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Psychological assessment

Lovakov A.V., Agadullina E.R., Schaufeli W.B. (2017). Psychometric properties of the Russian version of the utrecht Work engagement scale (UWES-9). Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 10(1), 145-162.

This article aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Russian version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) by using a sample of 1783 employees of a large Russian organization. We conducted a series of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) tests of the factorial structure and the configural, metric, scalar, factor variance, factor covariance, and factor means invariances of the model across gender and age groups. The validity of the Russian version of the UWES-9 was investigated by study- ing its relationship with burnout, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and turnover inten- tion. The CFA showed that both the 1-factor and the 3-factor models of the UWES-9 fit well with the data, but the 3-factor model demonstrates a significantly better fit. however, the differences are minor; therefore, in practical terms, the models are iden- tical. Thus the Russian version of the UWES-9 can be used both as a three-scale mea- surement and as a single scale of work engagement. Results from the multi-group CFA provided evidence of factorial invariance of the 3-factor model across gender and age groups. Internal consistencies of the vigor, dedication, and absorption subscales are acceptable. The results also suggested the convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the UWES-9, as shown by its relationship with burnout, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and turnover intention. The article also discusses the differences in levels of work engagement within different gender and age groups. Overall, the results show that the Russian version of the UWES-9 demonstrates acceptable psychometric properties comparable with the original version and those in other languages. The Russian version of the UWES-9 can therefore be recommended for use in research and practice. 

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2017.0111
Keywords:  work engagement, UWES, burnout, positive organizational behavior, mea- surement
About the authorsLovakov Andrey V. / Agadullina Elena R. / Wilmar B. Schaufeli

Available Online: 03.31.2017

Soldatova G.V., Rasskazova E.I. (2014). Assessment of the digital competence in Russian adolescents and parents: Digital Competence Index. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(4), 65-74.

In this paper, we developed a psychological model of digital competence including four components (knowledge, skills, motivation and responsibility) and four spheres (work with online content, communication, technical activity and consumption). The Digital Competence Index (DCI) is a 52-item instrument assessing an index and an entire profile of digital competence. In the Russian population study (1203 adolescents 12-17 years old and 1209 parents), acceptable reliability (.72-.90 for all of the scales, except motivation) of DCI was demonstrated. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the superiority of the four-component structure with the second-order index. Mean DCI was 34% of the maximally possible level in adolescents and 31% in parents, indicating the necessity for the educational programs in Russia. The motivation component was both the lowest and the least homogeneous factor, indicating that important special efforts to improve motivation to learn in Russian adolescents are needed.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0406
Keywords:  digital competence, Digital Competence Index, Russian population study, Kids online project, online risks
About the authorsRasskazova, Elena I. / Soldatova, Galina V.

Available Online: 12.30.2014

Emelin V.A., Tkhostov A.Sh., Rasskazova E.I. (2014). Psychological adaptation in the info-communication society: The revised version of Technology-Related Psychological Consequences Questionnaire. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 105-120.

The aim of the study is to consider technology-related changes in psychological needs and boundaries that affect one’s personal adaptation to the info-communication society, as well as how they relate to problematic or excessive technology use. Based on the psychological model of the consequences of technology use, we’ve picked two forms of technology use (one related to mobile phones and the other related to the Internet) from a revised version of our Technology-Related Psychological Consequences Questionnaire. The new version includes nine questions: two assessing the excessive use of technology (the inability to resist using technology and subjective dependence), four assessing changes in psychological boundaries (boundaries extension and violation, easiness-related and opportunity-related preference for technology) and the other three measuring technology-related needs (functionality, convenience and image making). In the normative sample (N=132), appropriate reliability, factor validity and convergent validity were demonstrated in comparisons to the picture measure of the technology-related boundaries change. Based on hierarchical regression and moderator analysis, it was shown that changes in psychological boundaries affect the excessive use of technology (explaining an additional 17-27% of the variance) after adjusting for frequency of use and age group. The extension of boundaries and ease-of-use-related preference for mobile phones versus the Internet predicted satisfaction with life after adjusting for frequency of use, age group, inability to resist and subjective dependency respectively; however, the figures were not statistically significant. Thus, our data supports the hypothesis that there are different kinds of technology-related changes in psychological boundaries that manifest themselves in the subjective feeling of dependence on technology and the feeling that it is impossible to do without technology, which might in some cases be important for personal satisfaction with life.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0210
Keywords:  psychological consequences of technology, adaptation in the info-communication society, the revised version of the Technology-Related Psychological Consequences Questionnaire, the psychology of Internet use, the psychology of mobile phone use, excessive use of technology
About the authorsTkhostov, Alexander Sh.  / Emelin, Vadim A. / Rasskazova, Elena I.

