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Téllez A., Juárez-García D. M., Jaime-Bernal L., Medina De la Garza C. E., Sánchez T. (2017). The effect of hypnotherapy on the quality of life in women with breast cancer. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 228-240.

Background. Cancer is a chronic disease that significantly affects the quality of life of patients who suffer from it, because they must face stressful situations, including their diagnosis, surgical procedures, and the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 

Objective. To evaluate the effects of hypnotherapy on breast cancer patients’ quality of life during chemotherapy. 

Design. A quasi-experimental design was used with a convenience sample. Method. Two groups of patients with early breast cancer diagnoses were assigned to either a control group that received standard medical care (n = 20), or a hypnotherapy group (n = 20) that received 12 intensive sessions over the course of 1 month, and 12 additional sessions over the course of 6 months. The patients’ quality of life was evaluated using the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). 

Results. The hypnotherapy group showed a statistically significant improvement and a large effect size on the cognitive functioning and social functioning scales compared to the control group. The physical functioning, role functioning, and quality of life scales showed improvement with a medium effect size, but the changes were not statistically significant. 

Conclusion. The improvement observed in the cognitive functioning and social functioning scales allows us to suggest that hypnotherapy improves the quality of life of breast cancer patients during chemotherapy.

About the authorsTéllez Arnoldo ; Sánchez, Teresa J.; Juárez-García Dehisy M.; Jaime-Bernal Leticia; Medina De la Garza Carlos E.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  228-240
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0216
Keywords:  hypnotherapy, quality of life, breast cancer, cognitive functioning and social functioning
128

Kislyakov P. A. (2017). Risk factors related to antisocial behavior in teenagers with intellectual disabilities. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 215-227.

Background. Throughout the ontogenic development period and life journey, everyone faces numerous threats and challenges. Certain of these challenges are beyond the individual’s control and are caused by social and environmental factors, but others, conversely, are provoked by the individual’s own lifestyle and mental and/or physical health condition. This paper considers how the social adaptation of children with intellectual developmental disorders affects the development of various forms of socially dangerous behavior. 

Objective. The primary goal of the study described in the article is to identify and analyze the potential risk factors related to antisocial behavior among teenagers with intellectual disabilities (mental retardation) based on a survey of teachers in special (correctional) schools. 

The methodological basis of our research uses the provisions of Lev Vygotsky’s theory of socialization among children with intellectual disabilities. This article shows the importance of implementing Lev Vygotsky’s doctrine of correction and compensation of disturbed psychological, emotional and social development of schoolchildren with intellectual disabilities. 

Design. To achieve this purpose, the following methods were used: interviews, questionnaires, and factor analysis. In the first stage of the study, interviews were conducted with teachers working in special (correctional) schools (teachers, child and youth counselors, school psychologists, developmental pediatricians) — of 108 teachers from 10 schools. Analysis of the interviews revealed a list of risk factors related to antisocial behavior among teenagers with intellectual disabilities (only 35 points). The collected data formed the basis for a questionnaire, “Social Safety for Children with Intellectual Disabilities”. In the second stage, 83 teachers working in the special (correctional) schools were surveyed. The survey was completed by teachers of children (12-13 years old) who had a diagnosis of F70 (Mild mental retardation) or F71 (Moderate mental retardation). To determine the significance of risk factors, the respondents were asked to assess children’s exposure to risk factors on a 5-point scale. In the third stage, the results of the risk factor assessment conducted in relation to socially dangerous behavior of adolescents with intellectual disabilities were processed using the factor analysis. 

Results. From the factor analysis of the data collected, as well as an analysis of the relevant theoretical and methodological materials, the following risk factors (with load factors) of socially dangerous behavior among teenagers with intellectual disabilities were identified: antisocial behavior (violation of generally accepted societal norms) (48.7 %); asociality (the lack of motivation to engage in social interaction) (7.96 %); infantilism (5.9 %); social mistrust in the world (4.86 %); propensity for victimizing behavior (4.18 %); virtual addiction (3.98 %); and high self-concept discrepancies (3.14 %). 

Conclusions. The results of our research may be used to prevent antisocial behavior in teenagers with intellectual disabilities through the implementation of psychological and pedagogical follow-up programs aimed at preventing antisocial and asocial behavior, overcoming infantilism and victimization, forming adequate self-esteem, and forming personality-trusting relationships with significant adults and peers.

About the authorsKislyakov, Pavel A.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  215-227
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0215
Keywords:  intellectual disabilities, teenagers, socialization, social safety, risk factors, antisocial behavior, psychological and pedagogical support
127

Eremina D. A., Shchelkova O. Yu. (2017). The dynamics of the cognitive functioning and emotional state of cardiac patients during rehabilitation after coronary revascularization. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 201-214.

Background. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been one of the most performed surgical procedures for more than 30 years. Recent research has shown severe cognitive disorders accompanying cardiac surgery. However, mild cognitive dysfunction, which is more amenable to prevention and correction, has been less studied because of difficulties in diagnosing it. 

Objective. For this reason, we set out to analyze the dynamics of cognitive functioning in CHD patients undergoing CABG. Our study focuses on the main indicators of cognitive functioning and on comparing cognitive functioning with normative data, as well as on the emotional state which accompanies cardiac surgery. 

Methods. The present study enrolled 70 patients (of average age 59.71 ± 7.32 years) who underwent CABG with the standard cardiopulmonary bypass technique. Our examination used a pathopsychological test battery (including the WAIS, TMT, Stroop test, TAS, Benton test, etc.), and was performed in three stages: two days before, and both 12–14 days and three months after the surgery. 

Results. The results obtained suggest that the majority of cognitive complaints are connected with memory decline after CABG. Patients with CHD experience significant postoperative cognitive decline mostly in verbal memory and attention. A significant cognitive improvement three months after the operation occurred in the following cognitive domains: visual memory, logical memory, and spatial thinking. An analysis of the patients’ trait anxiety leads to the conclusion that the highest intensity of anxiety was observed in relation to the following indicators: “emotional discomfort,” “asthenic component,” and “anxious assessment of the future.” 

Conclusion. Our research demonstrates negative changes in both short- and longterm memory. Possible reasons for postoperative cognitive decline include the conditions and consequences of the surgery, normal aging, brain injury at the time of coronary surgery, and the emotional state of the patients. A positive trend was discovered in the visual and logical memory, active attention, and thinking activity.

