s structural approach was used as the basic methodology. The free-associations method provided the bulk of the empirical material. The results obtained were processed via prototypic analysis (by P. Vergès’s method), indexing of emotional associations (by E.E. Pronina’s method), and frequency and content analysis.
As a result the core and the periphery of the perceptions of youth about drugs and PAS were described, and generalized notional categories that synthesize the structural elements of the perceptions were identified. The study revealed that the perceptions of young people about drugs and PAS do differ in coherence, tolerance, and emotional coloring. Perceptions of drugs are firm, consistent, and negative, while perceptions of PAS are less coherent but dynamic and have an ambivalent emotional coloration. The results are of prognostic importance for understanding young people’s attitudes toward drugs and PAS and can be used to design programs and measures directed to the prevention of PAS and drug abuse.
Keywords: perceptions, structure of perceptions, core and periphery of perceptions, perceptions of drugs, perceptions of psychoactive substances
Person-centered approaches in medicine: clinical tasks, psychological paradigms, and postnonclassic perspective
The article aims to demonstrate advances in methodological means suggested by Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept in association with a theoretical model of a Person-centered diagnosis and practical use of the construct for clinical psychology and medicine. This, to a greater extent, arises from the fact that the cultural-historical concept (due to its humanistic nature and epistemological content) is closely related to the person-centered integrative approach. But for all that the concept corresponds to the ideals of postnonclassical model of scientific rationality with a number of ‘key’ features. Above all it manifests its “methodological maturity” to cope with open self-developing systems, which is most essential at the modern stage of scientific knowledge.
The work gives consideration to ‘defining pillars’ of Person-centered approach in modern medicine, to humanistic traditions of the Russian clinical school, and high prospects in diagnostics of such mental constructs as “subjective pattern of disease” and “social situation of personal development in disease” - within the context of person-centered integrative diagnosis.
This article discusses the need for implementation a cross-cultural study of subjective pattern of disease and its correlation with a particular “social situation of personality development under disease conditions”. It aims at development and substantiation of the model of person-centered integrative approach, enhancement of its diagnostic scope and, consequently, improvement of the model of person-centered care in modern psychiatry and medicine.
Keywords: Person-centered approach, Person-centered integrative diagnosis (PID), Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept , Subjective pattern of disease, Social situation of development, Postnonclassical model of scientific rationality, Self-developing systems.
Specifics of interpersonal trust among people with different gender identities
Background. This study addresses a current problem relating to trust and the identification of gender differences in trust/mistrust manifestation. Gender identity is associated with cultural stereotypes and social roles, which facilitate the formation of trust in people. It acts as a significant integral meaning-based component of an individual’s “I”- conception, which contributes to the formation of trust in himself and the world around him.
Objective. To study features of trust/mistrust towards others in young people with different gender identities.
Design. The cross-gender-typical sample consisted of 179 representatives, 83 males and 96 females, ages 17 to 23 (M = 19.34 and SD = 1.79). The techniques for collecting data included the MMPI, the Sex-Role Inventory by S. Bem, and the Trust/Mistrust towards Others questionnaire by A. Kupreychenko. The results were processed via the Mann-Whitney U Test, the Kruskal-Wallis H criterion, and cluster analysis.
Results. Criteria of trust/mistrust among the youth with different gender identities were identified, and basic types of trust — categoric, irrational–emotional, ambivalent– contradictory, and non-differentiated — were singled out. Irrespective of biological sex, bearers of different gender identities do not exhibit the same criteria to determine trust/ mistrust.
Conclusion. This study makes it possible to enrich our understanding of the role of social gender in the formation of interpersonal trust and differences in the foundations of trust toward others, in people with different gender identities. The empirical typology of trust in youth with different gender identities allows for using the typology in organizing psychological diagnostics, and for support and improvement of their interpersonal relations.
Keywords: gender identity, trust, trust/mistrust identity, gender differences, social roles
Yuri Petrovich Zinchenko is full professor in the Faculty of Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University. He earned a Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from Moscow State University in 1998. He is dean of the Faculty of Psychology and chair of Department of Methodology of Psychology at Moscow State University.
