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Theories and approaches

Shadrikov V.D., Kurginyan S.S.. (2017). Propositions toward the development of a psychological theory of thought. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 211-224.

Thought is considered a psychological concept associated with an individual’s mental ex- istence. It is apparent that a great deal of research has been focused on thought as an area of study. however, there is no psychological theory of thought which provides an expla- nation for its nature and structural organization. So far, researchers have mainly looked at the ways this concept is expressed, rather than investigating what it actually is. In this study, however, based on studies of the functions of the psyche, mental processes, and the neurophysiological bases of mental activity, thought is identified as a need-emotion- intentional substance existing in the human being’s inner world. In keeping with this understanding of thought, the hypothesis that thought generation is caused by desire and experience (feeling and emotion) is put forward. An individual’s thought is linked to his behavior or motivation for activity, and is followed by an emotional experience. The process of thought generation is regarded through the mechanism of behavioral motiva- tion. The primary purpose of this mechanism is to define the qualities of the external objects that serve for need satisfaction and functionality in individuals. The ability to generate thoughts is a feature of thinking related to an individual’s mental ability or frame of mind. From this standpoint, a person’s mentality is considered to be the capacity of the individual to generate thoughts and work through thoughts. It is shown that the abil- ity to generate thoughts and establish relationships within a stream of consciousness is characteristic of human intelligence. Some basic propositions toward a development of a psychological theory of thought are introduced. 

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0115
Keywords:  mental processes, function of the psyche, substantial thought, thinking onto- logy, thought
About the authorsShadrikov, Vladimir D.  / Kurginyan Sergey S.

Available Online: 03.01.2017

Mazilov V.A., Kostrigin A.A. (2017). The work of V.A. Snegirev: An historical and psychological study. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 198-210.

In the history of psychology there are many scientists whose names and contributions have been forgotten. One poorly studied area in the history of psychology is the psychological views of theologians. Among these is Veniamin Alekseevich Snegirev, a psychologist and theologian at Kazan Theological Academy, whose contributions are not fully appreciated today. The authors identify V.A. Snegirev’s contribution to several fields of psychological science at the end of the 19th century: methodology, theory, general psychology, and the psychology of dreams. The research is based on archival materials, encyclopedia articles, reviews of the activity of Kazan Theological Academy in the 19th century, works of Snegirev and other researchers who have studied his contributions. The authors describe the scientist’s childhood, his student period, and work as a professor. his work at the Kazan Theological Academy and the University of Kazan is discussed in detail: he taught courses on psychology, logic, and metaphysics, was a member of the Academy Council, took part in the functioning of the library, was recognized with several awards and honors. Snegirev’s teaching activity is described by the recollections of his student, the famous philosopher Viktor I. Nesmelov. Snegirev considered psychology to be based in philosophy, because philosophical problems represent the content of human consciousness. A bibliography of Snegirev’s scientific works is provided. The psychological and philosophical views of the Russian scientist are signifi- cant: his main points are to recognize the object of science – the human being – as a “living person”, thinking, feeling, and exercising his will; and the rejection of the idea that a person can be reduced to a sum of mental phenomena. There are several common concepts in the works of Snegirev and European and American philosophers, such as Wilhelm Dilthey and William James. Snegirev participated in the international philosophical and scientific discus- sion, which underlines the importance of studying his work. 

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0114
Keywords:  history of psychology, biography, V.A. Snegirev, religious and philosophical psy- chology, Theological Academy of Kazan, V.I. Nesmelov, psychology of the living personality

Available Online: 03.01.2017

Tkhostov A. Sh. (2016). Prospect of development of L.S. Vygotsky’s ideas in clinical psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 205-2014.

