Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem.
Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001). Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96) and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88). The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia.
Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 %) had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 %) was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem.
Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.
Keywords: homonegativity, personal homonegativity, standardization, adaptation, homophobia
Background. While various screening systems are used worldwide for early detection of developmental delay (DD), Russia still does not have such a screening system in place, even though a good prognosis for the cognitive development of a child with DD depend strongly on the time of the diagnosis.
Objective. The objective of this study was to create a system to rapidly monitor the mental development of four- to five-year-old Russian children, a system that allows for the use of modern information technologies to obtain reliable results.
Design. This study was carried out with a sample of 1,232 children. For data collection, the multifactor study of mental development tool was used as a part of a so ware complex for longitudinal research. This tool included a much more extensive set of tasks than in traditional tests of abilities, allowing for a wider variation of the factor structure. For the 4-year-olds, 236 tasks were used and 349 for the 5-year-olds. Factor and discriminant analysis were carried out to construct scales for each age group (6–7 points in each), which most accurately predict the diagnosis (Norm/DD). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to verify the prediction model.
Results. Two scales were elaborated, which coincided with the type of variables combined in each of them regardless of age (for 4-years — simpler and for 5-years — more complex): logical reasoning, motor skills, and general awareness (listed in descending order of contribution to the prediction). SEM confirmed that the selected scales are indicators of the general ability factor, which is the main predictor of the diagnosis.
Conclusions. Two short scales for the rapid diagnosis of DD in preschool children were constructed, allowing the use of computer technology to timely identify the risk group among 4- and 5-year-olds with high sensitivity and specificity of the forecast (not lower than 95%).
Keywords: Screening, developmental delay, construction of scales, SEM