He is member of the Russian Academy of Education; president of the Russian Psychological Society; head clinical psychologist in the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation; member of Lomonosov MSU Academic Board; president of the Academic Board of the Faculty of Psychology (Lomonosov MSU); president of MSU Dissertation Committee D501.001.15; member of the Commission for Education of the Russian Academy of Sciences; chairman of the Psychological Section of the Education Board for Classical University Education of Russia; deputy chairman of the Psychology Expert Board of the State Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles at Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation); Honorary President of the Society of Law Enforcement Agencies’ Docteur Honoris Causa (Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Portugal); Psychologists; member of a number of scientific and methodological commissions and expert boards of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergency Management and Natural Disasters Response, the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, and the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation.
He is member of the Presidium of IUPsyS under UNESCO; member of the IAAP administration; member of the EFPA Executive Council; Honorary Member of the Human Science Center at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; Honorary Professor at the University Paris III (Sorbonne), France.
Dr. Zinchenko is a well-known scientist in Russia and abroad specializing in the methodology of psychology and the psychology of safety. He has successfully developed and applied Lev S. Vygotsky’s Cultural-Historical approach to fundamental psychological research from the perspective of postnonclassical methodology; applied this approach in several branches of psychological research, including the psychology of safety and counter-terrorism; together with academician Viktor A. Sadovnichy, suggested and used supercomputer calculations to process data packages and formalize patterns of functional state of human under extreme conditions; was the first scientist in Russia to have used the technologies of virtual reality (CAVE format) in psychological research; developed scientific and methodological recommendations on the implementation of safety practices aimed at preventing youth from getting involved in terrorist activities; developed a dynamic model of the psychological security of person and society; studied issues related to the ethics of conducting psychological research and psychological practice.
Dr. Zinchenko delivers lectures on the methodology of psychology, health psychology, psychology of safety and psychology of terrorism; has supervised two Drs. Sc. and 10 Cands. Sc. to date; was Head of the project “Developing a System of Innovative Education at Lomonosov MSU in the Field of Psychology” (part of the federal project Education), within the framework of which innovative programs of training masters in the psychology of safety and the psychology of negotiations and conflict resolution were launched. He has developed the Third Generation of Federal State Educational Standards for such special fields as “Theoretical and Experimental Psychology”, “Occupational Psychology”, “Clinical Psychology”, as well as for programs of training masters in psychology and the program of senior managers in the field of psychology of public service.
Dr. Zinchenko supervised the following scientific projects backed with grants from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation: “Conducting Fundamental Research in Psychology” (2009), “Elaboration of Innovation Methods of Research, Educational and Practical Activity of Psychologist with Application of Virtual Reality Technologies” (2009-2011), “Methodological Issues of Applying Modern IT to Psychology of Safety” (2010-2012), “Developing a Methodological Basis for Modeling Psychological and Psycophysiological Mechanisms of Human's Functional State through the Use of Supercomputers” (2011-2012). He headed the following research projects: “Socio-psychological Methods and Models of Increasing Effectiveness of Counter-Terrorist Activities” (2005-2006), “Psychological Methods and Models of Increasing Effectiveness of Counter-Terrorist Activities in Changing Russia” (2006-2008), “Methodological Bases of Virtual Reality Applications in Psychology” (2009-2011), “Tolerance as a Factor of Countering Xenophobia” (2010).
He was backed with a grant within the framework of the International Program of Russian-Swiss Scientific Collaboration (a research project “Executive functions in Preterm Born Children: Cognitive, Neuronal and Behavioral Aspects”, 2010-2011).
Dr. Zinchenko headed the following research projects in the field of health psychology carried out under the auspices of the Civic Chamber of the Russian Federation and the All-Russian Non-Governmental Organization “The League of National Health”: “Health Psychology: Innovations in Science, Education and Practice” (2006-2007), “The First Open All-Russian Student Competition of Social Advertising and Social Projects “Russia without Tobacco” (2009), “Psychological Support of Rehabilitation and Drug Addiction Prevention” (2011-2012).
