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Dontsov, Aleksander I.

Dontsov, Aleksander I.

Academic rank:  professor, member of the Russian Academy of Education

Degree:  doctor in Psychology

Lomonosov Moscow State University

Publications by Dontsov, Aleksander I.

Perelygina E.B., Rikel A.M., Dontsov A.I. (2017). The subjective well-being of a person as a prism of personal and socio-psychological characteristics. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10 (4), 185-194

Objective. This article examines the concept of subjective well-being and the approaches to researching it and its qualities; it also attempts to create a reticulated personal and socio-psychological portrait of a person who sustains a certain level of subjective wellbeing.

Design. To accomplish this objective, we conducted a meta-analysis of modern empirical studies of those personal traits and socio-psychological aspects of a person’s existence which are “responsible” for the person’s interaction with a complex changing world. They included: personal self-perception, including issues of identity; the person’s defense mechanisms and reactions to stress, including the stress of others (characteristics of empathy); self-attitudes; will power; conscious setting of goals; interpersonal relationships; and ability to deliberately regulate one’s personality.

Results. The results of different Russian and international empirical studies are analyzed. We concluded that subjective well-being is the result of the interaction of internal powers (conventionally, personal factors) with social context (conventionally, objective external aspects).

Conclusion. Based on this finding, the most insightful and timely method for studying subjective well-being can be the creation of models which involve the double correlation of “internal” and “external” sides of the process of achieving subjective well-being.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0416
Pages:  185-194
Keywords:  subjective well-being, objective well-being, social problems

Available Online: 12.01.2017

Dontsov A. I., Perelygina E. B. (2016). Cognitive and value parameters of students’ perceptions of the effects of psychoactive substances. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 188-202.

This article sets forth the main results of a study analyzing attitudes toward psychoactivesubstance (PAS) effects. These findings demonstrate the conditionality of social, historic, and cultural views of PAS effects. Despite the threat posed by increasing high school and university students’ drug involvement, exploration of this phenomenon in the format of scientific discourse has been limited so far.

In 2014–2015, in Yekaterinburg, Moscow, and Krasnoyarsk a survey to evaluate perceptions of high school and university students about PAS effects was conducted (289 respondents, aged 16–22).The methods used included the semantic differential (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test modified by A.G. Shmelyov), a modified version of the Rokeach Value Survey, word associations, and content analysis.

The use of psychoactive substances is a specific social practice emerging in a certain social context that includes both drug-addicted and PAS-free young people. Examination of the factors affecting the formation of views about PAS effects and the dynamics of youth values is possible by using a bio-psycho-socio paradigm for performing a complex analysis of cognitive, behavioral, and value parameters.

As documented in the respondents’ perceptions, distinctive features that are characteristic of drug addicts and that are seen in their behavior area loss of control over behavior, emotions, and volition; changes in value systems; and a tendency to develop a manipulative communication style.

Within the system of their social perceptions the respondents endowed drug-addicted persons with pronounced negative characteristics (“aggressiveness,” “addiction,” “stupidity,” “light-mindedness”). Still, they stated that drug abusers are capable of being active, decisive, cheerful, generous, and flexible. The value analysis demonstrated that terminal values appreciated by the school and university students included health, true friends, love, happy family life, active life, and self-development. Receiving pleasure through methamphetamine intake and a burst of energy through PAS intake were considered worthless even though the survey demonstrated the respondents’ use of psychoactive substances.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0313
Pages:  188-202
ThemesEducational psychology / Psychology of addictions
Keywords:  perceptions, value preferences, PAS effects, factor analysis, semantic space

Available Online: 09.30.2016

Dontsov A. I., Perelygina E.B. (2014). Interpersonal confidence as a factor in the prevention of disorganized interaction. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 40-49.

Human communities are based on a certain set of everyday attitudes, on the coordination of the actions of “the self ” in a group, and on the regulation of social practices. The results of this study show that a number of factors act as determinants of trust/ distrust ambivalence: the multidimensionality and the dynamics of interactions among people; the high level of subjectivity in evaluating risks resulting from openness and from confidence in partners involved in an interaction; and a subject’s contradictory attitude toward the personal traits of an interacting partner (power, activity, honesty, trustworthiness). Japanese scholars have proved the necessity of taking into account quality of life (QOL) as one of the determinants of the development of interpersonal confidence. The study demonstrates that people try to bring trust into their daily routines as a way of organizing conscientious, emotionally open interactions that take into account the interests of all parties. Mistrust blocks access to the emotional, intellectual, and activity-related resources supporting life and undermines faith in the possibility of virtue and morality. Yet a supplementary study (using instant diagnostics) indicates that in practice respondents did not demonstrate a high level of confidence (in two cities it was 0%; in one city, it was 4.6%). In spite of emotionally positive views regarding trust, as well as constructive estimates of its moral/behavioral potential, a considerable number of respondents were not open and oriented to the interests of others. A tendency toward caution, inwardness, and constrained sincerity leads to nonconformity in one’s actions in a group and to changes in the vector of social practices from socio-partner regulation to disorganized interaction.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0105
Pages:  40-49
ThemesThe 2nd Russian-Japanese forum of social sciences and humanities / Social psychology
Keywords:  social interaction, disorganization, conscientiousness, psychological security, confidence

Available Online: 03.30.2014

Alexander I. Dontsov, Alexandra I. Kabalevskaya (2013). Gender Stereotypes among Road Users. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 150-163

This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0313
Pages:  150-163
ThemesGender psychology
Keywords:  Gender stereotype, stereotyping, gender behaviour, road behaviour

Available Online: 12.15.2013

Aleksander I. Dontsov, Elena B. Perelygina (2013) Tense situations and the significance of stability for psychological security. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 20-31

Present reality gives rise to contradictory trends: the combination of new threats, tense situations, and destructive tendencies shapes awareness of the importance of identifying, assessing, and managing emerging situations and of developing new scientific paradigms. The polyfunctional interpretation of psychological security correlates with the perception of stability as a specific arrangement of interactional processes and the relatedness of stereotypes, standards, sociocultural attitudes, and social perceptions. A tense situation clearly indicates the separation of the potential of the person and the group from the notion of subject-action in security promotion and maintenance. The depersonification of social institutions is accompanied by each person’s growing attention to himself/herself and the increasing significance of this kind of attention in overcoming uncertainty and tension.

The process of making decisions in a tense situation often includes the phenomenon of the illusion of control over the situation, which can pose a threat to psychological security. The social significance of the promotion of psychological security calls for consolidation of efforts aimed at the stability of the society and the prevention of stress-producing situations.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0202
Pages:  4-19
ThemesSocial psychology / Security psychology
Keywords:  tense situations, subject of psychological security, dynamic stability, social perceptions, social and psychological consequences of the terrorist threat

Available Online: 11.11.2013

Dontsov A.I., Perelygina E.B. (2011). Security Problems of Communicative Strategies. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 316-323

The main directions of safety formation in communication strategies are connected with their adaptation to the conditions of social and psychological variability. Building up a communicative strategy is a versatile process, in which it is necessary to consider a wide spectrum of social and psychological parameters, especially topical in the modern period of social development. Forms of social interactions in schematic formats of contemporary social and economic revolution are reduced, social and functional potentials are depleted, mass society is further differentiating, the pace of historic changes is growing, all this determines the necessity to prepare changes in personality structures to the dynamics of social and psychological fluidity.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2011.0020
Pages:  316-323
ThemesSecurity psychology
Keywords:  co-presence, compatibility, dialogue.