Doctor of Psychology
Graduate Program Director of the Counseling Psychology PhD program.
University of Massachusetts Boston.
This issue of "Psychology in Russia: State of the Art", focused on sexual orientation and gender identity, is a step toward meeting that obligation of contributing to the welfare of a stigmatized population, through highlighting current research and theory related to LGBT concerns.
Keywords: Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 10, Issue 2, 2017, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
Background. Validated measures of sexual minority stress (Meyer, 2003), including that caused by experiences of discrimination directed toward gay, lesbian and bisexual (GLB) people, GLB-related stigma, and internalized homonegativity, are not readily available in Russia. Given the particular context of Russia with respect to GLB rights, it is to be expected that there would be cross-cultural variations in dimensions of minority stress, including internalized homo-negativity.
Objective. For the present study, we aimed to back and forward translate the commonly used Szymanski and Chung’s (2001) Lesbian Internalized Homonegativity Scale (LIHS), and explore its cross-language validity.
Design. Our design consisted of a completion of the adapted LIHS by a sample of 74 Russian lesbian-identified women; participants were asked about their age of coming out to self, friends, and family.
Results. Based upon an examination of construct validity and internal consistency, the results suggest support for a modified four-component, 24-item Russian version of the LIH (R-LIH).The components were: Connection with Lesbian Communities (9 items); Public Identification as a Lesbian (7); Public Visibility as a Lesbian (5); and Cultural Awareness of Lesbian Communities (3). From the original LIHS scale, Personal Feelings about Being a Lesbian, Moral and Religious Attitudes toward Lesbians, and Attitudes toward Other Lesbians failed to demonstrate cross-cultural validity.
Conclusion. The adapted R-LIH scale suggests there are some constructs of internalized homonegativity that are salient in both U.S. and Russian communities, however, there are others (i.e., Moral and Religious Attitudes, Attitudes Toward Other Lesbians) that may not be relevant in Russian lesbian communities. The implications for the use of the translated version are described.
Keywords: lesbian, measurement, Russia, internalized homo-negativity, internalized heterosexism, cross-cultural
Background. Negative attitudes toward Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual people in Russia are common, and may have become more prevalent due to recent policy changes.
Objective. This study explored whether interpersonal contact and personality characteristics predicted Hateful Attitudes Toward GLB people and Endorsement of GLB Rights.
Design. The design of the study included 154 heterosexual undergraduate students in Moscow and Volgodonsk who were surveyed about their attitudes toward GLB people as well as their personality characteristics assessed with the NEO-FFI. Results. Results suggested that Moscow students held less hateful attitudes and endorsed greater GLB Rights than Volgodonsk students. Women were also more favorable toward GLB Rights than men. In terms of Hateful Attitudes, having GLB friends or acquaintances was a negative predictor of Hateful Attitudes, while neuroticism and conscientiousness were positive predictors. In conclusion, living in a large urban area, knowing GLB individuals, and low levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness appear to be associated with positive attitudes toward GLB people in Russia, however, personality characteristics and knowing GLB people did not appear to relate to endorsement of GLB Civil Rights.
Conclusion. Current sociopolitical policies such as the propaganda ban, and historical censure of GLB rights during the Soviet era, may impact how “out” GLB Russian people can be, particularly outside of large urban centers, and may reinforce general lack of support for GLB Civil Rights in the Russian population.
Keywords: attitudes, gay, lesbian, bisexual, GLB Rights, personality characteristics, NEO-FFI, interpersonal contact
Background. Throughout the last forty years, an emerging set of global norms addressing the rights and treatment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex (LGBTQI) people have emerged and are continuing to evolve. This article will outline the trajectory of LGBTI concerns in the context of international human rights, and make a case for psychological ethics that are inclusive of concerns specific to sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression (SOGIE). These discussions will be framed in the context of the historical stigma and pathologization associated with SOGIE concerns, as well as the increasing global visibility and political and social organizing of LGBTQI communities.
Discussion. First, the rise of international and regional ethics codes pertaining to SOGIE concerns, including the role of the United Nations, will be reviewed. Second, recommendations for an ethical approach to psychological research, practice, training, and advocacy inclusive of SOGIEconcerns will be discussed. These recommendations will be informed by the existing ethical framework of the European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA), and will address the unique concerns of sexual orientation minority populations; transgender, non-binary, and gender-expansive (TNG) people; and intersex populations. Finally, the International Psychology Network for LGBTI Issues (IPsyNet) will be introduced as a model for networking in support of SOGIE interests within LGBTQI-affirming national psychological organizations.
Conclusion. As European ethical practices respond to calls from human rights stakeholders for increased inclusion of SOGIE concerns, this paper proposes that it is the responsibility of international psychological practice to support the human rights of allglobal citizens.
Keywords: Ethics; sexual orientation; gender identity; LGBTQI; human rights; sexual minority; gender minority; SOGIE; TNG
Well-known researcher of sexual orientation and gender identity issues, one of two American Psychological Association's representatives in the International Psychology Network for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Issues.