Dr. Zinchenko has founded a scientific school rewarded with a grant from the President of the Russian Federation for the federal support of leading scientific schools of the Russian Federation. The school’s projects have been supported by the Federal Special Program “Scientific and Academic Staff in Innovative Russia for 2009-2013”.
He has over 180 scholarly publications, including those in foreign languages and is author and co-author of 46 books.
Dr. Zinchenko is the Editor-in-Chief of a number leading psychological journals: “Russian Psychological Journal”, “National Psychological Journal”, “The Moscow University Herald. Series 14. Psychology”, annual “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art”, and a member of the editorial boards of the journals “Methodology and History of Psychology”, “Psychology and Natural Science”, “Psychology and Social Studies”, “Cognitive Science”, “Bulletin of Practical Educational Psychology”, “Forensic Psychology”, “The World of Psychology”, “Bulletin of South Ural State University. Series “Psychology”, “Siberian Psychological Journal”. He is the Executive Editor of the series “Classical MSU University Textbook”, a member of the Scientific Editorial Board of the publishing house Ekonomika and a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the Russian Academy of Education.
Dr. Zinchenko has been decorated with the medals “In honor of the 850th Anniversary of Moscow” and “For Cooperation between Rescue Services”. He is the Russian Government Education Award recipient and Honored Fellow of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation.
(2015) Psychology of securit. Textbook. Moscow: Urait (co-author with A.Dontsov, E.Perelygina, & O.Zotova).
(2013) "Lomonosov" school competition in psychology: methodological recommendations. Moscow: KDU (co-author with Volodarskaya I.A., Matyushkina A.A., & Shilko R.S.).
(2012). Vygotsky, une théorie du développement et de l'éducation: recueil de textes et commentaires (Y.Zinchenko, & F.Yvon, Eds.). Moscow: MSU.
(2012). Macro-psychological aspects of Russia Security. Moscow: Optimum Group (co-author with A.Dontsov, E.Perelygina, & O.Zotova).
(2011). Methodological Issues of Security Psychology. Personality, Society, State. Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Psychology of Virtual Reality. Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Psychology of Public Service. Moscow: MSU (co-author with A.Soroko, A.Potapkin, &V.Fiveisky).
(2011). Sport Psychology. Moscow: MSU (co-author with A. Tonevitsky, A.Veraksa, S.Isaythchev, S.Leonov, et al.).
(2011). Theoretical and methodological foundation of psychological research: determination and social value. Moscow.
(2011). Tolerance as a Factor of Opposition to Xenophobia: Control of Xenophobia Risks in the Risk Society (Ed.). Moscow.
(2011). The person as a subject and an object of Media-Psychology (Ed.). Moscow: MSU
(2010). Security Foundation of Personality and Society. Moscow.
(2010). Psychology of Corporation Security. Moscow (co-author with E.Perelygina, I.Busygina, &O.Zotova).
(2008). Information and Psychological Security in Mass media. Moscow: Aspect Press.
(2008). Foundation of Security Psychology: functionality and integrity. Yekaterinburg (co-author with V.Gratchev, L. Zaks, et al.).
(2008). Contemporary Image of Russia: development prospects. Moscow (co-author with A.Otchirova, &L.Matveeva).
(2008). Philosophy of social sciences and humanities. Moscow: Academitchesky Project (co-author with V.Kapitsin, S.Lebedev, V.Ilyin, L.Ionin, et al.).
(2007). Innovational Education Programs in Psychology. Moscow: MSU (co-author with I.Volodarskaya).
(2007). Psychology in Moscow University, 1755-2005. Moscow: MSU.
(2007). Contemporary terrorism and struggle against it: social- humanitarian dimensions. Moscow (co-author with S.Aphonin, R.Shilko, et al.).
(2003). Clinical Psychology of Sexuality in the Context of Cultural-Historical Approach. Moscow.
Chapters in Books
(2012). Methodological issues of Art Psychology: from semiotic classics to postmodern nonclassics. In Collection of articles on art, philology and history (pp.129-139), Moscow: MSU.
