doctor in Psychology
Special section of the third issue of the 6th volume Psychology in Russia: State of the Art presents the papers of the workshop and faculty meeting of the Parmenides Foundation — international scientific community for multi-disciplinary cognitive research building bridges between natural, computer sciences and humanities. The 10th Sino-German Workshop in the Neurosciences and Psychology with 80 participants from 15 countries, held in Hamburg, Germany (1–4 September 2013), was dedicated to the general topic of neglected questions in the field.
Keywords: Editorial volum #6, 2, 2013 Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
Automated classification of a human functional state is an important problem, with applications including stress resistance evaluation, supervision over operators of critical infrastructure, teaching and phobia therapy. Such classification is particularly efficient in systems for teaching and phobia therapy that include a virtual reality module, and provide the capability for dynamic adjustment of task complexity.
In this paper, a method for automated real-time binary classification of human functional states (calm wakefulness vs. stress) based on discrete wavelet transform of EEG data is considered. It is shown that an individual tuning stage of the classification algorithm — a stage that allows the involvement of certain information on individual peculiarities in the classification, using very short individual learning samples, significantly increases classification reliability. The experimental study that proved this assertion was based on a specialized scenario in which individuals solved the task of detecting objects with given properties in a dynamic set of flying objects.
Keywords: human functional state, EEG data, automated classification, individual tuning, stress.
In the study, psychological and physiological features were assessed during an experimentally designed stressful situation in 85 subjects with hypertension (HTN) in the workplace, 85 patients with essential HTN, and 82 healthy individuals.
It was showed, that patients with HTN in the experimental situation were characterized by a complex of physiological and psychological features, which distinguish them from healthy participants. A reliably greater increase In systolic blood pressure (BP) was recorded in these patients in comparison with healthy individuals (on average by 14 and 3 mmHg respectively). The aspiration level (AL) of these patients was characterized by a reliably greater height, inadequacy, and instability; as for nonverbal behavior, it revealed a reliably greater amount of gestures, and frequent changes in voice tone against similar features of healthy individuals.
The group of patients with HTN at work, when compared with essential HTN patients, was characterized by a reliably greater increase of systolic BP (on the average by 16 and 4 mmHg respectively) as a reaction to emotional stress. The systolic BP increase in this group was revealed in combination with an initially reliably lower catecholamines’ level (CA), a gradual decrease of CA level in urine, and renin and angiotensin-1 in blood plasma during the experiment. This combination is an indicator of chronic stress and psychophysiological exhaustion. The patients did not manifest any increase of anxiety during the experiment; they were characterized, however, by a greater frequency of AL inadequacy and instability. The behavior of patients with HTN at work during the experiment was marked by a limited repertory of poses and gestures, but more vigorous facial expressions, and frequent pitch jumps. Obtained results lead us to confirm that the repression of emotions comes as a significant pathogenetic factor in the genesis of psychosomatic syndrome among patients with HTN at work, as opposed to patients with essential HTN.
Keywords: hypertension at work, essential hypertension, mental stress, state anxiety, psychophysiological mechanisms, aspiration level, emotion regulation, repression of emotions.
This issue is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of O.K. Tikhomirov’s birth (1933 —2001). O.K. Tikhomirov was a professor of psychology at Lomonosov Moscow State University. He is widely known for the development of the Personal Meanings Theory of thinking that creatively extended and synthesized leading conceptions of Russian national psychology: cultural-historical and activity-based methodological approaches. At the same time, O.K.Tikhomirov was an expert in diverse Western psychological theories, and the person who brought Russian psychological traditions to America and Europe.
The extensive special section presents papers written by foreign and Russia colleagues of O.K. Tikhomirov as well as researchers who continue their working the frames of his scientific school. It opens with the review article “Contribution of Oleg K. Tikhomirov to the methodology, theory and experimental practice of psychology” by Julia D. Babaeva and colleagues. A very personal report by Yulia Solovieva and Luis Quintanar, illustrated with unique photos, tell us about O.K. Tikhomirov’s academic and educational work at Autonomous University of Puebla (UAP) in Mexico.
Keywords: Psychology in Russia: State of the Art Volume 6, Issue 4, 2013, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
Although heart surgery is one of the most effective methods in treating cardiovascular diseases, more than 50% of patients have problems in personal, social, professional adaptation after surgery (Pogosova, 1996).
