Channa M.A., Nordina Z.S., Simming I.A., Buriro G.S. (2017). Lenses on metacognition: Teachers’ perceptions toward strategies in reading in a Pakistani context. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 34-48.The research in the field of metacognition for developing reading is not new; metacognition has been used for many years to identify ways to develop students’ reading comprehension. Most previous research has addressed either primary or secondary level students. However, notably few studies have been conducted at the undergraduate level. This study has attempted to initiate strategies to assist first-year engineering students in developing their reading abilities within a Pakistani context. The primary objective of this research was to identify what strategies first-year engineering students use in developing their reading at Quaid-e-Awam University of engineering science and technology in Pakistan. This study used qualitative instruments that included semi-structured interviews with teachers and classroom observations during read-aloud sessions. The data were organized through NVivo version 8 for obtaining nodes, codes, and main themes for interpreting the results. The results of this study demonstrated that teachers should use metacognitive strategies for developing students’ reading abilities. Findings also revealed that reading strategies, such as text scanning, guesses from contextual clues, drawing on prior knowledge, and using a dictionary, are the most important strategies to use for developing the reading skills and comprehension of engineering students. This study has suggested metacognitive strategies be used for promoting students’ reading abilities and that teachers should design and develop more courses using these strategies to enhance the reading and listening skills of engineering students.
Keywords: metacognitive, reading strategies, comprehension development, cognitive
About the authors: Channa, Mansoor A. / Nordina, Zaimuariffudin S. / Simming, Insaf A. / Buriro, Ghulam S.
Available Online: 04.01.2017
Bordovskaia N. V., Koshkina E. A. (2017). The influence of psychology on Russian didactic terminology (early 18th century — first half of 20th century). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 18-33.Success in the development of cross-disciplinary connections between psychology and pedagogy in today’s Russia depends on many factors, including understanding the historical traditions of theoretical comprehension of educational innovations. To identify the specific influence of psychology on didactic terminology from the early 18th century through the first half of the 20th century. The study was designed based on historiographic, diachronic, and synchronic methods, and context and content analysis of 129 texts (105 words with general usage frequency of 81,397 units were analyzed). It was found reasonable to split the development of psychological-didactic terminology into two stages: the instrumental stage (early 18th century — first half of 19th century) and the reference stage (second half of 19th century — first half of 20th century). The first stage was found to be characterized by psychological terms performing predominantly an instrumental function, that is, describing psychological factors that affect the effectiveness of training. The second stage featured the growing significance of psychological knowledge, not only in solving educational tasks, but also in explaining didactic patterns. During the first stage of development of psychological-didactic terminology, teachers frequently used the psychological terms “teaching”, “ability”, and “diligence”; during the second stage — “teaching”, “senses”, and “development”. Statistical methods were used to prove stable conceptual and terminological connections between psychology and pedagogy.
Keywords: psychological-didactic terminology and its structural organization, stages and tendencies of its development in Russia
About the authors: Bordovskaia, Nina V. / Koshkina, Elena A.
Available Online: 04.01.2017
Baranova E. A., Nikolaev E. L. (2017). Question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity in primary school children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 4-17.Children’s questions are an indicator of active cognitive perception of reality. Questions but not answers are relevant in revealing a child’s mental life, consciousness and thinking. The lack of question-asking skills can hinder learning, searching and exploration in children. To determine in 7- and 8-year-old school children the common and variable peculiarities of designing a search process for necessary information concerning an unknown object by volitionally formulated questions, as well as the dynamics of the questioning process throughout a school year. The study was based on an experimental methodology, codenamed Guess what there is in the box, and was conducted in four schools in Cheboksary. The sample comprised 158 primary school first-graders who took part in a confirmatory experiment twice, once in September and once in May. The research showed that 96.3% of the questions asked were search questions. Only 30% of the first-graders initiated their searching activities of their own will without having to resort to the given search algorithm, while 70% did not begin asking questions without outside stimulation. The analysis of the dynamics of children’s question-asking behavior exhibited a tendency to decrease in a number of questions asked over the course of the school year. Primary school children need psychological and pedagogical scaffolding aimed at developing a question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity to achieve a possible age potential in development.
Available Online: 04.01.2017
Tikhomirova T.N., Misozhnikova E.B., Malykh A.S., Gaydamashko I.V., Malykh S.B. (2017). Mathematical fluency in high school students. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 95-104.
This article presents the results of a study of mathematical fluency in high school students. We provide a definition of mathematical fluency and illustrate the relevance of the research by presenting an overview of studies examining mathematical fluency development and its relationship with success in mathematical disciplines.
A computerized test “Problem Verification Task” (Tosto et al., 2013) was administered to 692 high school students from one public secondary school (grades 9/10/11: n = 336/210/146) in the Moscow region. The stimuli consisted of 48 elementary arithmetic equations along with answer options. To indicate a correct answer, participants were instructed to press the corresponding key on the keyboard as quickly as possible.
Two-way ANOVA was used to estimate grade and sex similarities and differences in mathematical fluency at the high school level.