Available Online: 06.30.2014

Tous Ral J.M., Liutsko L. (2014) Human errors: their psychophysical bases and the Proprioceptive Diagnosis of Temperament and Character (DP-TC) as a tool for measuring. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(2), 48-63.

Human error is commonly differentiated into three different types. These are: errors in perception, errors in decision and errors in sensation. This analysis is based on classical psychophysics (Fechner, 1860) and describes the errors of detection and perception. Decision- making errors are evaluated in terms of the theory of signal detection (McNicholson, 1974), and errors of sensation or sensitivity are evaluated in terms of proprioceptive information (van Beers, 2001).

Each of these stages developed its own method of evaluation that has influenced the development of ergonomics in the event of errors in perception and the verbal assessment of personality (stress, impulsiveness, burnout, etc.) in decision-making errors. Here we represent the method we have developed, the Proprioceptive Diagnosis of Temperament and Character (DP- TC) test, for the specific assessment of errors of perception or expressivity which are based on fine motor precision performance.

Each of the described errors types are interdependent of each other in such a manner that observable stress in behaviour may be caused due to: the inadequate performance of a task due to the perception of the person (i.e. from right to left for a right-handed person); performing a task that requires attentive decision-making to be performed too hastily; undertaking a task that does not correspond to the prevailing disposition of the person.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0205
Keywords:  human error detection, Proprioceptive Diagnostic of Temperament and Character (DP-TC), diagnosis, prevention, expressivity, perception
About the authorsLiutsko, Liudmila N. / Tous i Ral, Josep Maria

Available Online: 06.30.2014

Gusev A. N., Mikhaylova O. A., Utochkin I. S. (2014). Stimulus determinants of the phenomenon of change blindness. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 122-134.

This article describes techniques and procedures that are used to research the changeblindness phenomenon. The role of stimulus parameters in completing a visual task (detecting changes) was investigated. The following parameters of visual stimuli varied in a chronometric experiment: the number of objects, their location in the stimulus space, and the shape of the objects (including a new object that attracts attention as well as various changes of single objects, such as appearance/disappearance, location shifts, changes of color and shape). The results of this study indicate that change blindness can have a different intensity (the time of detecting changes in flickering images) depending on the number of objects, their location in the stimulus space (structured or randomized), and the type of change (the most complicated one was a change of color):

  1. The number of objects has considerable influence on the intensity of change blindness and is the most powerful parameter. 
  2. The shape of the objects within the image is not crucial for change-detection time.
  3. The spatial organization of the objects is important for the successful detection of changes. The changes are detected quicker in images with regular rather than random organization. 
  4. A distraction (in this case, a word that was substituted for an object) doesn’t have any considerable influence on change detection. 
  5. Change-detection time increases as the interstimulus interval increases from 200 to 400 ms.
  6. The detection of shifts and of appearance/disappearance is quicker than the detection of color change.

These results let us create stimulus patterns for change-blindness experiments that differ in complexity, and thus we could examine a wide range of hypotheses about the function of the psychological mechanisms of spatial attention that are used to explain this phenomenon.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0112
Keywords:  spatial attention, change blindness, stimulus determinants
About the authorsGusev, Alexey N. / Mikhailova, Olga A.  / Utochkin, Igor S.

Available Online: 03.30.2014

Dzherelievskaya M. A., Vizgina A. V., Pantileev S. R., Yashina L. L. (2014). A substantial psychometric analysis of the scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: F. B. Berezin’s version, the MMIL. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 105-121.

In our research we made a substantial psychometric analysis of the scales of F. B. Berezin’s version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the MMIL, which is widely used in various spheres of psychological practice. Since the mid-1990s in Russia there have been many essential transformations in thinking and values that have been caused by changes in social and economic reality. For this reason, we need to continue our work on specifying the meaning of the MMIL tasks and, then, on updating the test norms and keys. Such psychometric updating is necessary for maintaining the efficiency of the method. For our update, we constructed linear norms for the test; we tested the questionnaire for the normality of the distribution of points; and we checked the validity (including external validity), the reliability coherence of the scales, and the variability of the points. The necessity of readapting the MMIL was thus demonstrated. Questions that display low variability and that are not significantly correlated with the scale they belong to, which reduces their differentiating potential, may be excluded from the test or reformulated.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0111
Keywords:  psychometric analysis, test norms, validity, reliability coherence, representativeness, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Questionnaire (MMPI), the MMIL, factor analysis
About the authorsDzherelievskaya, Maria A. / Vizgina, Anna V.  / Pantileev, Sergey R.  / Yashina, Ludmila L.

