Zakharova L.N., Korobeynikova E.V. (2015). Personal characteristics of effective managers in organizational cultures of different types. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 69-84.
Since the 1990s Russian enterprises have been experiencing difficulties in transitioning to the market-innovative model of development. In the context of the current variability of management paradigms, we had an opportunity to study the internal and external regulators of organizational changes that are typical for a transitioning economy. Organizational culture (ОС) was studied as an external factor, while the personal traits of middle managers were viewed as internal factors because these managers are the agents for values and for behavior models, from corporate directives to “front-desk’ personnel. The goal of this theoretical and empirical study was to determine the personality traits of middle managers who were deemed effective by top management in companies transitioning to the market-innovative model of development in the context of different types of OCs.
During the preliminary stage, we conducted a comparative analysis of the requirements for the personal traits of middle managers who are working in stable conditions as well as in conditions of transfer to the market-innovative model of development, and we selected the relevant methods of empirical research. During the first stage of the empirical part of our research we defined a group of four enterprises with OCs of different types, identified their effective mid-level managers based on expert evaluations by the top leadership, and formed test groups. During the second stage we studied the personal characteristics of these managers.
We determined that the personality traits of managers deemed effective by their leaders form integral complexes, which in turn correlate in a certain way with the type of ОС of an enterprise. We identified four models of an effective manager: Mentor, Dictator, Innovator, and Businessman; these managers have varying degrees of work productivity, value priorities in the development of ОС, personal self-concepts, organizational leadership skills, and types of decision-making. It has been demonstrated that in the evaluation of the effectiveness of a manager of an enterprise, the correspondence of his/her personal traits to the characteristics of the ОС prevailing in the company is a more important factor than his/her agreement with the long-term goals of the company and, therefore, with the more promising type of ОС. This phenomenon opens a way to utilize such functions of ОС as internal integration but prevents external adaptation, which in turn becomes a serious psychological obstacle in the development of an enterprise.
The ОС of an enterprise has a powerful potential to attract employees with certain sets of psychological traits. Important tasks for the psychological support of the organizational development of an enterprise could be the development of a criteria database for the evaluation of managers and the development of a management talent pool based on the market-innovative vector of development of an enterprise with relevant changes in the ОС.
Keywords: transition economy, innovations, psychological regulation of activities, orga¬nizational culture, values, managers’ psychological characteristics
About the authors: Korobeynikova, Elena V. / Zakharova, Lyudmila N.
Available Online: 09.30.2015
Shingaev S.M. (2015). Pilot study of the psychological factors in the professional health of managers. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 47-61.
The main research problems and tasks of a new scientific field in Russia—the psychology of professional health — are formulated. A definition of professional health as the abilities of a person successfully to cope with the demands and requirements in a professional environment is offered. A psychological vision for professional health with four basic provisions is proposed. The aim of the research was to study the extent of the influence on the professional health of managers of such psychological factors as systems of values, stress in professional activity, individual and psychological features, strategies for overcoming stressful situations. Data are provided from research conducted in 2002-2012 on managers in Russian companies. Taking part in the research were 651 managers of various organizations in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Veliky Novgorod, and Kharkov. For collecting empirical material on methods of supervision, I used polls, tests, interviews, content analysis, self-reports of participants in training programs, and a method for forming the experiment. In addition I employed psychodiagnostic techniques intended for studying the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components of health, a technique for revealing the personal potentials (regulatory, communicative, intellectual) of the managers, and also my own techniques. The study positively correlated health with such values as having interesting work, having a happy family life, being financially secure, having an active life, and giving and receiving love. Connections between the behavioral manifestations of type A behavior and the managers’ values were revealed. The greatest negative impact on the managers was made by such factors of professional activity as an excessive workload, emotional pressure at work, difficulty in carrying out activity, and insufficient time. Health is important in the structure of the professional activity of managers; it acts as a strategic resource by providing at the least cost efficiency and reliability during all stages of a professional career.