The current study has two primary findings: (1) students differed in math fluency across grades, and (2) there were no sex differences in mathematical fluency at the high school level. ANOVA exhibited significant differences in mathematical fluency among all three groups of students at grades 9, 10 and 11 with a 19% effect size. These results may be associated with the accumulating effects of the educational process: high school students in each subsequent year of schooling demonstrate a higher level of mathematical fluency on average compared to the previous year. At the same time, we observed no sex differences in mathematical fluency at the high school level. The results are discussed in terms of educational effects.
Available Online: 03.01.2017
Kashapov M.M., Serafimovich I.V., Poshekhonova Yu.V. (2017). Components of metacognition and metacognitive properties of forecasting as determinants of supra-situational pedagogical thinking. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 80-94.
This article describes the functions of metacognition and the role of these functions in professional pedagogical thinking (PPT): the discovery of the emergence of a problemacy, the organization of cognition processes, and the management of the comprehension and resolution of the problem situation. Thinking is related to the metacognitive activity of a subject. Components and strategies of metacognition are included in the PPT process and define (by means of conscious or unconscious regulation) the efficiency of discovering and solving problems in an interpersonal interaction situation that must be comprehended and transformed. One of the conditions providing for realization of the supra-situational thinking of professionals is a high level of metacognitive activity, although the level of the pronouncedness of metacognitive activity does not depend on the subject’s possessing basic professional education.
We have created and tested new psychodiagnostic techniques aimed at defining the level of forecasting in problem (conflict) situations and at evaluating metacognitive knowledge and activity. The sample group included about 800 people (university lecturers, school teachers, and teachers who train college students). It was proved that the metacognitive focus of forecasting stimulates the formation and development of various forecasting types: proactive, retroactive, and interactive. Forecasting is viewed as a metacognitive component of supra-situational thinking and a component of the cognitive side of communication. Situational and supra- situational types of pedagogical thinking are shown to have different properties and different orientations toward forecasting activity; these properties and orientations determine the differentiation and hierarchization of these types of thinking. It was discovered that the metacognitive properties of supra-situational thinking are achieved through a high degree of integration of all basic forecasting qualities (analyticity, depth, awareness, flexibility, prospectiveness, and validity).
The efficiency of our devised and tested program aimed at perfecting PPT is evident in the dynamics of its objective and subjective properties (an increased level of suprasituativity of thinking among the program participants and the participants’ subjective evaluations of transformation in coping with difficulties in conflict situations). The formation of supra-situational thinking—in particular, of components such as forecasting (in both a narrow and a broad context)—is closely connected with envisaging prospects, including those for one’s own professional and personality development.
Keywords: metacognition, metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive activity, forecasting, supra-situativity of professional thinking
About the authors: Kashapov, Mergalуаs M. / Serafimovich, Irina V. / Poshekhonova, Yulia V.
Available Online: 03.01.2017
Ilyushin L.S., Azbel A.A. (2017). The modern Russian teacher: Studying awareness with the use of the semi-structured interview. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 49-66.This research is based on the ideas of Humanistic-Existential Psychology, a positive approach to personal growth, and modern educational concepts concerning the dynamics of professional and social identity in the stratum of secondary and primary school teachers. The goal of the study is to get an objective picture of the professional and personal changes among Russian teachers under the conditions of school modernization. We offer a detailed model of the semi-structured interview with modern teachers, in combination with observation. The interview consists of 63 questions divided into 9 topics, and deals with issues related to what their professional activities mean to the teachers; the teachers’ evaluation of professional dynamics; their attitude toward various aspects of professional life; and their general world outlook and values. We also briefly describe a pre-interview “warm-up” strategy. This stage of the research resulted in the successful pilot use of the research methodology, and data sufficient to evaluate the initial trends of the analysis of all the data. The study’s main conclusions concern the observation technique, which offers a significant increase in the potential of the interview method, mainly through providing the ability to interpret non-verbal reactions, the level of openness, and the teacher’s trust in the dialogue. Moreover, we must note that, when we asked teachers to answer complicated written questions, their answers, judgments, and arguments varied greatly, regardless of their professional and personal characteristics (employment history, qualification category, the subject they teach, type of school, etc.)
Keywords: awareness, personal meaning of professional activities, semi-structured interview, modern Russian teacher
About the authors: Ilyushin, Leonid S. / Azbel, Anastasia A.
Available Online: 03.01.2017
Karpov A.A., Karpov A.V., Karabushchenko N.B., Ivashchenko A.V. (2017). The interconnection of learning ability and the organization of metacognitive processes and traits of personality. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 67-79.Patterns of the relationship between the development of learning ability as one of the general abilities and metacognitive traits of personality are considered in the article. The necessity of appeal to this issue arises from the peculiarities of the current state of research in the theory of abilities and modern metacognitivism. Despite the ever-increasing number of studies in the field of general abilities and learning ability in particular and in the field of metacognitive processes of the personality, the possible interconnection of this class of processes and the level of learning ability and, therefore, the interpretation of this interconnection are rarely considered. To date these crucial areas are not in sufficient contact with each other. The purpose of this study is to identify and interpret the possible relationship of the level of learning ability with metacognitive processes and qualities of the individual and their organization. The research procedure was based on a comparison of the individual measures of the development of learning ability as a general ability with the diagnostics of the main parameters of the metacognitive sphere of personality, including features of its organization and implementation in relation to the methodology of structural-psychological analysis. This procedure is based on the determination of matrices of intercorrelation and the subsequent interpretation of correlograms of the metacognitive parameters of a person. The main result is that there exists a mutual dependence of characteristics of the level of learning ability and basic parameters of the metacognitive sphere of personality (metacognitive processes and traits). This dependence lies in the fact that an increase in the level of development of learning ability increases the intensity of separate metacognitive personal qualities and the general level of their structural organization. An interpretation of the data is presented. According to it, learning ability, as a significant factor in the level of development of metacognitive processes and personality traits, acquires an additional and quite powerful resource to enhance at the same time its own level because of the organization of these processes and traits.
