Kulikova T. I. (2016). Pilot research on a pupil’s psychological safety in the multicultural educational environment. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 203-216.
In the modern world, the environment of any educational institution represents a spectrum of ethnic groups and subcultures: a multicultural educational environment. Pupils who are aware of their national identity often demonstrate intolerance toward students of other nationalities, which threatens pupils’ psychological safety. In this article, we present the results of pilot research examining the level of a pupil’s psychological safety in the multicultural educational environment and identifying the criteria that influence a pupil’s psychological safety. The research sample comprised 127 pupils aged 13–14 years from different schools living in various places that differed by the type of settlement, industrial development and level of science and culture. We isolated the following criteria for a pupil’s psychological safety in the multicultural educational environment: satisfaction with the educational environment, protection from psychological abuse and self-confidence. According to pupils, the essential characteristics of safety in the educational environment, regardless of school category and type, are being able to ask for help, protection of personal dignity, interactions with other students, and self-respect.
Empirical data reveal the current status of the psychological safety of the entire sample group (n = 127) and compare indices of psychological safety in the educational institutions under study.
Analysis of the results of our research indicates that protecting a pupil’s personality in the multicultural educational environment has the greatest influence on his/her psychological safety. In addition, a comfortable psychological atmosphere, mutual aid and support of pupils and low levels of classmates’ and coevals’ aggression positively influence the protection experience.
Keywords: multicultural education, educational environment, psychological safety
About the authors: Kulikova, Tatyana I.
Available Online: 09.30.2016
Baeva I. A., Zinchenko Yu. P., Laptev V. V. (2016). Psychological resources of modern Russian adolescents’ resilience to violence in the educational environment. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 159-172.
Determination of the personality’s psychological resources that ensure its resilience to negative effects of the social environment is a priority problem in modern society, science, and education, since we currently see a sharp increase in the number of factors that affect psychological hardiness and security. One of these is intensification of violent and aggressive forms of interaction in educational institutions. Such manifestations are especially dangerous in schools, since, by virtue of their age-specific features, students are the most vulnerable and they subsequently translate the acquired values and behaviors to society as a whole. The goal of this empirical study was to identify teenagers’ psychological resources that determine their resilience to various forms of psychological violence in the educational environment. The study covered four St. Petersburg high schools, with 437 teenagers aged from 16.5 to 17 (189 boys and 248 girls). A questionnaire was developed to divide the subjects into groups with high and low levels of protection (security) against psychological violence in the educational environment. The questionnaire lists forms of psychological violence in the educational environment (identified by theoretical review) that can occur in interpersonal communication between peers and between teachers and students. The respondents evaluated each item of the questionnaire in accordance with the proposed scale of frequency with which each form of violence occurred. Theoretical analysis determined that psychological violence is traumatic for the adolescent personality’s cognitive, emotional, and behavioral spheres. The teenagers’ psychological resources of resilience to violence in the educational environment were identified with the aid of psychodiagnostic methods addressing each of them. Our study allows us to conclude that the resources that ensure the teenager’s resilience to the negative effect of psychological violence in the educational environment are: satisfaction with oneself, accepting oneself as a personality with positive and socially desirable characteristics; high level of self-control, well- developed ability to behave in an acceptable way whatever the circumstances; openness and goodwill, self-confidence; perception of the surrounding world as friendly and generous, which gives rise to friendly behavior; holistic perception of the world, experiencing the present moment in one’s life in its entirety, striving for personal development and self-improvement; independence of values and behavior from external factors; significance of such values as achievement, self-development, and high financial position, in combination with a priority on learning and education; explanation as a typical mechanism of psychological protection, search for a reasonable basis for justifying behavior and actions as well as impulsive acts; low level of anxiety, aggressiveness, and rigidity. The results obtained can be useful for researching the resource-oriented approach to psychology, and also for the development of follow-up techniques for ensuring the safety of the educational environment, preventing all forms of violence in interpersonal interaction between students and teachers.
Keywords: psychological resources, resilience of the individual, psychological violence, educational environment
About the authors: Baeva, Irina A. / Zinchenko, Yury P. / Laptev, Vladimir V.
Available Online: 09.30.2016
Karayani A. G. (2016). Warrior’s Spirit: Review of Michael Matthews’s book Head Strong: How Psychology is Revolutionizing War. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 190-192.