This work is dedicated to the development of L.S. Vygotsky’s ideas in clinical psychology and the clarification of some basic points of the cultural-historical concept. The paper presents a thesis about the development of man in ontogeny as the result of his interaction with the cultural environment, which transforms natural mental functions into higher mental functions. This process can be attended by a whole range of psychopathologies. The issues discussed include voluntary regulation of higher mental functions, determination of the involuntariness and “post-voluntariness” of functions, the internalization of actions, the differentiation of affect and emotion (including as higher mental functions), the “cultural” socialization of non-mental functions (sex, sleep, excretion), and the discord between natural and “cultural” entities in a person. The basis for the ontological development of man is the genesis of “subjectness”, like all the forms of higher activity that emerge when encountering cultural restrictions and requirements causing specific mental disorders. The supposition is made that there are no significant restrictions to explaining either mental or non-mental functions with the cultural-historical approach. Recommendations for further research are suggested.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0415
Keywords:  cultural-historical concept, development in ontogeny, voluntary regulation, internalization, higher mental functions, a “cultural” body
About the authorsTkhostov, Alexander Sh.

Available Online: 12.01.2016

Ardila A. (2016). L.S. Vygotsky in the 21st century. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(4), 4-15.

Although Lev Vygotsky’s interpretation of human cognition was proposed almost one century ago, new scientific and technological advances have significantly supported many of his ideas and hypotheses. His cultural-historical theory of psychological processes, and his contributions to educational psychology, have continued growing without interruption. In this paper, three of Vygotsky’s hypotheses are examined in light of 21st century scientific developments:

  1. The influence of cultural factors on human cognition. A diversity of research studies in different countries has corroborated the crucial impact of culture on cognitive test performance; 
  2. The role of language in higher psychological processes. According to Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach, cognitive processes (“complex psychological processes”) are social in origin, but complex and hierarchical in their structure. Intrinsic to the systemic organization of higher cognitive processes is the engagement of external artifacts (objects, symbols, signs), which have an independent history of development within a culture; and 
  3. The hypothesis that thought and general complex cognition is associated with certain “inner speech.” Some contemporary neuroimaging studies (particularly PET and fMRI) analyzing “inner speech” have been carried out. These studies have attempted to find the areas of the brain involved in “inner speech.” These scientific advances significantly support Vygotsky’s interpretation of human cognition. It has been found that inner speech depends on activity in Broca’s area and related brain network activity in the left hemisphere. Hence, inner speech is closely related to grammar, language production, and executive functions.

Vygotsky’s important contribution to the understanding of psychological processes has stimulated, and continues to stimulate, a substantial amount of research in this area.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2016.0401
Keywords:  Vygotsky, cultural-historical psychology, literacy, inner speech, cognition
About the authorsArdila Alfredo

Available Online: 12.01.2016

Danina, M.M., Kiselnikova, N.V., Kuminskaya, E.A., Lavrova, E.A., Markova, S.V. (2015). Theoretical and empirical approaches to using films as a means to increase communication efficiency. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 23-34.

The theoretical framework of this analytic study is based on studies in the field of film perception. Films are considered as a communicative system that is encrypted in an ordered series of shots, and decoding proceeds during perception. The shots are the elements of a cinematic message that must be “read” by viewer. The objective of this work is to analyze the existing theoretical approaches to using films in psychotherapy and education. An original approach to film therapy that is based on teaching clients to use new communicative sets and psychotherapeutic patterns through watching films is presented. The article specifies the main emphasized points in theories of film therapy and education. It considers the specifics of film therapy in the process of increasing the effectiveness of communication. It discusses the advantages and limitations of the proposed method. The contemporary forms of film therapy and the formats of cinema clubs are criticized. The theoretical assumptions and empirical research that could be used as a basis for a method of developing effective communication by means of films are discussed. Our studies demonstrate that the usage of film therapy must include an educational stage for more effective and stable results. This means teaching viewers how to recognize certain psychotherapeutic and communicative patterns in the material of films, to practice the skill of finding as many examples as possible for each pattern and to transfer the acquired schemes of analyzing and recognizing patterns into one’s own life circumstances. The four stages of the film therapeutic process as well as the effects that are achieved at each stage are described in detail. In conclusion, the conditions under which the usage of the film therapy method would be the most effective are observed. Various properties of client groups and psychotherapeutic scenarios for using the method of active film therapy are described.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0402
Keywords:  film therapy, films, psychotherapy, communication system, effective communication
About the authorsDanina, Maria M. / Kiselnikova, Natalya V. / Kuminskaya, Eugeniya A. / Lavrova, Elena V.  / Markova, Svetlana V.

