Psychology of creativity
Saakyan, O. S. (2015). Electrophysiological analysis of the cognitive component of social creativity in young males and females with different individual characteristics. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(4), 83-90.
This article sets forth the problem of studying social creativity from the psychophysiological perspective. Presented here are the first experimental records of studying the cognitive component of social activity. This article describes the peculiar hemispheric activity during the resolution of interpersonal problems by students of different individual peculiarities and professional achievement levels. The author shows that when the solution to a verbal divergent task by young males and females of high creativity and professional achievement is reached, the frequency-spatial EEG indexes are higher in the parietal and frontal brain regions. In the solution of a convergent task, these indexes are higher in the frontal, central and cervical brain zones. In case of young males and females of low creativity and average and low levels of professional achievement, the solution of a convergent task is accompanied by increased EEG power in the central, frontal, parietal zones of both hemispheres.
Thus, the assessment of the psychophysiological mechanisms of the cognitive component in social activity has shown that a definite picture of hemispheric activation stipulates the peculiarities of divergent and convergent thinking in young males and females of various levels of creativity and professional success.
This difference, revealed at the initial stage of investigation, demands a deeper study of the phenomenon of social creativity in the professional training of a personality that is inclusive of this personality’s individual peculiarities.
Keywords: social creativity, creativity level, EEG power peculiarities, lateral arrangement profile (LAP), gender
About the authors: Saakyan, Oxana S.
Available Online: 12.30.2015
Dikaya L.A., Skirtach I.A. (2015). Neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity: The example of improvisation. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(3), 84-98.
Since the turn of this century, a substantial body of research has been published on the neuroscience of creativity. Now, it is necessary to study the neurophysiological correlates in true-to-life, professionally specific situations. The aim of our empirical research was to study the neurophysiological correlates of musical improvisation, a spontaneous creative activity. The participants were 136 right-handed practicing musicians aged 19 to 36 (102 males and 34 females), divided into two groups—professionals (56 people) and amateurs (80 people). EEG signals were recorded in a resting state (eyes closed) and during three types of internal musical activity (perceiving, mentally reproducing, and mentally improvising) from 21 scalp electrodes according to the International 10-20 System. For statistical analysis, we used ANOVA and post hoc analysis. For the main neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity, we revealed higher values of EEG spectral power in the delta band and the dominance of long-distance functional cortical connections in the high-frequency bands. Variable neurophysiological correlates were differentiated according to emotions and the professional level of the musicians. The distinguishing EEG pattern in the professional musicians during improvisation was the predominant activation of the left- hemisphere cortical regions simultaneously with high interhemispheric integration in the high-frequency band along the “creativity axis.” The revealed neurophysiological correlates of musical creativity during improvisation included basic and variable components and were characterized by a specific frequency-spatial organization of bioelectric cortical activity in the musicians.
Keywords: musical creativity, improvisation, brain cortex, EEG, spectral power, co¬herence, frequency band
About the authors: Korobeynikova, Elena V. / Zakharova, Lyudmila N.
Available Online: 09.30.2015
Belolutskaya A.K. (2015). Multidimensionality of thinking in the context of creativity studies. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 8(1), 43-60.
This article describes the theoretical difference between the flexibility and the multidimensionality of thinking. Multidimensionality is discussed as a characteristic of thinking that is necessary for exploration of the variability of structural transformations of problematic situations.
The objective of the study was to examine a number of theories concerning the correlative connection between the multidimensionality of thinking and other characteristics of creative, productive thinking: the flexibility of thinking; the formation of an operation of dialectical thinking such as “mediation”; the ability of a person to use a scheme as an abstraction for analysis of various specific content.
A total of 85 people participated in the study: they were 15 to 17 years old, students at a senior school in Kaliningradskaya oblast, winners of different stages of the all-Russian academic competition in physics, chemistry, and mathematics. All respondents had a high level of academic success and of general intelligence.
The following techniques were used in this study: (1) my technique for diagnostics of the multidimensionality of thinking; (2) my technique of “schemes and paintings,” designed for diagnostics of the ability to relate abstract schemes and various specific content; (3) the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (verbal battery); (4) a diagnostic technique for dialectical thinking: “What can be simultaneous?”
All the hypotheses were confirmed.
Confirmation was received of the existence of a correlation connection; this finding counts in favor of the assumption that the parameters of thinking my colleagues and I were working with can in aggregate be considered an integral characteristic of human thinking. It allows us to distinguish significant features of a situation from secondary ones—that is, to see a substantial contradiction and to propose several options for its transformation.