According to recent studies, psychological factors contribute significantly to negative outcomes of coronary surgery. The main factors are: depression, anxiety, personal factors and character traits, social isolation, and chronic life stress (Blumental, 2003; Connerney, 2010; Contrada, 2008; Cserep, 2010, Gallagher, 2007; Hoyer, 2008; Pigney-Demaria, 2003; Rozancki, 1999; Rymaszewska, 2003; Viars, 2009, Zaitsev, 1997).
The aim of the article is to describe the association between psychological factors and the outcomes of coronary surgery. We have studied how the patient’s attitude towards forthcoming open heart surgery is associated with the outcomes.
We have picked out four types of attitude towards forthcoming heart surgery: 1) pessimistic (no belief in recovery, surgery is threatening, damaging), 2) indifferent (no belief in recovery, surgery will not change anything), 3) optimistic but not realistic (exaggerated expectations, belief in full recovery), 4) optimistic and realistic (adequate expectations, belief in improvement).
The study has shown that patients with optimistic-realistic attitudes towards forthcoming heart surgery have better outcomes, better emotional status, and shorter stays in hospital.
Keywords: heart surgery, nocebo effect, depression, anxiety, postoperative period
The main purpose of the present study was to assess the role of motivation in the effective cognitive activity of elderly hypertension (HTN) patients provided with antihypertensive treatment; 25 patients with HTN took part in the study, stage 1-2; their mean age was 67.6±6.1. The psychological examination program embraced a quantitative measurement of intelligence quotient (IQ) with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and an investigation into the qualitative features of their cognitive processes, applying a pathopsychological study procedure (Zeigarnik, 1962, 1972) and the principles of psychological syndrome analysis (Vygotsky-Luria-Zeigarnik school). The results showed that within the psychological syndrome structure of cognitive disorders in HTN patients, the leading part is played by two syndrome-generating factors: a neurodynamic factor and a motivational factor. The patients with reduced motivation would achieve poor general test results, if compared with the group of highly motivated participants. A correlation analysis of the data revealed the interconnection between frequency disturbances in motivation and the frequency in occurrence of various signs of cognitive decline, such as low efficiency in memorization and delayed recall, as well as lower IQ test results. The data provide a strong argument to support the hypothesis that motivation is of particular importance as a factor in the generation of cognitive disorders in HTN patients.
The first issue of 2014 opens with the special section “The Second Russian-Japanese Forum of Social Sciences and Humanities”. This forum was welcomed by Lomonosov Moscow State University in Ooctober 2013 and included a seminar on psychology. A team of researchers from the Graduate School of Arts and Letters of Tohoku University led by Dr. Tsuneyuki Abe, the head of Psychology Chair, and the Lomonosov Moscow State University Faculty of Psychology professors discussed current advances in psychological science in Russia and Japan with an emphasis on psychophysiology and social psychology. The corresponding section of the journal presents articles based on the seminar papers.
Tsuneyuki Abe, Juthatip Wiwattanapantuwong and Akio Honda explore the experience of a survivor in a great natural disaster. In the article “Dark, cold, and hungry, but full of mutual trust: Manners among the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake victims” they deconstruct simplified “urban legends” about extremely high levels of helpfulness among Japanese earthquake victims, and present valuable insights into actual resources promoting solidarity and support.
Keywords: Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 7, Issue 1, 2014, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
Extremism is seen as a complex, multilevel, and multicomponent phenomenon. The problems of modern science in understanding extremism are revealed. The following bases of extremism as a system phenomenon are singled out: social factors, latent extremism, and extremist acts. It is demonstrated that a system approach makes it possible to shape a notion of a subject as a system, to identify patterns of the manifestations of the given phenomenon, and to translate them into concrete practices.
Keywords: extremism, system approach, latent extremism, security, extremist outlook
This article deals with the role of security in shaping an individual’s standpoints, opinions, attitudes, and unique world picture. It is argued that security/insecurity is a subjective notion of individuals about the absence/presence of threats to their existence. The results of a study of the security notions maintained by Russians are described. The data obtained give grounds to suggest that the following characteristics exist in the ordinary consciousness of Russians: security is perceived as a state associated with inactivity; security is seen as the basis of harmonious interpersonal relations; security is considered a kind of “ideal world” and is understood as powerful. A typology of Russians based on the specifics of these security notions is presented.
Keywords: security, world picture, ordinary consciousness, typology, security factors
Keywords: Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Volume 7, Issue 2, 2014, Psychology in Russia: State of the Art
Yuri Petrovich Zinchenko is full professor in the Faculty of Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University. He earned a Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from Moscow State University in 1998. He is dean of the Faculty of Psychology and chair of Department of Methodology of Psychology at Moscow State University.