Keywords: professional activity, professional health, managers, psychological factors, stress factors
About the authors: Shingaev, Sergey M.
Available Online: 09.30.2015
Zotova O.Yu., Karapetyan L.V. (2015). Occupation as a factor of personality subjective wellbeing. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 126-136.
This article examines personality subjective well-being and describes its psychological structure, general components and characteristics. An overview of foreign theories and studies on subjective well-being is presented. Correlations among related concepts such as happiness, life satisfaction and subjective well-being are also described. Subjective well-being is seen as a multivariate construction of a stable nature in mobile equilibrium. It is argued that a type of professional activity can have great importance and a positive impact on an individual’s social life, health, identity shaping and psychological wellness. This article’s findings are substantiated by the survey administered to 2229 respondents divided into groups according to their area of business: students, psychologists, doctors, teachers, engineering and technical staff, representatives of service industries, workers, military men, and prisoners. The descriptors identified two types of natures: positive, directed to a person’s inner world (happy, lucky, optimistic) and to the outer world (trustworthy, competent, successful), and negative (pessimistic, unhappy, envious). This division of nature type was categorized according to the participants’ subjective well-being index. Empirical evidence has shown that occupational specificity influences a person’s subjective well-being. A substantial difference was found in subjective well-being index of the respondents. A higher index is typical of students and military men. Educators and industrial intelligentsia also demonstrate an increased level of subjective well-being, whereas prisoners tend to have a low level of subjective well-being. The same low index is characteristic of servicing trade representatives and psychologists.
Available Online: 06.30.2015
Andrey V. Sidorenkov, Irina I. Sidorenkova (2013). Model of trust in work groups. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 164-176
A multi-dimensional model of trust in a small group has been developed and approved. This model includes two dimensions: trust levels (interpersonal trust, micro-group trust, group trust, trust between subgroups, trust between subgroups and group) and types of trust (activity-coping, information-influential and confidentially-protective trust). Each level of trust is manifested in three types, so there are fifteen varieties of trust. Two corresponding questionnaires were developed for the study. 347 persons from 32 work groups participated in the research. It was determined that in a small group there is an asymmetry of trust levels within the group. In particular, micro-group trust is demonstrated the most in comparison with other trust levels. There is also an asymmetry in the manifestation of interpersonal trust in a group structure. This is demonstrated by the fact that in informal subgroups, in comparison with a group as a whole, interpersonal confidential and performance trust is the most manifested. In a small group and in informal subgroups there are relationships between trust levels which have certain regularities.
Available Online: 12.15.2013
Anna B. Leonova, Tatyana A. Zlokazova, Anastasiya A. Kachina, Alla S. Kuznetsova (2013). Determinants of professional distortion development in medical personnel, teachers and psychologists, working in the industrial disaster zone. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(3), 132-149
This article presents research results regarding the determinants and individual predictors of professional distortions in the medical personnel, teachers, and psychologists who were involved in long-term programs of human relief assistance after a catastrophic accident at the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station. The research aim was to analyze the factors influencing the increase in and the accumulation of occupational stress in the groups investigated. The stress studied was caused by strong emotional tension in 3 months of intensive work after the accident. The extraordinary situation served as a challenge, a kind of “strength test” for individual adaptation, which led to the manifestation of extreme adaptation options (destructive and constructive forms) and allowed us to clarify the factors that contributed to their development. The research showed that, in this situation, psychological (in particular, emotional) resources and individual coping characteristics played a determinative role in professional adaptation.
Keywords: occupational stress, coping behavior, emotional intelligence, individual predictors, professional distortions, stress management
About the authors: Leonova, Anna B. / Zlokazova, Tatyana A. / Kachina, Anastasiya A. / Kuznetsova, Alla S.