Available Online: 12.30.2015

Vorobieva, A.E., Akbarova, A.A. (2015). The analysis and perspectives of studying basic and special types of self-determination according to A.L. Zhuravlev’s and A.B. Kupreichenko’s concept. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 46-59.

An analysis of Russian and foreign ways of understanding the phenomenon of self-determination has been performed. It has been found that the concept of individual and group self-determination by A.L. Zhuravlev and A.B. Kupreichenko is the most developed in modern Russian psychological science. Using the concept as a basis, the conceptual schemes (made by A.E. Vorobieva and A.A. Akbarova) of studies of personal, moral, social and economic self-determination were considered as the examples of the basic and special types of self-determination. Moral self-determination was studied with questions about ideas of morality, moral strategies and personality orientation, attitude toward unethical phenomena, ability for self-regulation and emotional intellect. Social and economic self-determination were studied with questions that show one’s social level, satisfaction with economic and social status and their dynamics, a valuation of favorable circumstances for an increase of status and economic activity. Value and anti-value, spheres and forms of showing of social and living personality’s activity were also determined. Fundamental differences (variability, success criteria, implementation in behavior, a level of ability to control a process, the role of external factors) and similarities (successfulness, a formation level, a range, dynamics, conceptions, strategy, values, factors) between the components of the conceptual schemes of these types of selfdetermination were identified. The principles of studying (proportion of basic and specific types of self-determination, a display of resultative, procedural and formal-dynamic characteristics, consideration of factors of different levels) of basic and special types of self-determination were suggested.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0404
Keywords:  basic and special types of self-determination, social self-determination, economic self-determination, life self-determination, moral self-determination, structure and factors of self-determination
About the authorsVorobieva, Anastasia E. / Akbarova, Anastasia A.

Available Online: 12.30.2015

Solovieva Yu., Quintanar L. (2015). Qualitative syndrome analysis by neuropsychological assessment in preschoolers with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 112-124.

The basis of this article is A. R. Luria’s conception of the qualitative approach in neuropsychology. Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity is one of the most frequent clinical diagnoses given during preschool age. However, precise qualitative neuropsychological criteria for analysis of this clinical diagnosis do not exist and change from one approach to another. Our objective here is to propose such qualitative criteria for neuropsychological analysis of children with diagnoses of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity at preschool age. We follow clinical methodology that is traditional for historical and cultural neuropsychology and is an alternative for the psychometrical and cognitive approach. The methodology of the study was qualitative neuropsychological assessment of the syndrome followed by detailed consideration of the types of difficulties in each case. The study analyzes mistakes and typical examples of execution of the tasks of neuropsychological qualitative assessment by regular children and by children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. The results showed differences between these groups of children. The children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity made a lot of mistakes during assessments. Their difficulties are related to unfavorable conditions in the three functional brain blocks according to Luria’s conception. We conclude that “attention” cannot be considered the only or the main problem in children who receive this diagnosis by psychiatrists and neurologists.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0309
Keywords:  qualitative neuropsychology, process of attention, disorders of attention, neuropsychological assessment, child neuropsychology
About the authorsSolovieva, Yulia / Quintanar, Luis Rojas

Available Online: 09.30.2015

Kapustin S.A. (2015). An existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality in the works of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 4-17.