Keywords: metacognitive processes, structural organization, learning ability, reflexivity, metaprocesses, integration of structures, dependence, resource approach
About the authors: Karpov, Anatoly V. / Karpov, Alexander A. / Karabushchenko, Natalia B. / Ivashchenko, Aleksandr V.
Available Online: 03.01.2017
Solovieva Yu., Quintanar L. (2016). The zone of proximal development during assessment of intellectual development in pre-school children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 123-137.
The zone of proximal development is a well-known and frequently referenced term within cultural historical psychology. Nevertheless, it is rarely used in the concrete practice of assessing intellectual development. The majority of proposals for such assessment are based on a behavioral and psychometric conception of development. This study presents a Scheme for Evaluation of Intellectual Development based on the concept of the zone of proximal development and on gradual intellectual development. The Scheme was applied to 160 Mexican pre-school children from rural, suburban, official, and private kindergartens. The Scheme permitted us to determine the zone of proximal development by evaluating the children’s level of external orientation during the solution of new intellectual tasks. Three levels of orientation through external help were established. The results showed that the majority of children from all groups managed to fulfil new tasks after receiving external help, which indicated the existence of their zone of proximal development. Differences were detected in the use of the level of help in all groups. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the level of helping received, the degree of fulfilment of the task, and the children’s socio-cultural group. The results permitted us to establish more precisely the zone of proximal development at pre-school age. We discuss how the concept of the zone of proximal development might be used in concrete psychological practice and research, instead of being only a well-known term at a declarative level.
Keywords: intellectual development, zone of proximal development, level of development, preschool development, assessment of intellect, assessment of development, intellectual actions
About the authors: Solovieva, Yulia / Quintanar, Luis Rojas
Available Online: 12.01.2016
Sobkin V. S., Veraksa A. N., Bukhalenkova D. A., Fedotova A. V., Khalutina U. A., Yakupova V. A. (2016). The connection of socio-demographic factors and child-parent relationships to the psychological aspects of children’s development. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 106-122.
Preschool childhood is a time of rapid development. During this period a child`s interaction with significant adults plays a very important role. The parent, as a mediator, defines the “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky, 1984). The common assumption is that to determine a parent’s position, it is important to acknowledge both socio-demographic factors and the parameters which define the socio-psychological aspects of parent-child relationship. Hence, the type of research where a child’s psychological development is studied in the context of the socio-demographic and socio-psychological factors which determine the social situation of development, is very promising.
Based on our previous research (Sobkin, Marich, 2002; Cheie, Veraksa, 2015), a program of experimental research intended to determine the interconnections between the socio-demographic and socio-psychological parameters of parent-child relationships, and the level of a child’s psychic development, was designed. The research was based upon the material obtained through testing 59 children between 5 and 7 years old with specially collected psychological testing methods (Veraksa A.N. etc), as well as from the results of a special sociological questionnaire presented to their mothers (Sobkin V.S. etc). The research was carried out in 2014-2015 in municipal kindergartens of Moscow.
Among the socio-demographic factors analyzed, the most significant results were related to the child’s gender, the family structure, and the mother’s education. Thus, boys showed higher results on visual memory tests, and girls scored better on tests for self-control and social intelligence (higher ability to detect the reason for someone else’s negative emotions). Children from single-parent families had better results on verbal memory tests, but scored lower on those for self-control. Also they had less ability for decentration. The differences in mothers’ educational levels influenced the number and intensity of children’s fears, as well as their inclinations to avoid fearsome situations.
The analysis of features of the parenting position (such as attitude toward one’s future, positive/negative emotional state during the interaction with the child, authoritative/ democratic approach to upbringing) revealed two different strategies which children used to perform executive tasks.
Thus, the present research showed a significant degree of essential connections between socio-demographic factors and parent-child relationships to the specifics of a child’s mental development.
Keywords: child development, preschool age, social situation of development, parentchild relationships, executive functions, social intelligence
About the authors: Sobkin, Vladimir S. / Veraksa, Aleksandr N. / Yakupova, Vera A. / Bukhalenkova, Darya A. / Fedotova, Aleksandra V. / Khalutina, Ulia A.
Available Online: 12.01.2016
Bayanova L. F., Tsivilskaya E. A., Bayramyan R. M., Chulyukin K. S. (2016). A cultural congruence test for primary school students. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 94-105.