Available Online: 12.15.2013
Takhir Yu. Bazarov, Yuri S. Shevchenko (2013) The executive leader in the postcrisis era. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 4-19
This article describes psychological challenges that executive leaders of companies face nowadays. The study of the social context is based on changes that took place with the development of information technologies. The analysis touches upon such phenomena as virtualization, involvement in the external sociocommunicative environment, and the emergence of multiple identity. It is suggested that in order to adapt to changing conditions one should follow the path of self-development—in particular, to develop attention, imagination, and willpower. In connection with the traits generally attributed to executive leaders, the article emphasizes self-adjustment; common sense as an integral part of intuition, emotions, and imagination; and the readiness to make choices in fifty-fifty situations.
Available Online: 11.11.2013
Kashapov M.M., Leybina A. V. (2009). Motivation of Professional Creative Thinking. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 585-602
The aim of this study was to reveal correlation between motivation and creative professional thinking. Four hundred and seventy-one Russians of different trades participated in the study. It was supposed that motivational structure and level of creative professional thinking were interrelated. The connection between motivational components and professional thinking was revealed. Tendencies of transition form situational level of thinking to oversituational one were determined. It was found out that motivational structure of workers with situational thinking was much more consistent than that of workers with oversituational thinking.
Keywords: creative professional thinking, motivation, values, motivation structure.
About the authors: Kashapov, Mergalуаs M.
Aksenovskaja L.N., Bazarov T.U. (2011). Managing the Organizational Culture: A Technological Issue. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 361-370
Organizational culture presents an interest for research and practice of social psychology. This article is intended to discuss the problem of managing the organizational structure on two levels that contain most topical problems: general methodological level and technological level. Organizational culture is a system with its distinct features that consists of units and sub-systems with their specific features. An organizational-culture system comprises several levels: leader’s personality level (as well as the personality level in general), level of executive team (as well as of a small group in general), level of organization in general (level of a large group).
Perelygina E.B. (2011). Corporate Identity as a Factor of Corporate Security. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 348-360
Forming-up of the corporate identity is based on cognitive, affective and conative elements of corporate culture. The group as an entity choosing goals and values ensures a certain response to standards and values of corporate culture within the parameters of its social responsibility. Corporate security as security of community and cooperation acts as a form of organizational and ethical approach to developing socially responsible attitude of government and business.
Keywords: corporate identity, corporate image, responsibility, corporate security.
About the authors: Perelygina, Elena B.
Leonova A.B., Kuznetsova A.S., Barabanshchikova V.V. (2010). Self-Regulation Training and Prevention of Negative Human Functional States at Work: Traditions and Recent Issues in Russian Applied Research. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 482- 507
The paper is devoted to consideration of self-regulation training that can be used in order to prevent a development of negative human functional states (HFS) in work environment. According to the well-developed in Russian work and organizational psychology traditions the effects of practical implementation of various self-regulation methods on job efficiency and worker's well-being are analyzed. The positive patterns of changes in HFS syndromes taken place as a result of prolonged courses of self-regulation training are described. It is shown that a successful acquisition of self-regulation skills strongly depends on (1) specificity of job content and (2) individual sensitivity to various relaxation techniques. These findings are useful for enhancing the quality of work-site stress management and health promotion programs.
Keywords: occupational stress, human functional state, self-regulation, stress management, relaxation effects, individual differences, health promotion programs
About the authors: Leonova, Anna B. / Kuznetsova, Alla S. / Barabanshchikova, Valentina V.
Kashapov M.M. (2010). Creative Thinking Training as a Means of Development of Conflict Competence of a Professional. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 463- 481
The psychological basis of creative thinking training as a means of development of conflict competence of a professional includes: in the first place, the knowledge of psychological nature of creative thinking of a professional; in the second place, recognition of above situational thinking as a leading quality in the structure of creative professional thinking; consideration of above situational thinking in the context of development of conflict competence of a professional, in the third place. In order to develop conflict competence, it is necessary to learn to get above the level of momentary requirements of a situation, to detect above situational problems, to set the goals, excessive from the point of view of the initial task. Professionals, thinking in terms of above situation, while analyzing a conflict situation, start to realize and actualize their own resources, which facilitates a creative way in problems resolving. It is the detection of above situational problems that forms the basis for creative thinking and is characterized by a set of key personal qualities necessary for his self-transformation as an agent.