About the authorsShchelkova, Olga Yu. ; Eremina Daria A.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  201-214
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0214
Keywords:  cognitive functions, emotional state, coronary heart disease, rehabilitation, cardiac surgery
119

Pogontseva D. V. (2017). Female attitudes towards women in hijabs in South Russia. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 192-200.

Background. This article sets forth the problem of attitudes towards women in connection with the ethno-religious characteristics of their appearance (for example, the hijab [Islamic headscarf]). 

Design. There were 200 subjects: at the first stage 50 women and 50 men aged 22 to 30 (mean age 25); at the second stage 100 females, residents of Rostov-on-Don, Russia. 

Method. The study used the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (translated and adapted by Yu.A. Mendzheritskaya), as well as the author’s questionnaire, which consisted of stimulus material (two sets of photos of five girls; in the first set, a portrait shot from the front with natural make-up, in the second set, the same girls, but wearing a black hijab). Respondents were asked to rank the girls in the photographs on a scale from friendly to hostile. At the second stage, we added questions about the respondents’ religious beliefs and their assumptions about the religious beliefs of the girls with and without the hijab. 

Results. The results show that the respondent’s level of aggression can lead to a negative, hostile attitude towards a Muslim girl (based only on her external appearance), and more men evaluate the girls wearing the hijab as hostile. We also noted that the color of eyes and hair (even if only the eyelashes and eyebrows could be seen) can form an idea about religious beliefs. 

Conclusion. Based on the received data, we can talk about the role of appearance. In the future, we plan to study specific features of the perception of appearance and discrimination against girls with a different appearance, in particular ethno-cultural clothing, because appearance is one of the most important triggers of discriminatory behavior.

About the authorsPogontseva Daria V.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  192-200
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0213
Keywords:  hijab, female, attitude, clothing, religious beliefs, Islam, Christianity
132

Pavlova T. S. , Kholmogorova A. B. (2017). Psychological factors of social anxiety in Russian adolescents. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 179-191.

Background. Social anxiety is one of the most common and disturbing conditions of childhood and adolescence. It is defined as an excessive fear of embarrassment or humiliation in social performance situations. Recent studies have identified a number of psychological factors that could explain the maintenance of the condition. 

Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate psychological factors of social anxiety in adolescents with a multifactor psychosocial model. 

Design: The study population comprised 183 Russian-speaking adolescents from Moscow secondary schools, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years. Self-report measures were used to access social anxiety, symptoms of depression, gender role identification, perfectionism, hostility, family emotional communications, and social support. 

Results. The results indicate that social anxiety was positively correlated with symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts. No quantitative differences in social anxiety between girls and boys were found, while masculinity and undifferentiated gender identification had a strong association with social anxiety. A positive correlation was found between “concern over mistakes” (fear of making a mistake and being negatively compared with peers) and “overdoing” (spending too much time doing homework and too little or none communicating with peers), using the Child Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ) subscales and Social Anxiety and Distress Scale (SADS) total score. Positive correlations were found between social anxiety and suppression of emotions and outward well-being subscales, as well in as the Family Emotional Communication (FEC) total score. It is not common to discuss emotions and feelings; it is difficult to share negative experiences; and it is important for the families of socially anxious adolescents to put up a good front. Analysis revealed significant negative correlations between the SADS total score (as well its subscales) and the Social Support scale total score and emotional support subscale; the Practical Support scale negatively correlated with the SADS total score. 

Conclusion. These findings confirm our hypothesis that social anxiety has a complex nature and can be dealt with by a multifactor psychosocial model.

About the authorsPavlova Tatiana S.; Kholmogorova Alla B.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  179-191
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0212
Keywords:  social anxiety, adolescents, gender, perfectionism, family
172

Leonov N. I., Glavatskikh M. M. (2017). Changing the image of a conflict situation while training school students in mediation skills. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 165-178.

Background. This paper analyzes students’ changing perceptions of conflict after training them in mediation skills. The theoretical basis of this paper is an ontological approach of studying conflict, in which the image of the conflict situation determines the specific behavior. This allowed for the development a training program aimed at changing conceptual structures. The processes of constructing conceptual structures are understood not only as explanatory models that are used for the construction of the outer world in social cognition but also as a manifestation of the internal picture of the world and an inducement to control this world as well as certain actions in the conflict. Our training program was designed by considering ontological mechanisms of conflict behavior regulation. Consequently, the most important result of the program efficiency assessment is the change in participants’ image of the conflict situation. 

Objective. This study aims to change the images of the conflict situation in school students learning the basics of mediation. 

Design. This study involved 360 students (grades 7-9; average age of 14 years and 8 months). During the preparatory stage, we tried to identify the characteristics of a conflict situation in 360 school children using the association experiment, which used the word “conflict” as a stimulus. To study the structure of the conflict situation image, we used Kelly’s repertory. The method of the training program regarding the basics of mediation was based on communication techniques used to resolve complex issues, including the involvement of students, a free personal statement, problem discussion and a joint search for solutions. 

Results. We recorded significant changes in all of the structural components of the conflict situation image before and after training, as well as in their interrelated underlying categorization. One of the results of the program was an increase in the variability of behaviors in conflict. Before the program began, teenagers considered themselves and other conflict participants to be oriented to only meet their own interests. Upon completion of training, they developed an efficient model of behavior in conflict that included various forms of behavior, such as agreement, concession and withdrawal. The teenagers saw good reason to take a qualitatively new, organizational position in the conflict. In this regard, they described themselves as being more active in conflict and as initiating conflict resolution more often than before the training program. Educational videos and the experience of being involved in the conflict as a third party made the teenagers believe in the possibility of constructive conflict resolution based on having respect for the other participant. 

Conclusion. Analysis of structural changes in the conflict situation image during the learning process demonstrated the effectiveness of training students in mediation skills. This study contributes to the better understanding of conflictological competence in general and that of school students in particular. This study describes the mechanism of conflictological competence development.

About the authorsLeonov Nikolay I.; Glavatskikh Marianna M.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  165-178
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0211
Keywords:  mediation, person’s conceptual structures, constructive behavior in conflict, image of conflict situation, training in constructive behavior in conflict
161

Budyakova T. P. (2017). Psychological and legal aspects of the offensiveness of male and female cartoons and collages. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 149-164.

Background. This study addresses a current problem relating to trust and the identification of gender differences in trust/mistrust manifestation. Gender identity is associated with cultural stereotypes and social roles, which facilitate the formation of trust in people. It acts as a significant integral meaning-based component of an individual’s “I”- conception, which contributes to the formation of trust in himself and the world around him. 

Objective. To study features of trust/mistrust towards others in young people with different gender identities. 