The study presented in this article relies on the principles of the cultural-historical theory, which defines cultural impact as the main driving force behind psychological development. Based on the assumption that culture is a set of normative situations, the study identifies rules that are typical for primary school students in big Russian cities. These rules are grouped into what we refer to as factors of cultural compliance, which ultimately can be seen as indicators of pupils’ cultural congruence. In specifying the cultural congruence of primary school students, we take into account not only the rules of school life but also the whole range of stable rules for children 7- to 10-years-old. Researchers at the Psychology Institute of the Higher University of the Chinese Academy of Science (Wang, Zhu, & Shi, 2011) call such rules usual or contextually usual. We include rules that govern the behavior of children who have cultural differences, so in this article we are talking about the rules that are typical for children of this age in Russia.
The goal of the study was to develop a test to diagnose the level of cultural congruence. The test was exposed to psychometric evaluation for validity, reliability, and discriminatory power. Factor analysis by means of varimax rotation provided for calibration of the rules by consolidating them into factors. These factors underpin the test and include the categories social interaction, academic competence, regulation, obedience, self-service, and self-control. In accordance with the principles employed in psychology, the factors confirm the construct validity of the test in relation to children’s development when they are between 7 and 10 years old. The study confirms that learning is the main activity at this age by introducing a factor that brings together rules inherent in normative situations in the education process. The social setting for psychological development, viewed as a specific relationship between a child at the given age and the environment, is determined by the child’s interaction with an adult. The factor of obedience is the key parameter for children of the age under consideration. New at this age are arbitrariness, self-regulation, self-analysis, and an internal action plan. Self-control is also conceptually linked to these factors.
The study offers a new look at the cultural determination of psychological development in ontogenesis. Validated in the course of the investigations, the test can be used to diagnose cultural congruence — that is, the compliance of a primary school student with rules inherent in normative situations.
Keywords: primary school student, cultural congruence, normative situation, validity, reliability, discriminatory power
About the authors: Bayanova, Larisa F. / Tsivilskaya, Ekaterina A. / Bayramyan, Roksana M. / Chulyukin, Kirill S.
Available Online: 12.01.2016
Gorchakova O. Yu., Matsuta V. V., Bogomaz S. A. (2016). Intellectual and personality factors in the achievement of high exam effectiveness in first-year Russian university students. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 217-232.
The goals set forth in regulatory documents for the development of Russian education presuppose quantitative evaluation of factors and conditions that ensure students’ achievement of high competence, personality development, and self-realization. Evaluation of intellectual and personality characteristics of first-year university students and study of the relationship among these characteristics thus become important tasks.
The research objective was to evaluate relationships among social and abstractlogical types of intelligence, personality characteristics, and exam effectiveness (performance).
The study sample was made up of 900 first-year university students (55.2% female and 44.8% male) from Tomsk State University who filled in paper-and-pencil forms in Russian: The Evaluation of Choice in Conflict Situations Questionnaire, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, the Self-Organization of Activity, the Reflexivity Type Assessment Test, the Self-Determination Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the World Assumptions Scale. Scores on the Unified National Examination in Mathematics (UNE in Mathematics) and the first exam results at the university were used to measure academic performance. The data were statistically processed using descriptive analysis, correlation analysis, and factor analysis.
The preference for compromising and collaborating strategies indicates a high level of social intelligence and contributes to socio-psychological adaptation of young people to conditions of university education that are new to them, which require greater independence and activity. Social intelligence and abstract-logical intelligence are relatively independent intelligence types.
Social intelligence and personality characteristics are not determinants of scores on the UNE in Mathematics. Probably the process of educating students in mathematics in the graduating classes of Russian secondary schools is replaced by training to solve problems on the UNE, so that students’ individual characteristics in preparation for the test are no longer factors that influence exam effectiveness. A disparity between social and abstract-logical types of intelligence is accompanied by low academic effectiveness. Proportional development of social and abstract-logical types of intelligence may be an important factor in achieving high academic effectiveness.
Keywords: social intelligence, abstract-logical intelligence, academic achievement, personality characteristics, higher professional education
About the authors: Gorchakova, Olesya Yu. / Matsuta, Valeria V. / Bogomaz, Sergey A.
Available Online: 09.30.2016
Kulikova T. I. (2016). Pilot research on a pupil’s psychological safety in the multicultural educational environment. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 203-216.
In the modern world, the environment of any educational institution represents a spectrum of ethnic groups and subcultures: a multicultural educational environment. Pupils who are aware of their national identity often demonstrate intolerance toward students of other nationalities, which threatens pupils’ psychological safety. In this article, we present the results of pilot research examining the level of a pupil’s psychological safety in the multicultural educational environment and identifying the criteria that influence a pupil’s psychological safety. The research sample comprised 127 pupils aged 13–14 years from different schools living in various places that differed by the type of settlement, industrial development and level of science and culture. We isolated the following criteria for a pupil’s psychological safety in the multicultural educational environment: satisfaction with the educational environment, protection from psychological abuse and self-confidence. According to pupils, the essential characteristics of safety in the educational environment, regardless of school category and type, are being able to ask for help, protection of personal dignity, interactions with other students, and self-respect.
Empirical data reveal the current status of the psychological safety of the entire sample group (n = 127) and compare indices of psychological safety in the educational institutions under study.