This is the second in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the previous article I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human beings and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients one toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients one toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, one-sided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormality of personality interpreted like that is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In this article I show that this criterion is implicitly present in the personality theories of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, although in more special cases. In the following articles I will show that this criterion is also implicitly present in the personality theories of Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0301
Keywords:  human nature, human essence, existential dichotomy, normal personality, abnormal personality
About the authorsKapustin, Sergey A.

Available Online: 09.30.2015

Kapustin S.A. (2015). An existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality in the works of Erich Fromm. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 87-98.

This is the first of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal on the position people with normal and abnormal personalities take in regard to so-called existential dichotomies. The main objective of this article is to propose a new, existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies, and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients one toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients one toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, one-sided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormal personality interpreted like this is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In the following three articles it will be shown that this criterion is also implicitly present in the theories of personality devised by Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2015.0208
Keywords:  human nature, human essence, existential dichotomy, normal personality, abnormal personality
About the authorsKapustin, Sergey A.

Available Online: 06.30.2015

Teixeira R. (2014). Reaching Conversation Through Play: A Qualitative Change of Activity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 114-125.

This article illustrates the process of reaching conversation in the case of Anna, a 10- year-old girl, in a countryside Portuguese primary school, through neuropsychological habilitation and psychotherapy. This case identifies the theoretical and methodological concepts from Vygotsky’s cultural historical conceptualization in psychotherapy practice. Vygotsky introduced a new form of thinking in psychology, the concept of play, as a cultural and relational tool on a child’s (consciousness) development. During psychotherapy, Anna progressed through the following stages: 1) not playing (deploying the toys, with no relations between them or awareness of social rules); 2) worldplay (building worlds using wooden blocks and other toys, establishing relations between the characters and their possessions); and 3) imaginary situation (with no toys). At the end of this process, she was able to talk about her issues, communicating in a more adaptive way, especially in a schooled society. When she reached conversation, Anna’s activity was also changed. Therefore, there was a qualitative change regarding her needs, motives and ways of acting and reacting to herself, others, and cultural tools or events.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0310
Keywords:  Vygotsky, play, activity, consciousness, language
About the authorsTeixeira, Rute Gonçalves

Available Online: 09.30.2014

Courela C., César M. (2014). Crafting a neo-Vygotskian approach to adult education in Portugal: Collaborative project work in an alternative curriculum. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 100-113.

Collaborative project work facilitates social interactions among peers and between them and their teachers. It allows students to work in their zone of proximal development (ZPD), promoting their knowledge appropriation. It empowers adult students, allowing them to express their voices and their cultures. Inter-empowerment mechanisms are part of this process, facilitating the internalization of intra-empowerment mechanisms. Both of them shape students’ life trajectories of participation (César, 2013a). This work is part of the Interaction and Knowledge (IK) project. During 12 years (1994/1995–2005/2006) we studied and promoted social interactions in formal educational scenarios. We assumed an interpretative paradigm and developed an action-research project (three-year alternative curriculum, 7th–9th grades) and a 10-year follow up. The participants were the seven students who completed this course, their teachers, and other educational and social agents. Data collecting instruments included observation, interviews, informal conversations, tasks inspired by projective techniques, students’ protocols, and documents. Data treatment and analysis were based on a narrative content analysis. The results are mainly focused on one student: Ernesto. His legitimate participation in this course facilitated his inclusion in school and in society. It promoted his socio-cognitive and emotional development and allowed him to internalize intra-empowerment mechanisms. This enabled him to improve his life trajectory of participation.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.039
Keywords:  inclusion, alternative curriculum, collaborative project work, life trajectory of participation, inter- and intra-empowerment mechanisms
About the authorsCourela, Conceição  / César, Margarida

Available Online: 09.30.2014

Karpova, N.L. (2014). Lev Vygotsky’s ideas in family group logopsychotherapy. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 90-99.