Available Online: 03.30.2014

Kosonogov V. (2014). The psychometric properties of the Russian version of the Empathy Quotient. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 7(1), 96-104.

The aim of the work was to develop and prove a Russian version of the Empathy Quotient, a new tool to measure empathy. A sample of 221 volunteers from the general population filled this questionnaire, the Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy and the Quotient of Empathic Abilities. The coefficients of test-retest reliability, internal consistency and validity were high. In a factor analysis three factors were found that correspond to cognitive, emotional and social skills subscales. A short version with seven questions in each subscale was elaborated and it had acceptable psychometric properties as well.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2014.0110
Keywords:  empathy, questionnaire, psychometrics, empathy quotient, adaptation
About the authorsKosonogov, Vladimir

Available Online: 03.30.2014

Irina K. Makogon, Sergey N. Enikolopov (2013). Problems with the assessment of shame and guilt. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 168-175

Moral emotions play a significant role in human behavior, and yet scholars are not unanimous in defining, differentiating, and measuring the basic moral experiences: shame and guilt. Because of this problem, the theory goes far beyond the empirical research on these emotions.

In this article we analyze the most widely accepted points of view on the difference between guilt and shame; those who espouse each point of view suggest their own assessment tools. Thus, one of the often-used methods, the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 (TOSCA-3) (Tangney, Dearing, Wagner, & Gramzow, 2000), is based on a theory that differentiates shame and guilt according to where the negative evaluation of the misbehavior is aimed (at one’s actions or at one’s self). Another widely used questionnaire, the Dimensions of Conscience Questionnaire (DCQ) (Johnson et al., 1987), differentiates these emotions on the basis of whether the event causing them is public or personal.

The latest studies have shown that those methods are not contradictory. In addition, both the TOSCA-3 and the DCQ have their disadvantages; for example, they do not differentiate between emotional and behavioral aspects of guilt and shame. Thus, there is a need to develop a new assessment scale that overcomes these disadvantages. One such scale is the Guilt and Shame Proneness Scale (GASP) (Cohen, Wolf, Panter, & Insko, 2011). The research conducted by its authors has established its reliability and validity, which allow us to consider the GASP as a progressive tool in assessing moral emotions, one that has great theoretical and practical value.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0415
Keywords:  shame, guilt, moral emotions, psychological assessment tools, TOSCA-3, GASP
About the authorsEnikolopov, Sergey N.  / Makogon, Irina K.

Available Online: 01.15.2014

Dmitry A. Podolskiy (2013). Multimethod approach to measuring values in a school context: exploring the association between Congruence — Discrepancy Index (CO DI) and task commitment. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 44-54

There are considerable differences among the value hierarchies revealed by different methods of measurement. The quantitative measure of such a difference can be referred as the Congruence-Discrepancy Index (CODI). The more congruent the results of different methods are, the higher the CODI is. In the present study I compared value hierarchies obtained by the Schwartz Value Survey and an original instrument based on the constant-sum scale in two samples of adolescents (those in special schools for at-risk adolescents and those in ordinary secondary schools). The results show that the CODI for ordinary school students is significantly higher than that for adolescents recruited from special schools. A significant correlation between the CODI and school engagement was revealed for the ordinary school sample. The possibilities of using the CODI in value research are discussed.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0204
Keywords:  values, adolescents, measurement, value theory, ratings, rankings
About the authorsPodolskiy, Dmitry A.

Available Online: 11.11.2013

Suprun A.P. (2009). Relativist Psychology: a New Concept of Psychological Measurement. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 262-288

The article demonstrates the inadequacy in the traditional approach of psychology to the description of products of mental representation of perception. The principles of objective representation of subjective experience (principles of “mental map” construction) contain a whole range of contradictions. We propose a consistent mathematical description of the “mental map” based on psychosemiotic principles. Instead of the classical space of characteristics/properties we introduce semantic space that opens the way to a truly adequate representation of psychic reality. The article discusses metrics of the mental map, as well as substantiates the possibility of applying conservation laws to psychology. It is shown that it is possible to reach an adequate representation of research object in the humanities, equivalent to that of natural sciences in terms of accuracy. To verify a new approach, we make use of our theoretical deductions in the explanation of experimental data widely known in psychophysics and inconsistent with Stevens law.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2009.0013
Keywords:  relativist psychology, mental representation, mental map, psychosemiotic, semantic space, psychophysic.
About the authorsSuprun, Anatoly P.