Analysis of the results of our research indicates that protecting a pupil’s personality in the multicultural educational environment has the greatest influence on his/her psychological safety. In addition, a comfortable psychological atmosphere, mutual aid and support of pupils and low levels of classmates’ and coevals’ aggression positively influence the protection experience.
Keywords: multicultural education, educational environment, psychological safety
About the authors: Kulikova, Tatyana I.
Available Online: 09.30.2016
Dontsov A. I., Perelygina E. B. (2016). Cognitive and value parameters of students’ perceptions of the effects of psychoactive substances. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 188-202.
This article sets forth the main results of a study analyzing attitudes toward psychoactivesubstance (PAS) effects. These findings demonstrate the conditionality of social, historic, and cultural views of PAS effects. Despite the threat posed by increasing high school and university students’ drug involvement, exploration of this phenomenon in the format of scientific discourse has been limited so far.
In 2014–2015, in Yekaterinburg, Moscow, and Krasnoyarsk a survey to evaluate perceptions of high school and university students about PAS effects was conducted (289 respondents, aged 16–22).The methods used included the semantic differential (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test modified by A.G. Shmelyov), a modified version of the Rokeach Value Survey, word associations, and content analysis.
The use of psychoactive substances is a specific social practice emerging in a certain social context that includes both drug-addicted and PAS-free young people. Examination of the factors affecting the formation of views about PAS effects and the dynamics of youth values is possible by using a bio-psycho-socio paradigm for performing a complex analysis of cognitive, behavioral, and value parameters.
As documented in the respondents’ perceptions, distinctive features that are characteristic of drug addicts and that are seen in their behavior area loss of control over behavior, emotions, and volition; changes in value systems; and a tendency to develop a manipulative communication style.
Within the system of their social perceptions the respondents endowed drug-addicted persons with pronounced negative characteristics (“aggressiveness,” “addiction,” “stupidity,” “light-mindedness”). Still, they stated that drug abusers are capable of being active, decisive, cheerful, generous, and flexible. The value analysis demonstrated that terminal values appreciated by the school and university students included health, true friends, love, happy family life, active life, and self-development. Receiving pleasure through methamphetamine intake and a burst of energy through PAS intake were considered worthless even though the survey demonstrated the respondents’ use of psychoactive substances.
Available Online: 09.30.2016
Denisenkova N. S., Nisskaya A. K. (2016). The role of teacher-child interaction in promoting peer communication. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 173-187.
It is well-known that communication is the main source and necessity of human development and activity. It promotes social relationships, self-image and a wide range of cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Preschoolers communicate both with their peers and adults. It is traditionally assumed that peer communication greatly depends on the teacher-child interaction, leading role of the adult, and the child’s own activity, which are the main elements of the Russian preprimary education system.
Changes in social situations, reductions in available play time, greater engagement of children in activities and many other factors can affect modern preschoolers’ peer communication. Therefore, the effect of teacher-directed and child-directed teacherchild interactions on preschoolers’ peer communication important to study.
The following methods were applied: peer-communication observation, the behavioral tests ‘Magic room’ and ‘Mosaic’, and the sociometric procedure ‘Two houses’. The sample included 49 Moscow preprimary students aged 4 to 6 year old (25 girls and 24 boys).
The research proved that preschoolers showed better results in child-directed interactions, such as playing skills, compared with a similar situation in which the children were directed by the teachers. Additionally, the level of proactiveness, communication success, conflict resolution, prosocial behavior and emotional response to peer influence did not differ among children.
Thus, the child-directed approach is more beneficial to preschoolers’ communication development than a teacher-directed approach.
Keywords: teacher-child interaction, preschoolers’ peer-communication, peer-communication components, preprimary education
About the authors: Denisenkova, Natalia S. / Nisskaya, Anastasia K.
Available Online: 09.30.2016
Baeva I. A., Zinchenko Yu. P., Laptev V. V. (2016). Psychological resources of modern Russian adolescents’ resilience to violence in the educational environment. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 159-172.
Determination of the personality’s psychological resources that ensure its resilience to negative effects of the social environment is a priority problem in modern society, science, and education, since we currently see a sharp increase in the number of factors that affect psychological hardiness and security. One of these is intensification of violent and aggressive forms of interaction in educational institutions. Such manifestations are especially dangerous in schools, since, by virtue of their age-specific features, students are the most vulnerable and they subsequently translate the acquired values and behaviors to society as a whole. The goal of this empirical study was to identify teenagers’ psychological resources that determine their resilience to various forms of psychological violence in the educational environment. The study covered four St. Petersburg high schools, with 437 teenagers aged from 16.5 to 17 (189 boys and 248 girls). A questionnaire was developed to divide the subjects into groups with high and low levels of protection (security) against psychological violence in the educational environment. The questionnaire lists forms of psychological violence in the educational environment (identified by theoretical review) that can occur in interpersonal communication between peers and between teachers and students. The respondents evaluated each item of the questionnaire in accordance with the proposed scale of frequency with which each form of violence occurred. Theoretical analysis determined that psychological violence is traumatic for the adolescent personality’s cognitive, emotional, and behavioral spheres. The teenagers’ psychological resources of resilience to violence in the educational environment were identified with the aid of psychodiagnostic methods addressing each of them. Our study allows us to conclude that the resources that ensure the teenager’s resilience to the negative effect of psychological violence in the educational environment are: satisfaction with oneself, accepting oneself as a personality with positive and socially desirable characteristics; high level of self-control, well- developed ability to behave in an acceptable way whatever the circumstances; openness and goodwill, self-confidence; perception of the surrounding world as friendly and generous, which gives rise to friendly behavior; holistic perception of the world, experiencing the present moment in one’s life in its entirety, striving for personal development and self-improvement; independence of values and behavior from external factors; significance of such values as achievement, self-development, and high financial position, in combination with a priority on learning and education; explanation as a typical mechanism of psychological protection, search for a reasonable basis for justifying behavior and actions as well as impulsive acts; low level of anxiety, aggressiveness, and rigidity. The results obtained can be useful for researching the resource-oriented approach to psychology, and also for the development of follow-up techniques for ensuring the safety of the educational environment, preventing all forms of violence in interpersonal interaction between students and teachers.