According to Lev Vygotsky’s theory, every bodily deficiency not only changes a person’s attitude to the world but also entails social consequences, which makes its social and psychological rehabilitation so important. The way in which problems of deformity compensation and supercompensation are solved, is largely determined by a patient`s motivation. The paper deals with stuttering (logoneurosis) as an extreme form of broken communication; it analyses the peculiarities of stutteres and their families, and the specific features of treating this defect; it also dwells on issues involving family co-participation in social rehabilitation. The multilayered system of family group logo psychotherapy - treatment of stuttering children, teenagers and adults - is based on Yu.B. Nekrasova’s method of group logopsychotherapy. It also employs non-traditional techniques: Nekrasova’s dynamic psycho-therapeutic diagnostics and biblio-, kinesi-, symbol-, video- and cinema therapies.

This system may serve as a model for forming motivational involvement and intragenic activity by patients and their relatives in social rehabilitation processes. The paper describes the levels and psychological structure of motivational involvement and mechanisms of its formation in logopsychotherapeutic processes. Motivational involvement is understood as a source of a subject’s intragenic (inner) activity, the paper maps out strategies to form intragenic activity. The family group logopsychotherapeutic techniques may also help optimize communication between parent and child, doctor and patient, teacher and pupil, professor and student.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0308
Keywords:  logoneurosis, motivation, social rehabilitation, family group logopsychotherapy, supercompensation
About the authorsKarpova, Nataliya L.

Available Online: 09.30.2014

Alves P.F. (2014).Vygotsky and Piaget: Scientific concepts. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 24-34.

Jean Piaget’s so-called biological perspective is often paired with the viewpoint of Lev Vygotsky when we speak of learning in humans. Both authors acknowledged the active role of children in the construction of knowledge. However, they differ in that, unlike Piaget, Vygotsky believed that the assimilation of new information does not have to wait for an appropriate level of development but must, on the contrary, produce that development through instruction; thus, cooperation between teacher and student promotes the development of higher psychological functions. The present research presents proof that school instruction is instrumental in this process. Samples of adults who had acquired distinct levels of schooling (from illiterates to university students) are differentiated experimentally through the use of four Piagetian cognitive problem-solving tasks created for adolescents and adults. The present research suggests that instructional level is the distinctive factor in the development of those problem-solving capacities that implicate higher psychological functions.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0303
Keywords:  Vygotsky, Piaget, learning, development, scientific concepts
About the authorsAlves, Pedro Ferreira

Available Online: 09.30.2014

Krichevets A.N. (2014). Vygotsky and intersubjectivity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 13-23.

Lev Vygotsky’s statement on the development of the higher psychological functions— from the interpsychological form to the intrapsychological form—is discussed in the article. I describe the changing of Vygotsky’s interest from nonverbal to verbal communication and his emphasis on verbal communication as an only kind of interpsychological function. I then analyze works that show the importance of nonverbal communication in this process. I raise the questions of what an interpsychological function is and who is its “owner.” I argue that immediate response to the behavior (verbal and nonverbal) of another person is a basis for the psychological functions of a child, and this basis continues to influence processes in later stages of human development, including adulthood. Thus, interpsychological function in the development of the child is inevitably connected with some kind of passivity in reactions to social stimulation.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0302
Keywords:  interpsychological and intrapsychological functions, ontogeny, intersubjectivity, communication, dialogue
About the authorsKrichevets, Anatoly N.

Available Online: 09.30.2014

Podolskiy A.I. (2014). “There is nothing so practical as a good theory”: How to let it work in practice (the case of Galperin’s theory). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(3), 4-12.

One of the most important and sharply discussed aspects of scientific knowledge is the problem of the possibility for practical applications and results. The application of psychological knowledge in different types of schooling, training, and instruction is a representative illustration of that problem’s current state. The aims of this paper are (1) to consider the possibilities and difficulties of such an application, (2) to analyze the reasons for both success and failure, and (3) to try to work out a path toward the construction of an applied theory to bridge the gap between psychological theory (in particular, learning and developmental psychology) and instructional practice. Specifically, this article considers practical applications of the fundamental psychological theory of Planned, Stage-by-Stage Formation of Mental Actions, or the PSFMA theory, by P. Galperin as the target case.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0301
Keywords:  psychological knowledge, practical application, formation of mental actions, mental models, internalization, applied model-based theory
About the authorsPodolskiy, Andrei I.