Michael D. Matthews is Professor of Engineering Psychology at the United States Military Academy at West Point. From 2007 to 2008 he headed the American Psychological Association’s (19th Division of Military Psychology). Collectively, his research interests center on soldier performance in combat.
Keywords: book review, military psychology, psychology of war
About the authors: Karayani, Aleksandr G.
Available Online: 03.30.2016
Karayani A. G. (2015). The Power of Weakness: Review of the book by Mark Neville and Jamie Hacker Hughes “Battle Against Stigma”. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 157-160.
Keywords: book review, review, books
About the authors: Karayani, Aleksandr G.
Available Online: 09.30.2015
Shoygu J.S.(2014). Psychological aid in crisis and emergency situations: Psychological follow-up by emergency-related professionals. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 35-42.
The development of contemporary society, the mass media, and new technologies improves living standards on the one hand and, on the other, enhances the risk of large-scale catastrophes, accidents, and natural disasters (Yanitsky, 2004). From year to year the number of people who survive natural disasters and human-caused accidents and catastrophes is growing, as is the number of professionals involved in disaster-relief operations, such as rescuers, medical professionals, and psychologists. The 1990s saw the intensive development of new work for psychologists: rendering psychological aid to people affected by emergencies. During that time, because of a shift in the political system and the democratization of society, these issues gained a public dimension.
Keywords: emergency psychological aid, ethical performance principles, emergency area, disaster-relief operations, large-scale catastrophes, accidents, natural disasters, psychological follow-up of emergency-response operations, preventing negative sociopsychological implications, extreme conditions, victims
About the authors: Shoygu, Yulia S.
Available Online: 12.30.2014
Vartanova E.L., Tolokonnikova A.V., Cherevko T.S. (2014). The information security of children: Self-regulatory approaches. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 136-145.
The 21st century has been characterized by tremendous changes in mass-media systems. The rapid growth of the Internet, inspired by the progress of communication technologies and digitalization, has resulted in the rise of new interactive media. Developments contributing to the scope and speed of media production and distribution have drawn particular attention to the information security of audiences – in particular, to protecting children from content that might be harmful and not appropriate for their age. Unlike adults, who are accustomed to living in an information-rich society, children cannot understand and filter content. Digital media, with their profound effects on a young audience, definitely affect children’s psychology and emotions.
Recognizing this development, the most economically advanced countries have elaborated specific media policies to ensure that children receive the advantages of new media and simultaneously are kept safe from harmful content. These policies, aimed at traditional media (press and analogue broadcasting), have been based on legal approaches, but in digital reality laws do not always produce the same desired effects because the law-making process often does not keep up with technological change. Governments, therefore, have to share their responsibilities with the nongovernmental – private business and civil– sectors. Even countries with strong government influence over public life, such as Singapore, are working toward a co-regulated and self-regulated mass-media industry. Many foreign countries, including those in Western Europe, North America, and Asia, already have experience with these policies.
The article reviews practices in the field of media aimed at guaranteeing children’s information security and at opposing harmful content. It points to key aspects of the regulation of market-driven media content in different countries.
Keywords: mass media, children’s information security, children and the mass media, self-regulation of the mass media, Internet regulation
About the authors: Vartanova, Elena L. / Tolokonnikova, Anna V. / Cherevko, Taras S.
Available Online: 09.30.2014
Zinchenko Yu. P., Zotova O. Yu. (2014). Security in the worldview of Russians. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 50-61.
This article deals with the role of security in shaping an individual’s standpoints, opinions, attitudes, and unique world picture. It is argued that security/insecurity is a subjective notion of individuals about the absence/presence of threats to their existence. The results of a study of the security notions maintained by Russians are described. The data obtained give grounds to suggest that the following characteristics exist in the ordinary consciousness of Russians: security is perceived as a state associated with inactivity; security is seen as the basis of harmonious interpersonal relations; security is considered a kind of “ideal world” and is understood as powerful. A typology of Russians based on the specifics of these security notions is presented.
Available Online: 03.30.2014
Raevskiy A.E. (2014). Psychological aspects of the Aum Shinrikyo affair. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 34-39.
Terrorism has become a highly important problem for humanity, and psychology tries to make its contribution to the study of this complex phenomenon. In the current work we analyze not a typical terrorist case, but an unusual one: the sarin attack which took place in Japan in 1995. The current study combines the cultural-historic approach of L.S. Vygotsky, and research on Japanese mentality and collectivistic psychology. The results show the importance of several key factors that led a religious sect to become a terrorist organization. In spite of the uniqueness of the Japanese psychology, in the Aum Shinrikyo case we can see some common aspects of terrorist motivation and behavior.