Keywords: psychological resources, resilience of the individual, psychological violence, educational environment
About the authors: Baeva, Irina A. / Zinchenko, Yury P. / Laptev, Vladimir V.
Available Online: 09.30.2016
Symanyuk E. E., Pecherkina A. A. (2016). Psychological predictors of inhibition development in educational environments. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 127-140.
This article examines psychological predictors of inhibition in educational environments as well as various aspects of pedagogical communication, including facilitation, which is aimed at enhancing educational effectiveness and developing students by means of using a particular communication style and the teacher’s personality. The need to study inhibition (the deterioration of teacher-children interactions; the negation of a student’s individuality; the inability to understand and accept students’ viewpoints; teacher-provoked conflicts; and emotional callousness) is substantiated. The essence of psychological predictors as independent variables, changes in which lead to changes in other dependent variables, allowing the prediction of inhibition development, is explained.
The research objective was to identify psychological predictors of the development of inhibition in pedagogical communication.
An empirical study was conducted using standardized techniques for diagnosing communicative attitudes (V. Boyko), developing general communicative tolerance (V. Boyko), identifying aggressiveness (A. Asinger), identifying the level of empathy (V. Boyko), and identifying the degree of pedagogical inhibition (L. Polosova). The sample contained 375 teachers from Yekaterinburg educational institutions, with participant selection made using stratified sampling.
The teacher’s personality features (a negative communicative attitude, low communicative tolerance and empathy, and higher levels of aggression) were shown to be key predictors of inhibition, which itself was found to depend on the length of teaching experience. At the beginning of one’s professional teaching career, the level of inhibition is minimal. However, the level of inhibition reaches its maximum level after 5-10 years of teaching, and after 20 years, there is a sharp decrease in the level of inhibition.
The conclusion of this study stresses the importance of developing strategies to prevent and correct inhibition, which is especially essential for school teachers with 5-10 years of experience.
Keywords: pedagogical communication, inhibition, facilitation, educational environment, psychological predictors of development
About the authors: Symanyuk, Elvira E. / Pecherkina, Anna A.
Available Online: 09.30.2016
Solovieva Y., Rosas-Rivera Y., Quintanar-Rojas L. (2016). Problem solution as a guided activity with Mexican schoolchildren. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 57-75.
The goal of the present study was to describe the organization of a guided activity for problem solution in primary school. The method, which was applied to mathematical problems, allowed us to propose a specific orientation for the proper solution of arithmetic problems by pupils. The study was based on the activity-theory approach applied to the process of teaching and learning. It was carried out with pupils in the second grade of a private school in the city of Puebla (Mexico). The method was used in the classroom during 30 school sessions of 1 hour per day. The methodology of formative experiment was used in the study. Qualitative analysis of the pedagogical process of teaching and learning was conducted. The results show that, after participation in the formative process, the schoolchildren became able to identify essential elements, data, and all relationships among them in order to solve mathematical problems. At the end of the program the verbal external level was raised for the process of orientation and the solution of problems together with the ability to use logarithms independently. We conclude that orientation, as a guided form of activity in primary school, is essential for the development of the ability to analyze problems.
Keywords: problem solution, learning of mathematics, teaching methods, school age, orientation in mathematics, conceptual learning
About the authors: Solovieva, Yulia / Rosas-Rivera, Yolanda / Quintanar-Rojas, Luis
Available Online: 09.30.2016
Shen C., Miele D. B., Vasilyeva M. (2016). The relation between college students’ academic mindsets and their persistence during math problem solving. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 38-56.
The present study examined the extent to which college students’ academic mindsets predicted their persistence when solving challenging math problems. The study included an experimental manipulation, in which participants initially received either an easy or a difficult arithmetic task. Following the manipulation, all participants solved two target math problems: one that was solvable but very hard and another that was unsolvable.
Time spent attempting to solve each problem served as a measure of persistence. Results showed the predicted pattern for the solvable target problem, but not for the unsolvable problem. That is, for the solvable problem, the more of a fixed mindset participants had, the less persistent they were after completing a relatively difficult arithmetic task than after completing an easy task. The results suggest that, for certain types of math problems, students’ persistence may vary as a function of academic mindset and previous experiences of math success or failure.