Design. The cross-gender-typical sample consisted of 179 representatives, 83 males and 96 females, ages 17 to 23 (M = 19.34 and SD = 1.79). The techniques for collecting data included the MMPI, the Sex-Role Inventory by S. Bem, and the Trust/Mistrust towards Others questionnaire by A. Kupreychenko. The results were processed via the Mann-Whitney U Test, the Kruskal-Wallis H criterion, and cluster analysis. 

Results. Criteria of trust/mistrust among the youth with different gender identities were identified, and basic types of trust — categoric, irrational–emotional, ambivalent– contradictory, and non-differentiated — were singled out. Irrespective of biological sex, bearers of different gender identities do not exhibit the same criteria to determine trust/ mistrust. 

Conclusion. This study makes it possible to enrich our understanding of the role of social gender in the formation of interpersonal trust and differences in the foundations of trust toward others, in people with different gender identities. The empirical typology of trust in youth with different gender identities allows for using the typology in organizing psychological diagnostics, and for support and improvement of their interpersonal relations.

About the authorsBudyakova Tatyana P.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  149-164
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0210
Keywords:  forensic, psychological, expert opinion, insult, cartoon, collage, politics, social status, gender
120

Zinchenko Yu. P., Zotova O. Yu., Tarasova L. V. (2017). Specifics of interpersonal trust among people with different gender identities. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 134-148.

Background. This study addresses a current problem relating to trust and the identification of gender differences in trust/mistrust manifestation. Gender identity is associated with cultural stereotypes and social roles, which facilitate the formation of trust in people. It acts as a significant integral meaning-based component of an individual’s “I”- conception, which contributes to the formation of trust in himself and the world around him. 

Objective. To study features of trust/mistrust towards others in young people with different gender identities. 

Design. The cross-gender-typical sample consisted of 179 representatives, 83 males and 96 females, ages 17 to 23 (M = 19.34 and SD = 1.79). The techniques for collecting data included the MMPI, the Sex-Role Inventory by S. Bem, and the Trust/Mistrust towards Others questionnaire by A. Kupreychenko. The results were processed via the Mann-Whitney U Test, the Kruskal-Wallis H criterion, and cluster analysis. 

Results. Criteria of trust/mistrust among the youth with different gender identities were identified, and basic types of trust — categoric, irrational–emotional, ambivalent– contradictory, and non-differentiated — were singled out. Irrespective of biological sex, bearers of different gender identities do not exhibit the same criteria to determine trust/ mistrust. 

Conclusion. This study makes it possible to enrich our understanding of the role of social gender in the formation of interpersonal trust and differences in the foundations of trust toward others, in people with different gender identities. The empirical typology of trust in youth with different gender identities allows for using the typology in organizing psychological diagnostics, and for support and improvement of their interpersonal relations.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Zotova, Olga Yu. ; Tarasova, Lyudmila V.
ThemesGender-related individual differences
Pages:  134-148
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0209
Keywords:  gender identity, trust, trust/mistrust identity, gender differences, social roles
121

Nikolaev E. L., Hartfelder D. V., Baranova E. A. (2017). Androgyny in dentists: The contribution of masculinity and femininity to mental health and well-being. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 117-133.

Background. A dentist’s professional activity requires a high level of personality traits that are usually regarded as a combination of both female and male traits. Androgynous gender identity corresponds to dentists’ professional requirements and allows the dentists to retain mental stability and psychological well-being. 

Objective. The goal of this study is to determine the specificity of the androgynous identity in dentists in the context of gender differences as indicators of mental health and subjective well-being. 

Design. The first stage of the research covered 129 dentists of both sexes to reveal their androgynous gender type using the Bem Sex Role Inventory. During the second stage, 117 androgynous dentists were studied using the SCL-90-R and Brief Subjective Well-being Questionnaire in an effort to reveal the specificity of the dentists’ mental health and self-esteem. 

Results. According to the results, individuals with an androgynous type of gender identity constitute the largest part of dentists (90.70 %), regardless of their biological sex. The expression of masculinity does not statistically differ from the expression of femininity within the androgynous sample. Regardless of their sex, these dentists are characterized by a higher level of mental health. No significant differences were revealed between androgynous men and androgynous women in their subjective well-being indicators — self-estimation of health, satisfaction with material status and success motivation. 

Conclusion. We concluded that androgyny is the most common type of gender identity in the men and women engaged in dentistry. The basic gender characteristic in the structure of androgynous identity in dentists is masculinity, which is closely interrelated with mental health and subjective well-being regardless of biological sex.

About the authorsNikolaev, Evgeni L.; Baranova, Elvira A.; Hartfelder Denis V.
ThemesGender-related individual differences
Pages:  117-133
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0208
Keywords:  gender identity, androgyny, masculinity, femininity, mental health, well-being, dentists
125

Yanykin A. A., Nasledov A. D. (2017). Internalized homophobia in Russia. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 103-116.

Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. 

Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001). Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96) and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88). The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. 

Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 %) had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 %) was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. 

Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

About the authorsYanykin Alexander A.; Nasledov Andrej D.
ThemesPsychology of sexual and gender identity
Pages:  103-116
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0207
Keywords:  homonegativity, personal homonegativity, standardization, adaptation, homophobia
186

Victor C. J., Nel J. A. (2017). Developing an affirmative position statement on sexual and gender diversity for psychology professionals in South Africa. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 87-102.

Background. Against the background of the dominance of patriarchy and heteronormativity in Africa and the resultant stigma, discrimination and victimisation of sexually and gender-diverse people, this article reports on the development of an affirmative position statement by the Psychological Society of South Africa (PsySSA) for psychology professionals working with sexually and gender-diverse people. The position statement is an attempt to contribute positively to the de-stigmatisation, amongst psychology professionals, of all people with diverse sexual and gender identities. 

Objective. In documenting and reflecting on the process of developing the statement — a first on the African continent — the article aims to contribute to the potential resources available to others in their work on similar projects around the world. 

Design. Although initially intended to be relevant to the African continent, the position statement is appropriate to the South African context specifically, but developed in consultation with a range of stakeholders, also from other African countries. 

Results. Concerns expressed during stakeholder consultations, and thus taken into account in the development of the statement, include relevance to other African countries, negotiating the politics of representation and language, the importance of including gender and biological variance in addition to sexuality, and the need to be sensitive to how Western influence is constructed in some African contexts. 

Conclusion. Other national psychology organisations stand to benefit by ‘lessons learned’ during this country-specific process with global implications, especially with respect to broadening the lens from lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) to sexual and gender diversity, as well as an acknowledgement of the multiple and fluid developmental pathways around sexuality and gender, in general.