Keywords: Japan, religious terrorism, religion, terrorism in Japan, Aum Shinrikyo, social behaviour, conformity
About the authors: Raevsky, Aleksandr E.
Available Online: 03.30.2014
Zinchenko Yu. P. (2014). Extremism from the perspective of a system approach. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 23-33.
Extremism is seen as a complex, multilevel, and multicomponent phenomenon. The problems of modern science in understanding extremism are revealed. The following bases of extremism as a system phenomenon are singled out: social factors, latent extremism, and extremist acts. It is demonstrated that a system approach makes it possible to shape a notion of a subject as a system, to identify patterns of the manifestations of the given phenomenon, and to translate them into concrete practices.
Keywords: extremism, system approach, latent extremism, security, extremist outlook
About the authors: Zinchenko, Yury P.
Available Online: 03.30.2014
Aleksander I. Dontsov, Elena B. Perelygina (2013) Tense situations and the significance of stability for psychological security. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 20-31
Present reality gives rise to contradictory trends: the combination of new threats, tense situations, and destructive tendencies shapes awareness of the importance of identifying, assessing, and managing emerging situations and of developing new scientific paradigms. The polyfunctional interpretation of psychological security correlates with the perception of stability as a specific arrangement of interactional processes and the relatedness of stereotypes, standards, sociocultural attitudes, and social perceptions. A tense situation clearly indicates the separation of the potential of the person and the group from the notion of subject-action in security promotion and maintenance. The depersonification of social institutions is accompanied by each person’s growing attention to himself/herself and the increasing significance of this kind of attention in overcoming uncertainty and tension.
The process of making decisions in a tense situation often includes the phenomenon of the illusion of control over the situation, which can pose a threat to psychological security. The social significance of the promotion of psychological security calls for consolidation of efforts aimed at the stability of the society and the prevention of stress-producing situations.
Keywords: tense situations, subject of psychological security, dynamic stability, social perceptions, social and psychological consequences of the terrorist threat
About the authors: Dontsov, Aleksander I. / Perelygina, Elena B.
Available Online: 11.11.2013
Tkhostov A.Sh., Surnov K.G. (2009). Needs of Terrorist. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 477-491
This article reveals the motives of the terrorist activity. It analyzes psychological mechanisms of basic human needs that are implemented at different stages of involvement in terrorist organizations. The authors also discuss the causes of psychological attractiveness / desirability of terrorism in the context of influence of modern technologies on the dynamics of norm and pathology standards.
Keywords: psychology of terrorism, modern technologies, culture and pathology, personal psychology, motivation, basic needs.
About the authors: Tkhostov, Alexander Sh. / Surnov, Konstantin G. (1953 - 2012)
Zinchenko Yu. P. (2009). Mass media as an Effective Tool for Prevention of Socio-psychological Factors in the Development of Terrorism. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 459-476
Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction to terrorism, and using mass media for prevention the development of terrorism. Specific features and the external factors promoting involving into terrorism are analysed. Role of mass media in covering the information about terrorism events is analysed from point of view related to prevention of development of terrorism. Some key recommendations on counterterrorism activity using mass media means are formulated.
Keywords: psychology of terrorism, prevention of terrorism, socio-psychological factors of terrorism, psychology of mass media.
About the authors: Zinchenko, Yury P.
Potapov M.V., Kipiani A.Y. (2011). Psychology of Safety and Resistance to Terrorism. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 371-382
In the article main parameters of any emergency situation that influence the psychological stress intensity are described. The most frequent consequences of emergency situations are discussed. The characteristic of psychological and psychosomatic reactions of the rescuers and secret service agents is provided. Professional and personal training of emergency service workers involved in work with victims of terrorist attacks and emergency situations is described. Attention is drawn to the the problem of interaction between emergency service workers and victims.
Keywords: emergency situations, emotional burnout syndrome, motional crisis, negative eff ects, psychology of Safety, psychological stress, psychological protection, terrorism
About the authors: Potapov, Mikhail V. / Kipiani, Aleksander Yu.