Available Online: 09.30.2016
Kholodnaya M. A., Gelfman E. G. (2016). Development-focused educational texts as a basis for learners’ intellectual development in studying mathematics (DET technology). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(3), 24-37.
The article discusses an innovative teaching technology that uses development-focused educational texts (DET Technology) to stimulate school pupils’ intellectual development in grades 5 to 9. It describes the psychological and psychodidactic framework of DET Technology. Development-focused educational texts are distinctive in that they use a framework of academic mathematical knowledge to build up the key components of pupils’ mental experience (cognitive, conceptual, metacognitive, and intentional). Such texts also provide the conditions for the development and usage of students’ personal learning styles. The article outlines the psychodidactic types of development-focused educational texts and the requirements that the psychodidactics proposes for educational texts.
Keywords: psychodidactics, intellectual development, development-focused educational text, mental experience, DET technology
About the authors: Kholodnaya, Marina A.
Available Online: 09.30.2016
Verbitskaya, L.A., Malykh, S.B., Zinchenko, Yu.P., Tikhomirova, T.N. (2015). Cognitive predictors of success in learning Russian. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 91-100.
This study examines the role of cognitive characteristics in the success in learning Russian, assessed through teachers’ grades and test scores on standardized state exams.
This paper examines the relationship between cognitive characteristics, such as nonverbal intelligence, working memory and speed of information processing, and the results of the Unified State Exam for 11th grade students, the Basic State Exam for 9th grade students and the traditional assessment of Russian language learning.
This study involved students in the 9th and 11th grades from four educational institutions in the Moscow and St. Petersburg regions; 427 students were studying in the 9th grade (50.3% were boys) and 398 students were studying in the 11th grade (44.8% were boys).
This study concluded that expert assessment of Russian language learning is more associated with successful test scores on the Unified State Exam (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) than with the results of the Basic State Exam (r = 0.46, р < 0.01).
This study showed that at the lower and upper levels of secondary education, nonverbal intelligence is a significant predictor of success in learning the Russian language according to expert estimates. In addition, we found differences in the relationship between cognitive performance and success in learning the Russian language as assessed by tests. Nonverbal intelligence contributes significantly to individual differences in scores for the Unified State Exam in Russian, while the contribution of cognitive characteristics on the Basic State Exam is not statistically significant.
Keywords: nonverbal intelligence, cognitive characteristics, success in learning Russian, Unified State Exam, State Final Examination, annual assessment
About the authors: Malykh, Sergey B. / Zinchenko, Yury P. / Tikhomirova, Tatiana N. / Verbitskaya, Ludmila A.
Available Online: 12.30.2015
Sobkin, V. S., Lykova, T. A. (2015). Sociometric status of Theatre College students and its relation to their personal characteristics and educational activitie. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 155-166.
This article presents the results of a study of sociometric status and its relation to personal characteristics and educational activities conducted on 96 first-year and 52 second-year students at the Moscow Theatre College. The sociometric study included three sets of questions combining the everyday life and communication of a student: educational activities, leadership and interpersonal communication. To determine the diagnostics of personality characteristics, Cattell’s multiple-factor personality questionnaire 16 PF was used.
The comparative analysis of the group unity sociometric index has shown that there is more mutuality in the choices dealing with interpersonal communication than in the choices dealing with professional activities. The grades that teachers give in actor training appear as a steady focus that determines the degree of leadership/reject not only in the professional but also in the social and interpersonal spheres. The high level of motivation (energy and determination) captured by Cattell’s factor test Q4 is one of the most significant qualities that determines the number of choices in various spheres of student activity (mastering the profession, leadership qualities and interpersonal communication).
Keywords: sociometric status, actor’s talent, personal characteristics, psychology of the actor, professional education
About the authors: Sobkin, Vladimir S. / Lykova, Tatyana A.
Available Online: 12.30.2015
Morosanova V.I., Fomina T.G., Bondarenko I.N. (2015). Academic achievement: Intelligence, regulatory, and cognitive predictors. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 136-157.
Using the results of two empirical studies (with different samples and academic subjects), our research was aimed at discovering the significant role of conscious self-regulation, intelligence, and cognitive features in predicting optimal academic achievement. The sample consisted of 406 students (aged 14-16) in the 8th to 11th grades of the Russian formal education system. Conscious self-regulation together with intelligence and cognitive abilities was determined to be a significant predictor of academic success. The Study 1 results revealed that the general level of self-regulation of learning activity and certain regulatory features were significant predictors of different types of mathematical achievements: academic grades, scores on exams, mathematical fluency, as well as solving logical mathematical problems and equations. The present study is the first to show the mediating role of self-regulation in relation to intelligence, cognitive features, and academic success. Study 2 found evidence that conscious self-regulation and intelligence can predict academic achievement in the humanities, mathematics, and natural sciences... At the same time, this determination has its peculiarities in particular variables of intelligence and certain self-regulation processes depending on the substantive characteristics of the academic subjects. Regression models of academic success in the humanities identified verbal intelligence associated with vocabulary as highly significant and a definitive requirement for success in these subjects. Study 1 and Study 2 showed that the only significant predictors of success in algebra and geometry were quantitative- relations intelligence and spatial intelligence. The implications of these findings for investigating predictors of academic achievement are discussed.