Available Online: 09.30.2014

Aleksandr Ye.Voiskounsky (2013). Psychology of computerization as a step towards the development of cyberpsychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 150-159

The need for the psychology of computerization as a separate psychological discipline was suggested by Prof. Oleg K. Tikhomirov in mid-1980s. First he tried to initiate this discipline as a by-product of his experiments in the psychology of thinking, which formed the basis of the Personal Meanings Theory of Thinking, to be formulated later; soon Tikhomirov enlarged the field of the psychology of computerization. The aims of the new discipline were to study (1) the differences between human mental activity and the operations performed by computers that constitute the key elements of artificial intelligence systems, and (2) the impact of information technology on the human psyche. With the passage of several decades, the first aim partly lost its importance, while the second acquired a high degree of significance. In the paper it is argued that Tikhomirov’s suggestion that the psychological consequences of computerization be studied happened to germinate into the development of cyberpsychology (the psychology of the Internet) in Russia.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0413
Keywords:  psychology of thinking, personal meanings theory, cognition, computerization, Internet, cyberpsychology, artificial intelligence
About the authorsVoiskounsky, Alexander E.

Available Online: 01.15.2014

Igor A. Vasilyev (2013). Intellectual emotions. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 134-142

In the laboratory of O.K. Tikhomirov, the phenomenon of the acute emotional regulation of productive thinking was justified. This regulation is realized by means of the elaboration of the axiological profile of cognition. The following definition of intellectual emotions can be given: intellectual emotions are the appraisals of specific cognitive objects — contradictions, assumptions, probabilities, and the intermediate and final results of operations. The main aspect of the method used in the research consisted of the synchronous registration of an external (tactile) elaboration of problems, skin galvanic response and verbal utterances regarding tasks to be completed in a game of chess. The principle position in Tikhomirov`s group is the following: intellectual emotions represent not only the energetic resource or catalysts for the thinking process, but also the determinants of its structure.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0411
Keywords:  Intellectual emotions, thinking process, cognition, emotional appraisal, galvanic skin response, blind chess players, anticipation, emotional regulation, emotional heuristic, insight
About the authorsVasilyev, Igor A.

Available Online: 01.15.2014

Anthony Faiola (2013). Distributed creative activity: expanding Tikhomirov’s original notion of creative activity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 120-133

Tikhomirov’s primary works are considered groundbreaking in the activity theory community. In particular, his efforts in understanding the positive effects of computers on the development of creative activity provide valuable instruction to activity theorists, especially with respect to their influence on new goal formation. Tikhomirov’s quests to better understand “how computers affect the development of intellectual activity” are explicitly revealed in the clinical environment. As the intensive care unit is a preeminent environment to observe creative activity in real time, the primary problems of clinical team communication and collaboration, both aspects being related to joint activity, are identified. As one way to approach such a problem, Tikhomirov’s theory on creative activity is explained in the context of information technology. Then, distributed cognition theory and creative activity theory are joined together and extended into distributedcreative activity theory, as an augmentation of complex interpersonal cognition through the use of health information technology.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0410
Keywords:  creative activity, critical care, distributed cognition, health information technology
About the authorsFaiola, Anthony

Available Online: 01.15.2014

Julia D. Babaeva (2013). Fundamental principles of the cultural-activity approach in the psychology of giftedness. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 109-119

This article examines the cultural-activity approach to the study of giftedness, which is based on the ideas of L. S. Vygotsky, A. N. Leontiev, and O. K. Tikhomirov. Three basic principles of this approach are described: the principle of polymorphism, the dynamic principle, and the principle of the holistic analysis of the giftedness phenomenon. The article introduces the results of empirical research (including a 10-year longitudinal study), which verifies the efficacy of the cultural-activity approach and its prospects for solving actual problems in the psychology of giftedness in light of the creation of new diagnostic procedures and methods of education and the development of gifted children.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0409
Keywords:  giftedness, creativity, intelligence, dynamic theory of giftedness, culturalactivity approach, psychodiagnostic training, types of giftedness
About the authorsBabaeva, Yuliya D.