About the authorsVictor Cornelius J.; Nel Juan A.
ThemesPsychology of sexual and gender identity
Pages:  87-102
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0206
Keywords:  affirmative stance, LGBTI psychology, position statement, PsySSA, sexual and gender diversity
118

Omurov N. (2017). Identity disclosure as a securityscape for LGBT people. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 63-86.

Background. The concept of a securityscape is an emerging approach to understanding human (in)securities. It derives from the concept of scapes that was initially proposed by anthropologist and cultural theorist Arjun Appadurai in 1996. Securityscapes are imagined individual perceptions of safety motivated by existential contingencies or otherwise theorized as givens of existence, according to psychotherapist Irvin Yalom: death, freedom, existential isolation, and meaningfulness. A recent study on securityscapes in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan described different securityscapes among selected socially and politically vulnerable communities, including the LGBT community. It listed securityscapes of LGBT people but did not provide details as to how such securityscapes are formed. Disclosure of a stigmatized identity was one such securityscape. 

Objective. This article elaborates on research on how LGBT people consider disclosure of their stigmatized identity a securityscape. 

Design. This study was conducted using a semistructured biographical interview with LGBT people in Kyrgyzstan. 

Results. It found that both voluntary identity disclosure and the decision to conceal the stigmatized identity are considered contrasting securityscapes by LGBT people, depending on how central the stigmatized identity is to their self-conception. 

Conclusion. The study concludes that identity disclosure as a securityscape should be considered on a continuum, with identity concealment as a securityscape on one end and complete identity disclosure as a securityscape on the other.

About the authorsOmurov Nurbek
ThemesPsychology of sexual and gender identity
Pages:  63-86
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0205
Keywords:  LGBT, securityscape, stigmatized identity, identity disclosure, givens of existence
119

Nourkova V. V., Ivanova A. A. (2017). Autobiographical memory in transsexual individuals who have undergone genderaffirming surgery: Vivid, self-focused, but not so happy childhood memories. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 42-62.

Background. Whereas reciprocal relationships between autobiographical memory and self are broadly emphasized, there is no empirical research that examines how major life changing transitions affect the graphically expressed life story. 

Objective. The paper focuses on the novel topic of autobiographical memory in transsexual individuals. 

Design. Twenty-eight volunteers who had undergone gender-affirming surgery and 28 non-transgender participants were asked to produce a Life Line which required them to identify the most memorable events in their lives. The level of acquisition of affirmed gender-typed traits was measured by the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI). 

Results. Compared to cisgender individuals, transsexual participants have self-focused Life Lines with a high proportion of vivid flashbulb-like memories and unhappy recollections of childhood. The emotional profile of autobiographical memory addressing childhood was more negative in transsexual participants who deviate from BSRI norms reflecting derogation of past gender category in favour of affirmed gender identity. Those with high acquisition of affirming gender-typed traits assigned more space on the timeline for childhood, revealing the process of self-continuity restoration that leads to an increase in the proportion of positive memories. Accordingly, transsexuals recollected fewer events relevant to their gender identity performing a psychological defence toward the topic of gender. 

Conclusion. We interpreted the results by focusing on the utility of autobiographical memories as a cognitive resource for filling the gap between past and current selves and maintaining self-continuity across the lifespan.

About the authorsNourkova, Veronika V. ; Ivanova Anna A.
ThemesPsychology of sexual and gender identity
Pages:  42-62
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0204
Keywords:  autobiographical memory, transsexualism, gender identity, self-continuity, Life Line, life story
137

Lunin I. I. (2017). Striving for LGBTQ rights in Russian psychology and society: A personal narrative. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 35-41.

Background. Based on a long personal story of dealing with LGBTQ rights in Russia, the author reviews several transformations in the psychological approach and research to gender and sexual identity. The author describes his professional growth as a psychologist. First his interest was in child sex-role development and then transformed to prevention of sexual crimes, AIDS prevention and sexual education among adolescents. The author shows how his area of expertise in human sexuality brought him to professional ethics for psychologists. 

Discussion. In the second part of the article the author reviews changes in social attitudes towards same sex- relationships from their criminalization and medicalization to acceptance and respect. The author emphasizes the pioneering role of Professor Igor Kon in changes of mass attitudes towards sexuality and same sex relationships. The author sees Kon’s legacy in his statement that “As long as gays and lesbians are objects of bullying and discrimination, everybody who considers himself/herself as a thinking person must support LGBTQ people’s fight for their human rights.” At the end of this part of the article, the author describes a recent hate crime based in homophobia, and its victim, the talented St. Petersburg journalist, Dmitry Tsilikin. Tsilikin was involved in sex education in the 1990s and published a book about these issues. His murder was not considered by the court to be a hate crime against an LGBTQ person, despite enormous protest from progressive-minded people all over Russia. 

Conclusion. The author recommends the Russian Psychological Ethics Code as a way to help psychologists support and advocate for people regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity.

About the authorsLunin, Igor I.
ThemesPsychology of sexual and gender identity
Pages:  35-41
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0203
Keywords:  Russia; LGBTQ; Ethics Code; Kon; Tsilikin; psychology
152

Horne Sh.G., Maroney M.R., Zagryazhskaya E.A., Koven J. (2017). Attitudes toward gay and lesbian individuals in Russia: An exploration of the interpersonal contact hypothesis and personality factor. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(2), 21-34.

Background. Negative attitudes toward Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual people in Russia are common, and may have become more prevalent due to recent policy changes. 

Objective. This study explored whether interpersonal contact and personality characteristics predicted Hateful Attitudes Toward GLB people and Endorsement of GLB Rights. 

Design. The design of the study included 154 heterosexual undergraduate students in Moscow and Volgodonsk who were surveyed about their attitudes toward GLB people as well as their personality characteristics assessed with the NEO-FFI. Results. Results suggested that Moscow students held less hateful attitudes and endorsed greater GLB Rights than Volgodonsk students. Women were also more favorable toward GLB Rights than men. In terms of Hateful Attitudes, having GLB friends or acquaintances was a negative predictor of Hateful Attitudes, while neuroticism and conscientiousness were positive predictors. In conclusion, living in a large urban area, knowing GLB individuals, and low levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness appear to be associated with positive attitudes toward GLB people in Russia, however, personality characteristics and knowing GLB people did not appear to relate to endorsement of GLB Civil Rights. 