Mikadze Y.V. (2011). Methodology of Neuropsychological Assessment:Qualitative (Metasyndromal Analysis of Cognitive Deficit Structure) and Quantitative (Psychometric Estimate) Aspects. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 261-267

Neuropsychological evaluation is a necessary step that precedes neurorehabilitation. It implies both qualitative and quantitative assessment of patient’s possible cognitive deficit. Qualitative approach aims to define the structure of the cognitive deficit while quantitative procedures give estimate of the magnitude of the deficit. Complex pathology affects multiple brain regions and reveals in a series of neuropsychological syndromes associated with these brain areas. Metasyndrome analysis is proposed as an approach to understanding the complex cognitive impairments. A new concept of metasyndrome is introduced in order to describe these repetitive patterns of observed cognitive deficits. Quantitative estimate allows to determine the degree of cognitive disorder and the dynamics of its change.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2011.0015
Keywords:  neuropsychology, metasyndromal analysis, neuropsychological evaluation
About the authorsMikadze, Yuri V.

Shadrikov V.D., Taldykina A.A. (2010). Testing of Mental Abilities.Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 214-226

This article reports on the results of development of human mental abilities measurement method based on the stated theoretical positions. Such positions are represented by the following: the thesis formulated by M.I. Sechenov that a thought is generated in the process of establishing a connection between the object and its properties; the definition of thin king given by S.L.Rubinstein who wrote that in the process of solving a problem the object manifests its new properties and qualities, it shows a new side, a new content is "bailed out" of it, as well as the thesis about mental development of abilities formulated by V.D. Shadrikov (2007).

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2010.0010
Keywords:  abilities, mental abilities, abilities testing, intelligence test, psychometric procedure, validity, reliability
About the authorsShadrikov, Vladimir D.  / Taldykina, A.A.

Kornilov S.A., Rakhlin N.V., Grigorenko E.L. (2012). Morphology and Developmental Language Disorders: New Tools for Russian. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 371-387

We describe preliminary data from two studies aimed at investigating the psychometric properties and validity of newly developed measures of morphological knowledge and skills in Russian, namely, the Word Structure subtest, and the Test of Morphological Awareness, in two samples of young Russian-speaking children. Overall, both instruments demonstrated good psychometric properties when analyzed using both classical test theory and a Rasch-modeling IRT approach, and were positively associated with the criterion measures (i.e., the number of grammatical errors in elicited speech samples, spelling, and reading comprehension).

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0023
Keywords:  morphology, morphological awareness, word structure, language disorders, reading, spelling.
About the authorsKornilov, Sergey A.  / Rakhlin, Natalia V.  / Grigorenko, Elena L.

Astaeva A.V., Berebin M.A. (2012). Comparative analysis of Russian and foreign systems for the neuropsychological diagnosis of children fr om the standpoint of the psychometric approach... Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 203-218

Modern approaches to the psychological diagnostics of children are based on need analysis and the systematization of existing trends in domestic and foreign children’s neuropsychological diagnoses. This article highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, as well as identifying possible areas of integration. One of the most acute problems is the development of experimental psychological methods to determine the quantitative and expressed characteristics of the mental development of children by flexibly combining qualitative and quantitative approaches, with a view to putting into practice foreign neuroscience principles and standards of evidence. An analysis of contemporary publications on neuropsychological diagnosis reveals the need to consider the standardization of neuropsychological research in the context of current approaches, requirements, and psychodiagnostic criteria. In the domestic neuropsychological literature, these issues are need attention: standardized procedures for presenting stimuli are not, as a rule, described; basic psychometric assessment of the results of the tests is lacking; no investigation of their clinical and psychometric validity is carried out. An analysis was made of the nature of the psychometric approach in foreign child neuropsychology, which relies on mathematical procedures of processing qualitative (ordinal) data converted into quantitative indicators. We examined separately the mathematical software for clinical trials (based on the principles of «evidencebased medicine»), which relies on the «abnormal» nature of the distribution of clinical phenomena.

DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0012
Keywords:  neuropsychological diagnostics, psychometric approach, norm, qualitative and quantitative assessment of results.
About the authorsAstaeva, Alena V.  / Berebin, Mikhail A.