Available Online: 01.15.2014

Maria A. Chumakova, Sergey A. Kornilov (2013). Individual differences in attitudes towards uncertainty: evidence for multiple latent profiles. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 94-108

This paper presents the results of an empirical study investigating individual differences in tolerance and intolerance for uncertainty, using a multidimensional approach. We hypothesized that individual differences in attitudes towards uncertainty are rooted in expectations regarding different sources and subjective evaluations of uncertainty. The results of structural equation modeling and latent profile analysis largely supported these hypotheses. Importantly, latent profile analysis identified four distinct profiles of attitudes towards uncertainty that represented, in addition to classically understood tolerance and intolerance for uncertainty, intolerance for uncertainty with respect to different sources of uncertainty (environment vs. personal relationships).

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0408
Keywords:  uncertainty, tolerance for uncertainty, latent profile analysis, dynamic regulative systems
About the authorsKornilov, Sergey A.  / Chumakova, Maria A.

Available Online: 01.15.2014

Satybaldy M. Jakupov , Aliya A. Tolegenova, Nazirash S. Zhubanazarova, Nurgul K.Toksanbaeva, Maksat S. Jakupov (2013). From the conceptual ideation theory on joint-dialogical cognitive activity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 82-93

In the article, we are going to consider the possibilities of a conceptual framework of the semantic theory of thinking, which could allow us to develop a concept of joint and dialogical cognitive activity. This paper demonstrates O.K. Tikhomirov’s creative influence on the development of cognitive activity psychology. The role of aim-forming in thinking as a process of cognitive activity and genesis of reflection is emphasized. The possibilities of joint and dialogical cognitive activity formation as a result of informative purposes assigned to learners are shown. The role of ethnic prejudices as representations of semantic barriers, during the studying of the virtual mono-ethnic subgroups modeling method (in the conditions of a pilot study of the ethno-psychological phenomena) is considered and is specially allocated. In the present article, the mechanisms of psychotherapeutic influence are also considered and possible intervention programs for an emotional condition are described. Evidences of efficiency of formation and the transformation of personality-semantic education are provided in joint and dialogical counseling, realizing a semantic approach and its development, based on the principles of joint and dialogical cognitive activity.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0407
Keywords:  semantic theory of thinking, aim forming, joint and dialogical cognitive activity, semantic barriers, ethnic prejudices, semantic educations of the personality, joint and dialogical consultation.
About the authorsJakupov, Satybaldy M. / Jakupov, Maksat S. / Tolegenova, Aliya A. / Zhubanazarova, Nazirash S. / Toksanbaeva, Nurgul K.

Available Online: 01.15.2014

Yulia Solovieva, Luis Quintanar Rojas (2013). In memory of professor Oleg K. Tikhomirov. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 73-81

The article “In memory of professor Oleg K. Tikhomirov” offers the personal memories of the authors and the testimony of the students and psychologists from Mexico who had the opportunity of witnessing the presence of Russian psychologist Prof. O.K. Tikhomirov at Puebla Autonomous University in 1994-1995. The article describes the circumstances of arrival and professional work of O.K. Tikhomirov as a lecturer within Mater Program in Neuropsychological Diagnosis and Rehabilitation at Psychology Faculty of Puebla University. The work of Prof. O.K. Tikhomirov in Puebla had positive consequences in academic preparation of students and specialists in psychology and neuropsychology and in fulfillment of theoretical and methodological research in following years. The authors of the article express their gratitude for the opportunity of collaboration with O.K. Tikhomirov and with Psychology faculty of Moscow State University in general. The conclusions reflect the evidence of positive effects of academic contacts and mutual experience on preparation and education of young generation of psychologists in Mexico, particularly within historical and cultural psychology and activity theory.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0406
Keywords:  Russian psychology, academic experience, contacts between universities, historical and cultural psychology, activity theory.
About the authorsSolovieva, Yulia / Quintanar, Luis Rojas