Conclusion. Current sociopolitical policies such as the propaganda ban, and historical censure of GLB rights during the Soviet era, may impact how “out” GLB Russian people can be, particularly outside of large urban centers, and may reinforce general lack of support for GLB Civil Rights in the Russian population.

About the authorsHorne, Sharon G.; Maroney Meredith R.; Zagryazhskaya, Elizaveta A.; Koven, Julie
ThemesPsychology of sexual and gender identity
Pages:  21-34
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0202
Keywords:  attitudes, gay, lesbian, bisexual, GLB Rights, personality characteristics, NEO-FFI, interpersonal contact
137

Horne Sh. G., Maroney M. R., Geiss M. L., Dunnavant B. R. (2017). The reliability and validity of a Russian version of the Lesbian Internalized Homophobia Scale. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (2), 5-20.

Background. Validated measures of sexual minority stress (Meyer, 2003), including that caused by experiences of discrimination directed toward gay, lesbian and bisexual (GLB) people, GLB-related stigma, and internalized homonegativity, are not readily available in Russia. Given the particular context of Russia with respect to GLB rights, it is to be expected that there would be cross-cultural variations in dimensions of minority stress, including internalized homo-negativity. 

Objective. For the present study, we aimed to back and forward translate the commonly used Szymanski and Chung’s (2001) Lesbian Internalized Homonegativity Scale (LIHS), and explore its cross-language validity. 

Design. Our design consisted of a completion of the adapted LIHS by a sample of 74 Russian lesbian-identified women; participants were asked about their age of coming out to self, friends, and family. 

Results. Based upon an examination of construct validity and internal consistency, the results suggest support for a modified four-component, 24-item Russian version of the LIH (R-LIH).The components were: Connection with Lesbian Communities (9 items); Public Identification as a Lesbian (7); Public Visibility as a Lesbian (5); and Cultural Awareness of Lesbian Communities (3). From the original LIHS scale, Personal Feelings about Being a Lesbian, Moral and Religious Attitudes toward Lesbians, and Attitudes toward Other Lesbians failed to demonstrate cross-cultural validity. 

Conclusion. The adapted R-LIH scale suggests there are some constructs of internalized homonegativity that are salient in both U.S. and Russian communities, however, there are others (i.e., Moral and Religious Attitudes, Attitudes Toward Other Lesbians) that may not be relevant in Russian lesbian communities. The implications for the use of the translated version are described.

About the authorsHorne, Sharon G.; Maroney Meredith R.; Geiss, Meghan L.; Dunnavant Bridget R.
ThemesPsychology of sexual and gender identity
Pages:  5-20
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0201
Keywords:  lesbian, measurement, Russia, internalized homo-negativity, internalized heterosexism, cross-cultural
139

Horne Sh. G., Zinchenko Yu. P. (2017). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (2), 2-4.

This issue of "Psychology in Russia: State of the Art", focused on sexual orientation and gender identity, is a step toward meeting that obligation of contributing to the welfare of a stigmatized population, through highlighting current research and theory related to LGBT concerns.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Horne, Sharon G.
ThemesIntroduction
Pages:  2-4
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0200
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 10, Issue 2, 2017, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
154

Channa M.A., Nordina Z.S., Simming I.A., Buriro G.S. (2017). Lenses on metacognition: Teachers’ perceptions toward strategies in reading in a Pakistani context. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 34-48.

The research in the field of metacognition for developing reading is not new; metacognition has been used for many years to identify ways to develop students’ reading comprehension. Most previous research has addressed either primary or secondary level students. However, notably few studies have been conducted at the undergraduate level. This study has attempted to initiate strategies to assist first-year engineering students in developing their reading abilities within a Pakistani context. The primary objective of this research was to identify what strategies first-year engineering students use in developing their reading at Quaid-e-Awam University of engineering science and technology in Pakistan. This study used qualitative instruments that included semi-structured interviews with teachers and classroom observations during read-aloud sessions. The data were organized through NVivo version 8 for obtaining nodes, codes, and main themes for interpreting the results. The results of this study demonstrated that teachers should use metacognitive strategies for developing students’ reading abilities. Findings also revealed that reading strategies, such as text scanning, guesses from contextual clues, drawing on prior knowledge, and using a dictionary, are the most important strategies to use for developing the reading skills and comprehension of engineering students. This study has suggested metacognitive strategies be used for promoting students’ reading abilities and that teachers should design and develop more courses using these strategies to enhance the reading and listening skills of engineering students.

About the authorsChanna, Mansoor A.; Nordina, Zaimuariffudin S.; Simming, Insaf A.; Buriro, Ghulam S.
ThemesEducational psychology; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  34-48
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0103
Keywords:  metacognitive, reading strategies, comprehension development, cognitive
301

Bordovskaia N. V., Koshkina E. A. (2017). The influence of psychology on Russian didactic terminology (early 18th century — first half of 20th century). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 18-33.

Success in the development of cross-disciplinary connections between psychology and pedagogy in today’s Russia depends on many factors, including understanding the historical traditions of theoretical comprehension of educational innovations. To identify the specific influence of psychology on didactic terminology from the early 18th century through the first half of the 20th century. The study was designed based on historiographic, diachronic, and synchronic methods, and context and content analysis of 129 texts (105 words with general usage frequency of 81,397 units were analyzed). It was found reasonable to split the development of psychological-didactic terminology into two stages: the instrumental stage (early 18th century — first half of 19th century) and the reference stage (second half of 19th century — first half of 20th century). The first stage was found to be characterized by psychological terms performing predominantly an instrumental function, that is, describing psychological factors that affect the effectiveness of training. The second stage featured the growing significance of psychological knowledge, not only in solving educational tasks, but also in explaining didactic patterns. During the first stage of development of psychological-didactic terminology, teachers frequently used the psychological terms “teaching”, “ability”, and “diligence”; during the second stage — “teaching”, “senses”, and “development”. Statistical methods were used to prove stable conceptual and terminological connections between psychology and pedagogy.

About the authorsBordovskaia, Nina V. ; Koshkina, Elena A.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  18-33
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0102
Keywords:  psychological-didactic terminology and its structural organization, stages and tendencies of its development in Russia
300

Baranova E. A., Nikolaev E. L. (2017). Question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity in primary school children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 4-17.