(2012). L'héritage vygotskien dans la psychologie du développement en Union Soviétique. In Y.Zinchenko & F.Yvon (Eds.), Vygotsky, une théorie du développement et de l'éducation (pp.319-334). Moscow: MSU (co-author with L. Chaiguerova).
(2012). Vie et œuvres de L.S.Vygotsky: un parcours vers la psychologie culturelle-historique. In Y.Zinchenko & F.Yvon (Eds.), Vygotsky, une théorie du développement et de l'éducation (pp.27-60). Moscow: MSU (co-author with L.Chaiguerova & F.Yvon).
(2012). Virtualisation of reality and cultures: risks of socialisation in globalised world. In Dialog of Cultures during Globalisation. V.1 (pp.92-94). Saint-Petersburg.
(2012). Methodological foundation of application of virtual reality and super-calculators in psychology. In The V Congress of the Russian Psychological Society (pp.402-404). Moscow.
(2012). The Methodology of Syndrome Analysis of Vygotsky-Luria Approach and Postnonclassic Rationality. In N.K.Korsakova, &Yu.V.Mikadze (Eds.). Heritage of A.R.Luria in the contemporary scientific and cultural-historical context: To the 110 anniversary of A.R.Luria (pp.37-69). Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Models and Methods of Increasing of Information Security and Diagnostics of Xenophobia Risks in the Real and Virtual Worlds. In Tolerance as a factor of opposition to xenophobia: Control of Xenophobia Risks in the Risk Society (pp. 409-480). Moscow (co-author with L. Chaiguerova, R.Shilko, &A.Voiskunsky, et al.).
(2011). Virtual reality in experimental psychology: about methodology. In Yu.Zinchenko (Ed.). The person as a subject and an object of Media-Psychology (Ed.) (pp.58-75). Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Virtualisation of reality: from psychological tools to a new subculture. In Yu. Zinchenko (Ed.). The person as a subject and an object of Media-Psychology (Ed.) (pp.231-278). Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Mass media as an effective tool of prevention against social-psychological factors of development of terrorism. In Yu. Zinchenko (Ed.). The person as a subject and an object of Media-Psychology (Ed.) (pp.575-594). Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Coping Strategies. In A.Bodalev (Ed.) Psychology of Communication. Encyclopaedic dictionary (pp.409-410). Moscow: Cogito-Centre (co-author with R.Shilko).
(2011). Role of Mass Media in struggle against the terrorism. In Diplomatic Yearbook (pp.143-172). Moscow: East-West.
(2011). Virtual reality technologies: theory, practice and application to sport. In Yu.P.Zinchenko, &Tonevitsky (eds.). Sport Psychology (pp.377-392). Moscow: MSU.
(2008). Topical issues of security in the information space. In Informational and Psychological Safety (pp.9-14). Moscow: Aspect Press (co-author with E.Vartanova).
(2008). Psychological Aspects of Informational Security and opposition to terrorism by means of mass media. In Informational and Psychological Safety (pp.199-226). Moscow: Aspect Press (co-author with R.Shilko).
(2006). Psychological Aspects in Research of Terrorism. In Security, Terrorism and Privacy in Information Society (pp.123-126). Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann Verlag (co-author with R.Shilko).
(2006). Classification of psychological disorders. In Psychological lexicon: encyclopedia in 6 vol., V.1 (pp.15-18). Moscow: Per Se (co-author with R.Shilko).
(2006). Philosophical and methodological issues of psychology. In Philosophy of social sciences and humanities (pp.523-567). Moscow: Academitchesky project.
(2003). Clinical Psychology as a tool of study of sexual disorders. Bulletin of Ministry of Industry, Science and Technologies (pp.49-55). Moscow.
(2001). Pathopsychological aspects of PTSD. In Psychologists on Migrants and Migration in Russia. Information and Analytical Bulletin of the Russian Red Cross, №3 (pp.10-18). Moscow.
(1993). Sexualité en psychanalyse . In Archives de Psychanalyse (pp.21-25). Paris: Eolia.
(1992). Evolution of Concept "Symptom". In Unconscious: its manifestation and forms (pp.41-49). Moscow.