Keywords: conscious self-regulation, intelligence, cognitive features, gifted students, academic achievement
About the authors: Morosanova, Varvara I. / Fomina, Tatiana.G. / Bondarenko, Irina N.
Available Online: 09.30.2015
Kulikova T.I., Maliy D.V. (2015). The correlation between a passion for computer games and the school performance of younger schoolchildren. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 124-136.
Today computer games occupy a significant place in children’s lives and fundamentally affect the process of the formation and development of their personalities. A number of present-day researchers assert that computer games have a developmental effect on players. Others share the point of view that computer games have negative effects on the cognitive and emotional spheres of a child and claim that children with low self-esteem who neglect their schoolwork and have difficulties in communication are particularly passionate about computer games. This article reviews theoretical and experimental pedagogical and psychological studies of the nature of the correlation between a passion for computer games and the school performance of younger schoolchildren. Our analysis of foreign and Russian psychology studies regarding the problem of playing activities mediated by information and computer technologies allowed us to single out the main criteria for children’s passion for computer games and school performance. This article presents the results of a pilot study of the nature of the correlation between a passion for computer games and the school performance of younger schoolchildren. The research involved 32 pupils (12 girls and 20 boys) aged 10-11 years in the 4th grade. The general hypothesis was that there are divergent correlations between the passion of younger schoolchildren for computer games and their school performance. A questionnaire survey administered to the pupils allowed us to obtain information about the amount of time they devoted to computer games, their preferences for computer-game genres, and the extent of their passion for games. To determine the level of school performance we analyzed class registers. To establish the correlation between a passion for computer games and the school performance of younger schoolchildren, as well as to determine the effect of a passion for computer games on the personal qualities of the children, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r-Pearson) was used. Analysis of the results of the study indicates that there is a correlation between computer-game genres and the school performance of younger schoolchildren, that a passion for role-playing computer games adversely affects the school performance of younger schoolchildren and that the time period for a single game determines the extent to which younger schoolchildren have the personality traits necessary to maintain educational motivation and interest in an academic subject.
Available Online: 09.30.2015
Veraksa N.E., Veraksa A.N. (2015). The technique of project activity: A new approach in Russian preschool. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 73-86.
Project activity has a long history of implementation in education (Kilpatrick, 1918). This article describes the approach to project activity that became widespread in preschool education in Russia in the late 1990s. This approach is based on the cultural-historical theory of Vygotsky (1978), Venger’s (1988) understanding of intellectual giftedness, as well as an understanding of project activity proposed by Leontiev (2000).
At the heart of project activity lies children’s exploration of the space of possibilities — that is, their search for action options that correspond to their personal motives and express their individuality. The main features of project activity are the problem situation to be presented to the child; the subjectivity of all its participants, including teachers; and its nature, which includes its social context.
Three main types of project activity are presented: research, creative, and normative; each has its own structure and value for children’s development. Examples of their implementation in preschool settings are provided. The impact of project activity on all its participants in preschool — children, teachers, parents — is addressed.
The article shows the effectiveness of project activity for educational work with both intellectually gifted and normally developing children.
Available Online: 06.30.2015
Singer E. (2015). Play and playfulness in early childhood education and care. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 27-35.
Play and playfulness are basic features in early childhood education. The elements of play are pleasure, a sense of freedom, and the co-construction of shared meaning through the use of rules or rhythms. Play and learning are closely related in early childhood. But when the focus on the educational benefits of play becomes too strong, the most essential feature of play is lost: children’s pleasure. Young children in group settings often have to adapt to the teachers’ demands related to security, hygiene, and social norms and values. But the playfulness of the teachers helps to overcome differences in power in the caregiver-child relationship and prevents young children from becoming overburdened with strict rules and group discipline. Play and playfulness are a resource of shared pleasure and creativity in learning processes.
Keywords: play theory, game theory, play curricula, day care, teacher-child relationship, very young children
About the authors: Singer, Elly
Available Online: 06.30.2015
Karlsson Lohmander M., Pramling Samuelsson I. (2015). Play and learning in early childhood education in Sweden. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 18-26.
Learning through play is a common phrase in early childhood education worldwide. Play is often put forward as the overarching principle for working with young children (Johnson, Christie, & Wardle, 2005). However, if we go beyond the rhetorical level and explore how “learning through play” and a “play-based curriculum” are understood and transformed into practice, we may find differences both within and between countries (Karlsson Lohmander & Pramling Samuelsson, 2014a, 2014b; Pramling Samuelsson & Fleer, 2009).
In this article we discuss the relationship between the concepts of play and learning and describe how they are enacted in everyday practice in early childhood education in Sweden. Starting with a brief presentation of the development of early childhood education, we then reflect on the challenges preschool teachers may encounter when trying to implement a new learning-oriented curriculum (National Agency for Education, 2011) and still trying to keep play as a central dimension in children’s everyday life in preschool.
Available Online: 06.30.2015
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