Children’s questions are an indicator of active cognitive perception of reality. Questions but not answers are relevant in revealing a child’s mental life, consciousness and thinking. The lack of question-asking skills can hinder learning, searching and exploration in children. To determine in 7- and 8-year-old school children the common and variable peculiarities of designing a search process for necessary information concerning an unknown object by volitionally formulated questions, as well as the dynamics of the questioning process throughout a school year. The study was based on an experimental methodology, codenamed Guess what there is in the box, and was conducted in four schools in Cheboksary. The sample comprised 158 primary school first-graders who took part in a confirmatory experiment twice, once in September and once in May. The research showed that 96.3% of the questions asked were search questions. Only 30% of the first-graders initiated their searching activities of their own will without having to resort to the given search algorithm, while 70% did not begin asking questions without outside stimulation. The analysis of the dynamics of children’s question-asking behavior exhibited a tendency to decrease in a number of questions asked over the course of the school year. Primary school children need psychological and pedagogical scaffolding aimed at developing a question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity to achieve a possible age potential in development.

About the authorsBaranova, Elvira A.; Nikolaev, Evgeni L.
ThemesEducational psychology; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  4-17
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0101
Keywords:  cognitive activity, question-asking behavior, primary school children, types of children’s questions
451

Lovakov A.V., Agadullina E.R., Schaufeli W.B. (2017). Psychometric properties of the Russian version of the utrecht Work engagement scale (UWES-9). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 145-162.

This article aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Russian version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) by using a sample of 1783 employees of a large Russian organization. We conducted a series of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) tests of the factorial structure and the configural, metric, scalar, factor variance, factor covariance, and factor means invariances of the model across gender and age groups. The validity of the Russian version of the UWES-9 was investigated by study- ing its relationship with burnout, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and turnover inten- tion. The CFA showed that both the 1-factor and the 3-factor models of the UWES-9 fit well with the data, but the 3-factor model demonstrates a significantly better fit. however, the differences are minor; therefore, in practical terms, the models are iden- tical. Thus the Russian version of the UWES-9 can be used both as a three-scale mea- surement and as a single scale of work engagement. Results from the multi-group CFA provided evidence of factorial invariance of the 3-factor model across gender and age groups. Internal consistencies of the vigor, dedication, and absorption subscales are acceptable. The results also suggested the convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the UWES-9, as shown by its relationship with burnout, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and turnover intention. The article also discusses the differences in levels of work engagement within different gender and age groups. Overall, the results show that the Russian version of the UWES-9 demonstrates acceptable psychometric properties comparable with the original version and those in other languages. The Russian version of the UWES-9 can therefore be recommended for use in research and practice. 

About the authorsLovakov Andrey V.; Agadullina Elena R.; Wilmar B. Schaufeli
ThemesSocial psychology; Psychological assessment
Pages:  145-162
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0111
Keywords:  work engagement, UWES, burnout, positive organizational behavior, mea- surement
450

Deyneka O.S., Isaeva E.R. (2017). Adaptation resources in subjects with social and psychosomatic disadaptation: a comparative analysis. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 130-144.

In this article the features of social-relationship systems are analyzed based on the data from a sociopsychological empirical study conducted in two stages (2002 and 2014) on a large sample with the help of g. Kelly’s Repertory grid Technique. A. V. Petrovsky’s three-factor interpersonal-relationships model as interpreted for closed groups by M. Yu. Kondratev and the concept of the closed society as described by Karl Popper provide the foundation for the theoretical hypothesis we tested. The empirical data obtained in 2002 came from 391 participants of different ages who were living in provincial towns in the Nizhny Novgorod region. The elderly respondents (232 people) had lived almost all their lives under the Soviet regime; the middle-aged respondents (159 people) got their education and started their careers in the USSR. Soviet society is considered to be closed because of its authoritarian and collectivist nature, static social structure, and dogmatic ideology. It is argued that both closed societies and closed groups are characterized by a rigid hierarchical social structure, isolation from other systems, and depersonalization of social relations. We have proved that members of a closed group and citizens of a closed society have similar social-relationship matrices. 

About the authorsDeyneka Olga S. ; Isaeva Elena R.
ThemesSocial psychology; Clinical psychology
Pages:  130-144
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0110
Keywords:  adaptation resources, defense, coping, value system, disadaptation, unem- ployed, psychosomatic patients
263

Radina N.K., Koskina M.V. (2017). Power, attraction, and reference in macrolevel social relations: An analysis of closed groups and closed societies based on the psychology of the “Soviet person”. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 117-129.

In this article the features of social-relationship systems are analyzed based on the data from a sociopsychological empirical study conducted in two stages (2002 and 2014) on a large sample with the help of g. Kelly’s Repertory grid Technique. A. V. Petrovsky’s three-factor interpersonal-relationships model as interpreted for closed groups by M. Yu. Kondratev and the concept of the closed society as described by Karl Popper provide the foundation for the theoretical hypothesis we tested. The empirical data obtained in 2002 came from 391 participants of different ages who were living in provincial towns in the Nizhny Novgorod region. The elderly respondents (232 people) had lived almost all their lives under the Soviet regime; the middle-aged respondents (159 people) got their education and started their careers in the USSR. Soviet society is considered to be closed because of its authoritarian and collectivist nature, static social structure, and dogmatic ideology. It is argued that both closed societies and closed groups are characterized by a rigid hierarchical social structure, isolation from other systems, and depersonalization of social relations. We have proved that members of a closed group and citizens of a closed society have similar social-relationship matrices.


About the authorsRadina Nadezhda K. ; Koskina Mariia V.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  117-129
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0109
Keywords:  closed group, closed society, Soviet society, post-Soviet society, Repertory grid Technique, Petrovsky’s three-factor model, interpersonal relations, social structure
286

Fedotova V.A. (2017). Age-related differences in values and economic attitudes among Russians. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 105-116

Analyses of the connection between cultural values and economic development have changed many times in different countries and in different periods. In Russia, which is constantly undergoing economic and social transformations, this issue is especially rel- evant. One can say that culture, to some extent, bears responsibility for economic devel- opment, and so it is to be expected that different generations of the Russian people would perceive questions related to the connection of cultural values and economic attitudes in different ways. This article presents the results of research dedicated to revealing the correlation between cultural values and economic attitudes among different generations of Russians (N = 110 people). The participants were youth (18–25 years old) and adults (37–63 years). I found that, for the adult generation, the “power-distance” index (a mea- sure of the level of dependence on power structures) was positively correlated with eco- nomic self-determination and the desire to have money. For the younger generation, nei- ther the power-distance index nor the “masculinity” index was associated with economic autonomy, while the “uncertainty-avoidance” index encouraged economic autonomy but did not create additional opportunities for increasing personal income. In the study eco- nomic paternalism was expressed more by the younger generation; they were also more ready to invest energy in business, but they were not as interested as the adult generation in the state of the economy. 