Perelygina E.B. (2011). Corporate Identity as a Factor of Corporate Security. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 348-360
Forming-up of the corporate identity is based on cognitive, affective and conative elements of corporate culture. The group as an entity choosing goals and values ensures a certain response to standards and values of corporate culture within the parameters of its social responsibility. Corporate security as security of community and cooperation acts as a form of organizational and ethical approach to developing socially responsible attitude of government and business.
Keywords: corporate identity, corporate image, responsibility, corporate security.
About the authors: Perelygina, Elena B.
Zotova O.Yu. (2011). Need for Safety in Different Social and Economic Groups. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 335-347
The article gives an account of the empirical study results aimed at analyzing the degree of need for safety’s satisfaction. The findings demonstrate that the degree of need for safety as a basic personality want strongly depends on gender, agerelated and professional distinctions.
Keywords: need for security, stability need, need for law and order, need for events predictability, need for stable and regularly paid job, need to be loved and desired, need to be protected from dangers of the hostile world, need for protection against real-life emergencies.
About the authors: Zotova, Olga Yu.
Shaboltas A.V., Zhukov D.A. (2011). Risk Behavior as a Reaction on Uncontrollable Stress. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 324-334
Displacement reaction is a universal behavioral reaction for stressful situation. Displacement behavior becomes more probable under uncontrollable stress. Very often human displacement behavior is revealed in different forms of risk behaviors. Many forms of risk behavior are deviant and asocial. The essay reviews the significance of uncontrollable social stress management in humans. Importance of studies on uncontrollable stress for prevention of displacement and risk behaviors is discussed.
Dontsov A.I., Perelygina E.B. (2011). Security Problems of Communicative Strategies. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 316-323
The main directions of safety formation in communication strategies are connected with their adaptation to the conditions of social and psychological variability. Building up a communicative strategy is a versatile process, in which it is necessary to consider a wide spectrum of social and psychological parameters, especially topical in the modern period of social development. Forms of social interactions in schematic formats of contemporary social and economic revolution are reduced, social and functional potentials are depleted, mass society is further differentiating, the pace of historic changes is growing, all this determines the necessity to prepare changes in personality structures to the dynamics of social and psychological fluidity.
Zinchenko Yu.P. (2011). Security Psychology as Social Systemic Phenomenon. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 307-315
Security psychology is considered through social systemic search for reciprocal contiguity and mutual completion of existing advances of psychology and conceptual security understanding. The ability of systemic vision of security and its cognitive and practical specifics are demonstrated. The possibility to investigate safety psychology as social theoretical construct is suggested. Multi-aspect approach to security is substantiated. Methodological challenges of psychological security are discussed.
Keywords: security, systems approach, social representation, social theoretical construct, security concept, social and psychological fundamentals of security.
About the authors: Zinchenko, Yury P.
Zinchenko Yu.P., Veraksa A.N., Leonov S.V. (2011). Methodological Foundations of Military Psychology and Psychological Security. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 53-61
The article is devoted to the history of development of military psychology from psychological and philosophical positions. The transition stage in development of military psychology from classical to postclassical type of rationality is focused. Analysis of combat activity as self-regulation system is presented. The latest technologies in solving key problems of military science are discussed.
Abramenkova V.V., Minyaev A.S. (2012). Child Safety in School Emergencies. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 422-435
The main research objective was to study characteristics of children community`s mutual activities that infl uence the eff ectiveness of implementing security in the children`s community. In the process of training course taught using diff erent programs followed by comparison of the resulted actions in an emergency situation of three school classes (N=527) the following conclusion was made: the class that had an integrated basic safety course and at the same time attended practical classes and psychological trainings, coped with an emergency situation more effectively, quicker and with fewer personal injuries.
Keywords: school community, emergency situation, interactive activity, simulated emergency situation, coping with the simulated situation by the school community
About the authors: Abramenkova, Vera V. / Minyaev, Alexey S.
Lavrova E.V., Matveeva L.V. (2012). Analysis of Mass-Media Affected Transformations of the Danger Concept. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 301-313
The article deals with a study of both short-term and long-term influence of massmedia upon a concept of danger (CD). Subjective concepts of danger (CD) were revealed by means of the authors “Assessment of Dangerous Situations” Questionnaire and a new classification of such concepts was developed. Demonstrated are differences in CD of men and women, as well as specific traits of CD transformations induced by news programs. The authors give advice on how to compile TV news programs in view of psychological mechanisms of perception.