This study, which is a part of a Moscow longitudinal twin project, aims to explore
genetic and environmental contributions to inter-individual variability of temperamental
traits in adolescence on the basis of a Russian sample. 85 monozygotic
(MZ) and 64 same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs aged 12 – 14 years completed the
children version of Rusalov Structure of Temperament Questionnaire (C-STQ). The
results of model-fitting analyses indicate considerable hereditary determination
of individual differences in 3 out of the 8 C-STQ dimensions - social tempo, objectrelated
emotional sensitivity, and social emotional sensitivity. Non-shared environmental
effects explained the rest of the total variance in these dimensions. Individual
differences in the other STQ dimensions were due to environmental factors.
The article is devoted to individual differences in psychological characteristics, the
influence of genotype and environment on individual differences in evoked potential
of brain related to the execution of motor action, the role of genetic and environmental
factors in individual characteristics of the parameters of sensorimotor
activity, genetic and environmental factors in development of psychological traits.
Gene-environment correlations have been studied in behavior genetics since the beginning of the 1980s, including genetic effect on the perceived family environment; however, the majority of studies have been based on retrospective self-reports. The current study is meant to analyze the sources of variance (complementary genetic factors, shared and non-shared environmental variance) in perceived family environment with Russian adolescent twins. Perception of family environment was measured with the Russian version of Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 1981). The structural equation model in "Mx"(Neale, Boker, Xie, & Maes, 2004) was employed to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on adolescents' self-reports. The environmental variance components are prevalent for most FES scales (6 of 10). The shared environment was significant for 3 primary grades and the Organization factor, the complementary genetic variance was revealed for 2 primary grades and the Expressiveness-Control super-order factor. These results are generally consistent with previously reported moderate heritability of FES scales, although the heritabilities for the Conflict scale and the Structure super-order factor appear to be relatively high. The gene-environment correlation might be a possible explanation for these findings.
perceptions of family environment, environment, genotype, twins, gene-environment correlation, Family Environment Scale, adolescence