About the authorsFedotova Vera A.
ThemesSocial psychology
Pages:  105-116
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0108
Keywords:  culture, values, economic attitudes, intergenerational differences
353

Shadrikov V.D., Kurginyan S.S. (2017). Propositions toward the development of a psychological theory of thought. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 211-224.

Thought is considered a psychological concept associated with an individual’s mental ex- istence. It is apparent that a great deal of research has been focused on thought as an area of study. however, there is no psychological theory of thought which provides an expla- nation for its nature and structural organization. So far, researchers have mainly looked at the ways this concept is expressed, rather than investigating what it actually is. In this study, however, based on studies of the functions of the psyche, mental processes, and the neurophysiological bases of mental activity, thought is identified as a need-emotion- intentional substance existing in the human being’s inner world. In keeping with this understanding of thought, the hypothesis that thought generation is caused by desire and experience (feeling and emotion) is put forward. An individual’s thought is linked to his behavior or motivation for activity, and is followed by an emotional experience. The process of thought generation is regarded through the mechanism of behavioral motiva- tion. The primary purpose of this mechanism is to define the qualities of the external objects that serve for need satisfaction and functionality in individuals. The ability to generate thoughts is a feature of thinking related to an individual’s mental ability or frame of mind. From this standpoint, a person’s mentality is considered to be the capacity of the individual to generate thoughts and work through thoughts. It is shown that the abil- ity to generate thoughts and establish relationships within a stream of consciousness is characteristic of human intelligence. Some basic propositions toward a development of a psychological theory of thought are introduced. 

About the authorsShadrikov, Vladimir D. ; Kurginyan Sergey S.
ThemesTheories and approaches; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  211-224
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0115
Keywords:  mental processes, function of the psyche, substantial thought, thinking onto- logy, thought
272

Mazilov V.A., Kostrigin A.A. (2017). The work of V.A. Snegirev: an historical and psychological study. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 198-210.

In the history of psychology there are many scientists whose names and contributions have been forgotten. One poorly studied area in the history of psychology is the psychological views of theologians. Among these is Veniamin Alekseevich Snegirev, a psychologist and theologian at Kazan Theological Academy, whose contributions are not fully appreciated today. The authors identify V.A. Snegirev’s contribution to several fields of psychological science at the end of the 19th century: methodology, theory, general psychology, and the psychology of dreams. The research is based on archival materials, encyclopedia articles, reviews of the activity of Kazan Theological Academy in the 19th century, works of Snegirev and other researchers who have studied his contributions. The authors describe the scientist’s childhood, his student period, and work as a professor. his work at the Kazan Theological Academy and the University of Kazan is discussed in detail: he taught courses on psychology, logic, and metaphysics, was a member of the Academy Council, took part in the functioning of the library, was recognized with several awards and honors. Snegirev’s teaching activity is described by the recollections of his student, the famous philosopher Viktor I. Nesmelov. Snegirev considered psychology to be based in philosophy, because philosophical problems represent the content of human consciousness. A bibliography of Snegirev’s scientific works is provided. The psychological and philosophical views of the Russian scientist are signifi- cant: his main points are to recognize the object of science – the human being – as a “living person”, thinking, feeling, and exercising his will; and the rejection of the idea that a person can be reduced to a sum of mental phenomena. There are several common concepts in the works of Snegirev and European and American philosophers, such as Wilhelm Dilthey and William James. Snegirev participated in the international philosophical and scientific discus- sion, which underlines the importance of studying his work. 

ThemesTheories and approaches
Pages:  198-210
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0114
Keywords:  history of psychology, biography, V.A. Snegirev, religious and philosophical psy- chology, Theological Academy of Kazan, V.I. Nesmelov, psychology of the living personality
303

Eritsyan K.Y., Antonova N.A., Tsvetkova L.A. (2017). Studying anti-vaccination behavior and attitudes: A systematic review of methods. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 178-197.

Immunization is one of the most significant achievements of public health over the last 100 years. Recently, however, people have been increasingly refusing to vaccinate. There are a large number of separate studies on how pervasive this behavior is and what fac- tors influence it, but no systematic review has been undertaken so far that looked at these studies as a whole. To conduct an analysis of studies that examine vaccine refusal and negative attitudes towards vaccination, focusing on the methodological approaches to the study of these problems and evaluation of their quality. A systematic review of English-language studies published between 1980 and 2015, using the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection database. The final review dealt with 31 papers. The studies in question were mainly conducted in North America and Western Europe. They were published three years after conclusion, on average. We have identified five different approaches to the study of these problems: 1) studies of parents’ attitudes and behavior; 2) analysis of vaccination records; 3) studies of attitudes and behavior among the general population; 4) studies of medical professionals’ attitudes, behavior, and experience; and 5) others. We found that theoretical models were not commonly used at the planning stage, while the studies also lacked a common approach to the operationalization of vaccine refusal, as well as of negative attitudes towards vaccination. Several promising directions have been identified for future studies on vaccine refusal and negative attitudes towards vac- cination. 

About the authorsEritsyan, Ksenia Y.; Antonova, Natalia A.; Tsvetkova, Larissa A.
ThemesPsychology and bioethics; Clinical psychology
Pages:  178-197
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0113
Keywords:  vaccination, vaccine refusal, attitudes towards vaccination, systematic review
295

Bryzgalina E.V., Ryzhov A.L., Tikhomandritskaya O.A., Tkhostov A.S., Zinchenko Yu. P..(2017).Biobanking — a new environment for psychological research and applications. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 163-177.

Biobanking is an emerging medical, research, and social institution that has many im- plications for psychological science and practice. The bibliographic study of abstracts and full text articles retrieved from major databases (PsycInfo, PubMed, EBSCO, SAgE) indicates that the role of psychology in the establishment and functioning of biobanks is not well articulated. Two promising directions of biobank-based studies are concerned with studies of risk factors for various disorders and with genetic and epigenetic mecha- nisms of psychological and behavioral trait development, and are closely tied to a devel- oping model of a new “personalized” medicine. It is important to carefully select the psy- chological variables and measurements, with consideration of their suitability for genetic studies, possibilities for networking and sharing of results, economic limitations, and biobank purposes. Of special importance is a systemic foundation of mental functions that requires not only the assessment of efficacy, but also the search for simple, natural, and objectively observable components. Applied tasks of professional psychologists in the field of biobanking can be defined, such as donor selection and management of ethi- cal issues. As a new technology, biobanking poses several challenges to society and the individual that need to be studied in order to prevent misuse and to earn the public trust. The hidden dangers of eugenics-like ideas, of consumer practices with genetic products, and of over-emphasis on human enhancement are particularly stressed. We conclude that while biobanks represent a promising and fertile ground for psychological research and applications, there is a need for a comprehensive psychology of biobanking to make them fruitful. 