Available Online: 01.15.2014

Еkaterina Е.Vasyukova, Оlga V. Mitina (2013). The principle of activity specificity in episodic memory. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 47-64

The effect of chess skill, age, and conditions for memorization on the efficiency of the recall of sequences of opening chess moves was studied. Thirty-nine chess players of different skill levels (from category 2 to grandmaster) and ages (from 17 to 81 years old) were divided into four groups (ELO > 2000 before and after the age of 40; ELO < 2000 before and after the age of 40). They were asked to remember the sequences of moves under three conditions (passive perception, use of imagination, physical generation of moves) and to recall (reproduce) the sequences by making the moves. It turned out that in the passive-perception condition the younger chess players, on the one hand, and the more highly skilled players, on the other, recalled the moves significantly better than did the other groups. Also, in almost all the groups of players the efficiency of memory grew as the condition for memorization and that for reproduction converged, with the highest growth rate found among chess players older than 40 years with ELO > 2000. The current memory of the chess experts was to a greater extent mediated by opening schemes and knowledge than was that of the intermediate players. A hypothesis about the activity specificity of the coding in episodic memory was confirmed and concretized.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0404
Keywords:  episodic memory, principles of the specificity of coding and activity specificity, chess skill, age, situations for imprinting the sequences of opening chess moves, structural modeling
About the authorsVasyukova, Ekaterina E.  / Mitina, Olga V.

Available Online: 01.15.2014

Elizaveta M. Pavlova, Tatyana V. Kornilova (2013). Creativity and tolerance for uncertainty predict the engagement of emotional intelligence in personal decision making. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 34-46

The current study investigated the relationships among creativity, tolerance for uncertainty (TU), and emotional intelligence (EI) in a selected sample of undergraduate students (n=145). We found differential patterns of intercorrelations among these constructs in students majoring in psychology, music, and stage directing, and we also established group differences in these constructs in the three groups of students. Thus, the use of emotional information in personal decision making in different subsamples is assumed to be achieved through hierarchies of diverse processes. Overall, creativity, EI, and TU acted as predictors of the use of emotional information in decision making.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0403
Keywords:  personal choice, creativity, emotional intelligence, tolerance for uncertainty, creative professions
About the authorsKornilova, Tatiana V.  / Pavlova, Elizaveta M.

Available Online: 01.15.2014

Eduard V. Galazhinskiy, Vitaly Y. Klochko (2013). Contemporary cognitive science: the transdisciplinary approach and the problem of consciousness. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 24-33

The current state of cognitive science is discussed in this article. It is argued that cognitive science as it currently exists is not a separate, independent science. It is represented by a scientific interdisciplinary community focused on meeting the key challenges posed by the present time. The objective of the discourse in this interdisciplinary space is to generate new knowledge that it is impossible to generate within the frameworks of separate scientific disciplines. Some features of this new (transdisciplinary) stage are emerging within on-going interdisciplinary research. One of the signs of the new stage is the outlining of a merger of humanitarian and natural-scientific knowledge. It is claimed that the transdisciplinary approach can be considered as “a creative polylogue” of monodisciplines capable of generating knowledge that is not available to any science and the acquisition of which is beyond the abilities of any science.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0402
Keywords:  cognitive science, development of scientific cognition, interdisciplinary stage, transdisciplinary stage, “creative polylogue” in science, natural-scientific approach, humanitarian approach, complementary interaction, complimentary interaction
About the authorsGalazhinskiy, Eduard V.  / Klochko, Vitaliy Y.

Available Online: 01.15.2014

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