Keywords: multidimensionality of thinking, dialectics, theoretical generalization, flexibility, transformation, intellectual creativity
About the authors: Belolutskaya, Anastasiya K.
Available Online: 03.31.2015
Elizaveta M. Pavlova, Tatyana V. Kornilova (2013). Creativity and tolerance for uncertainty predict the engagement of emotional intelligence in personal decision making. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 34-46
The current study investigated the relationships among creativity, tolerance for uncertainty (TU), and emotional intelligence (EI) in a selected sample of undergraduate students (n=145). We found differential patterns of intercorrelations among these constructs in students majoring in psychology, music, and stage directing, and we also established group differences in these constructs in the three groups of students. Thus, the use of emotional information in personal decision making in different subsamples is assumed to be achieved through hierarchies of diverse processes. Overall, creativity, EI, and TU acted as predictors of the use of emotional information in decision making.
Keywords: personal choice, creativity, emotional intelligence, tolerance for uncertainty, creative professions
About the authors: Kornilova, Tatiana V. / Pavlova, Elizaveta M.
Available Online: 01.15.2014
Kashapov M.M., Leybina A. V. (2009). Motivation of Professional Creative Thinking. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2, 585-602
The aim of this study was to reveal correlation between motivation and creative professional thinking. Four hundred and seventy-one Russians of different trades participated in the study. It was supposed that motivational structure and level of creative professional thinking were interrelated. The connection between motivational components and professional thinking was revealed. Tendencies of transition form situational level of thinking to oversituational one were determined. It was found out that motivational structure of workers with situational thinking was much more consistent than that of workers with oversituational thinking.
Keywords: creative professional thinking, motivation, values, motivation structure.
About the authors: Kashapov, Mergalуаs M.
Bogoyavlenskaya D.B. (2011). On Prognostics of Psychodiagnostic Method Creative Field. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 39-52
This paper reports on the results of the 40-year longitudinal studies based on the author’s conception of creativity as generation of activity at one’s own initiative and pursued by the method Creative Field, which has been developed by the author purposely to explore this particular phenomenon. The method allows dividing people with high abilities into those who attain proficiency and those who push the boundaries and move to the level of art even in science, which characterizes the higher forms of creativity. The universality of the method as a diagnostic instrument proves the possibility to identify creative abilities on samples of seemingly alternative professions: in exact sciences and in art. The validity of this method is confi rmed by the absolute coincidence of the diagnostic findings and the life course of the subjects in the given samples. Moreover, the diagnostic findings in children of school age have been sustained for a period of over 40 years, which speaks for the apparent prognostics of the method.
Keywords: creativity, cognitive need, cognitive self-activity, motivation, stimulus, challenge, generation of activity.
About the authors: Bogoyavlenskaya, Diana B.
Kashapov M.M. (2010). Creative Thinking Training as a Means of Development of Conflict Competence of a Professional. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 463- 481
The psychological basis of creative thinking training as a means of development of conflict competence of a professional includes: in the first place, the knowledge of psychological nature of creative thinking of a professional; in the second place, recognition of above situational thinking as a leading quality in the structure of creative professional thinking; consideration of above situational thinking in the context of development of conflict competence of a professional, in the third place. In order to develop conflict competence, it is necessary to learn to get above the level of momentary requirements of a situation, to detect above situational problems, to set the goals, excessive from the point of view of the initial task. Professionals, thinking in terms of above situation, while analyzing a conflict situation, start to realize and actualize their own resources, which facilitates a creative way in problems resolving. It is the detection of above situational problems that forms the basis for creative thinking and is characterized by a set of key personal qualities necessary for his self-transformation as an agent.
Keywords: conflict competence, creative conflict resolution training, psychodiagnostics of metacognitive components of conflict competence, the analysis of cognitive characteristics of conflict interaction
About the authors: Kashapov, Mergalуаs M.
Kornilova T.V., Kornilov S.A. (2010). Intelligence and Tolerance / Intolerance for Uncertainty as Predictors of Creativity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 3, 240-256
The present paper describes two studies that investigated incremental predictive value of tolerance and intolerance for uncertainty in predicting creativity. The first study shows significant positive incremental predictive power of tolerance for uncertainty over general intelligence in predicting creativity. The second study reveals a negative relationship between intolerance for uncertainty and creativity with fluid intelligence scores being already accounted for. Overall, tolerance for uncertainty promotes creativity, whereas intolerance for uncertainty impedes it, demonstrating that creativity draws on both intellectual potential and processes of uncertainty acceptance.