About the authorsTkhostov, Alexander Sh. ; Zinchenko, Yury P. ; Bryzgalina Elena V.; Ryzhov Andrey L. ; Tikhomandritskaya Olga A.
ThemesPsychology and bioethics; Clinical psychology
Pages:  163-177
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0112
Keywords:  biobank, depositories of human biological samples, personalized medicine, molecular genetics of human behavior, phenotype description
326

Tikhomirova T.N., Misozhnikova E.B., Malykh A.S., Gaydamashko I.V., Malykh S.B. (2017). Mathematical fluency in high school students. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 95-104.

This article presents the results of a study of mathematical fluency in high school students. We provide a definition of mathematical fluency and illustrate the relevance of the research by presenting an overview of studies examining mathematical fluency development and its relationship with success in mathematical disciplines.

A computerized test “Problem Verification Task” (Tosto et al., 2013) was administered to 692 high school students from one public secondary school (grades 9/10/11: n = 336/210/146) in the Moscow region. The stimuli consisted of 48 elementary arithmetic equations along with answer options. To indicate a correct answer, participants were instructed to press the corresponding key on the keyboard as quickly as possible.

Two-way ANOVA was used to estimate grade and sex similarities and differences in mathematical fluency at the high school level.

The current study has two primary findings: (1) students differed in math fluency across grades, and (2) there were no sex differences in mathematical fluency at the high school level. ANOVA exhibited significant differences in mathematical fluency among all three groups of students at grades 9, 10 and 11 with a 19% effect size. These results may be associated with the accumulating effects of the educational process: high school students in each subsequent year of schooling demonstrate a higher level of mathematical fluency on average compared to the previous year. At the same time, we observed no sex differences in mathematical fluency at the high school level. The results are discussed in terms of educational effects.

About the authorsTikhomirova, Tatiana N.; Malykh, Sergey B.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  95-104
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0107
Keywords:  mathematical fluency, mathematical achievement, education, high school age, sex differences
294

Kashapov M.M., Serafimovich I.V., Poshekhonova Yu.V. (2017). Components of metacognition and metacognitive properties of forecasting as determinants of supra-situational pedagogical thinking. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 80-94.

This article describes the functions of metacognition and the role of these functions in professional pedagogical thinking (PPT): the discovery of the emergence of a problemacy, the organization of cognition processes, and the management of the comprehension and resolution of the problem situation. Thinking is related to the metacognitive activity of a subject. Components and strategies of metacognition are included in the PPT process and define (by means of conscious or unconscious regulation) the efficiency of discovering and solving problems in an interpersonal interaction situation that must be comprehended and transformed. One of the conditions providing for realization of the supra-situational thinking of professionals is a high level of metacognitive activity, although the level of the pronouncedness of metacognitive activity does not depend on the subject’s possessing basic professional education.

We have created and tested new psychodiagnostic techniques aimed at defining the level of forecasting in problem (conflict) situations and at evaluating metacognitive knowledge and activity. The sample group included about 800 people (university lecturers, school teachers, and teachers who train college students). It was proved that the metacognitive focus of forecasting stimulates the formation and development of various forecasting types: proactive, retroactive, and interactive. Forecasting is viewed as a metacognitive component of supra-situational thinking and a component of the cognitive side of communication. Situational and supra- situational types of pedagogical thinking are shown to have different properties and different orientations toward forecasting activity; these properties and orientations determine the differentiation and hierarchization of these types of thinking. It was discovered that the metacognitive properties of supra-situational thinking are achieved through a high degree of integration of all basic forecasting qualities (analyticity, depth, awareness, flexibility, prospectiveness, and validity).

The efficiency of our devised and tested program aimed at perfecting PPT is evident in the dynamics of its objective and subjective properties (an increased level of suprasituativity of thinking among the program participants and the participants’ subjective evaluations of transformation in coping with difficulties in conflict situations). The formation of supra-situational thinking—in particular, of components such as forecasting (in both a narrow and a broad context)—is closely connected with envisaging prospects, including those for one’s own professional and personality development.

About the authorsKashapov, Mergalуаs M. ; Serafimovich, Irina V.; Poshekhonova, Yulia V.
ThemesEducational psychology; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  80-94
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0106
Keywords:  metacognition, metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive activity, forecasting, supra-situativity of professional thinking
267

Zinchenko Yu. P. (2017). Editorial. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (1), 2-3.

This issue of “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art” is focused on the topic of psychology and education. It also introduces a new section on psychology and bioethics, and we hope to start a meaningful discussion in this proliferating field of research.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P.
ThemesIntroduction
Pages:  2-3
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0100
Keywords:  Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 10, Issue 1, 2017, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
283

Ilyushin L.S., Azbel A.A. (2017). The modern Russian teacher: Studying awareness with the use of the semi-structured interview. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 49-66.

This research is based on the ideas of Humanistic-Existential Psychology, a positive approach to personal growth, and modern educational concepts concerning the dynamics of professional and social identity in the stratum of secondary and primary school teachers. The goal of the study is to get an objective picture of the professional and personal changes among Russian teachers under the conditions of school modernization. We offer a detailed model of the semi-structured interview with modern teachers, in combination with observation. The interview consists of 63 questions divided into 9 topics, and deals with issues related to what their professional activities mean to the teachers; the teachers’ evaluation of professional dynamics; their attitude toward various aspects of professional life; and their general world outlook and values. We also briefly describe a pre-interview “warm-up” strategy. This stage of the research resulted in the successful pilot use of the research methodology, and data sufficient to evaluate the initial trends of the analysis of all the data. The study’s main conclusions concern the observation technique, which offers a significant increase in the potential of the interview method, mainly through providing the ability to interpret non-verbal reactions, the level of openness, and the teacher’s trust in the dialogue. Moreover, we must note that, when we asked teachers to answer complicated written questions, their answers, judgments, and arguments varied greatly, regardless of their professional and personal characteristics (employment history, qualification category, the subject they teach, type of school, etc.)

About the authorsIlyushin, Leonid S.; Azbel, Anastasia A.
ThemesEducational psychology
Pages:  49-66
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0104
Keywords:  awareness, personal meaning of professional activities, semi-structured interview, modern Russian teacher
322