Keywords: conflict competence, creative conflict resolution training, psychodiagnostics of metacognitive components of conflict competence, the analysis of cognitive characteristics of conflict interaction
About the authors: Kashapov, Mergalуаs M.
Bazarov T.Yu. (2010). Social Cognition. Practical Psychology of Management. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 452- 462
Management as a form of cognition implies gaining new experience and knowledge, particularly about oneself. Traditionally, the psychology of social cognition distinguishes between an object and a subject of cognition (i.e. the one who cognizes). The subject of cognition can represent both an individual and a social group. As consciousness and mentality of an individual changes in modern society, essential topics of social cognitive psychology assume new importance: society components are becoming inter-cognitive. There is a change in the structure of management relations within the management system that includes aims and functions, as well as the subject and object of management.
Keywords: social cognition, social change, management space, manager's self-concept, individual management concept, professional identity, managerial identity
About the authors: Bazarov, Tahir Y.
Ismagilova F.S., Mirolyubova G.S. (2012). Subjective Preferences of Criterion-Oriented Support of Professional Activities of Managers. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 359-368
This article deals with the results of a pilot research of a subjective system of activity criteria represented in professional experience of business managers from the Ural region. The authors investigate the question of changes in an individual criterionoriented system of assessing effectiveness of activities depending on a subject’s professional experience and his/her position. The cluster analysis helped to single out groups of criteria that underwent a preliminary quantitative and qualitative analysis. A complex interdisciplinary approach was used in this research.
Keywords: professional experience, a criterion-oriented support of professional activities of managers; assessment of professional activities effectiveness.
About the authors: Ismagilova, Fairuza S. / Mirolyubova, Galina S.
Strelkov Yu.K. (2012). Synchronization and Continuity of Action. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 347-358
Is there any future for the activity approach? Has it exhausted its potential yet? We suggest the scheme of “subject-action-object-surrounding world” instead of “subject-activity-object”. This scheme takes us beyond the limits of a singular action where the accent is laid on synchronization with one of the processes in the world around. The time coincidence is to be realized, and the subject foresees it. The subject referred to is a group of people performing a united action. Thus we oppose a singular action to interaction of individuals in cooperative action amidst processes taking place in the world around and within a variety of other actions. We found it useful to extend the concept of activity and to speak of the life-activity, embracing many vital processes of individuals or groups engaged in a certain activity.
Keywords: time, synchronization, action, humanitarian approach.
About the authors: Strelkov, Yuri K.
Filipieva T.V. (2012). Psychology of Flight Attendant’s Profession. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 335-346
The profession of a flight attendant appeared in aviation in the 1920s. Professional community of flight attendants is constantly growing with the growth of complexity of aviation technology, professional standards of passenger service and safety. The psychological scientific research was carried out by a psychologist who worked as a flight attendant. The study revealed the psychological content, demands, peculiarities in cabin crews’ labor. A job description was accomplished. Temporal and spatial characteristics, the main contradictions, unfavorable psychogenic and stress factors in labor were examined and described. Psychological profiles of a cabin attendant and of an air passenger were drawn up.
Keywords: flight attendant, labor, psychological content, profession, cabin crew, job description.
About the authors: Filipieva, Tatiana V.
Bazarov T.Yu. (2012). Social Psychology of Instability within Organizational Reality. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 271-288
Since modern organizations inevitably face constant changes in internal and external environment, can anything be done in order for the strategy of changes to become “proactive” and to prevent naturally determined crisis situations and recession? Featuring empirical data, the article discusses the possibility of sociopsychological research in the situation of instability. Among other aspects, there is suggested an answer to the question of whether social psychology can help a person to realize his/her identity in professional and organizational environments. Moreover, a number of fixed behavioral patterns observed in situations of changes are examined specifically.
Keywords: organizational changes, managerial identity, business play simulation exercises, ways of response to changes
About the authors: Bazarov, Tahir Y.