He is member of the Russian Academy of Education; president of the Russian Psychological Society; head clinical psychologist in the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation; member of Lomonosov MSU Academic Board; president of the Academic Board of the Faculty of Psychology (Lomonosov MSU); president of MSU Dissertation Committee D501.001.15; member of the Commission for Education of the Russian Academy of Sciences; chairman of the Psychological Section of the Education Board for Classical University Education of Russia; deputy chairman of the Psychology Expert Board of the State Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles at Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation); Honorary President of the Society of Law Enforcement Agencies’ Docteur Honoris Causa (Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Portugal); Psychologists; member of a number of scientific and methodological commissions and expert boards of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergency Management and Natural Disasters Response, the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, and the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation.
He is member of the Presidium of IUPsyS under UNESCO; member of the IAAP administration; member of the EFPA Executive Council; Honorary Member of the Human Science Center at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; Honorary Professor at the University Paris III (Sorbonne), France.
Dr. Zinchenko is a well-known scientist in Russia and abroad specializing in the methodology of psychology and the psychology of safety. He has successfully developed and applied Lev S. Vygotsky’s Cultural-Historical approach to fundamental psychological research from the perspective of postnonclassical methodology; applied this approach in several branches of psychological research, including the psychology of safety and counter-terrorism; together with academician Viktor A. Sadovnichy, suggested and used supercomputer calculations to process data packages and formalize patterns of functional state of human under extreme conditions; was the first scientist in Russia to have used the technologies of virtual reality (CAVE format) in psychological research; developed scientific and methodological recommendations on the implementation of safety practices aimed at preventing youth from getting involved in terrorist activities; developed a dynamic model of the psychological security of person and society; studied issues related to the ethics of conducting psychological research and psychological practice.
Dr. Zinchenko delivers lectures on the methodology of psychology, health psychology, psychology of safety and psychology of terrorism; has supervised two Drs. Sc. and 10 Cands. Sc. to date; was Head of the project “Developing a System of Innovative Education at Lomonosov MSU in the Field of Psychology” (part of the federal project Education), within the framework of which innovative programs of training masters in the psychology of safety and the psychology of negotiations and conflict resolution were launched. He has developed the Third Generation of Federal State Educational Standards for such special fields as “Theoretical and Experimental Psychology”, “Occupational Psychology”, “Clinical Psychology”, as well as for programs of training masters in psychology and the program of senior managers in the field of psychology of public service.
Dr. Zinchenko supervised the following scientific projects backed with grants from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation: “Conducting Fundamental Research in Psychology” (2009), “Elaboration of Innovation Methods of Research, Educational and Practical Activity of Psychologist with Application of Virtual Reality Technologies” (2009-2011), “Methodological Issues of Applying Modern IT to Psychology of Safety” (2010-2012), “Developing a Methodological Basis for Modeling Psychological and Psycophysiological Mechanisms of Human's Functional State through the Use of Supercomputers” (2011-2012). He headed the following research projects: “Socio-psychological Methods and Models of Increasing Effectiveness of Counter-Terrorist Activities” (2005-2006), “Psychological Methods and Models of Increasing Effectiveness of Counter-Terrorist Activities in Changing Russia” (2006-2008), “Methodological Bases of Virtual Reality Applications in Psychology” (2009-2011), “Tolerance as a Factor of Countering Xenophobia” (2010).
He was backed with a grant within the framework of the International Program of Russian-Swiss Scientific Collaboration (a research project “Executive functions in Preterm Born Children: Cognitive, Neuronal and Behavioral Aspects”, 2010-2011).
Dr. Zinchenko headed the following research projects in the field of health psychology carried out under the auspices of the Civic Chamber of the Russian Federation and the All-Russian Non-Governmental Organization “The League of National Health”: “Health Psychology: Innovations in Science, Education and Practice” (2006-2007), “The First Open All-Russian Student Competition of Social Advertising and Social Projects “Russia without Tobacco” (2009), “Psychological Support of Rehabilitation and Drug Addiction Prevention” (2011-2012).
Dr. Zinchenko has founded a scientific school rewarded with a grant from the President of the Russian Federation for the federal support of leading scientific schools of the Russian Federation. The school’s projects have been supported by the Federal Special Program “Scientific and Academic Staff in Innovative Russia for 2009-2013”.
He has over 180 scholarly publications, including those in foreign languages and is author and co-author of 46 books.
Dr. Zinchenko is the Editor-in-Chief of a number leading psychological journals: “Russian Psychological Journal”, “National Psychological Journal”, “The Moscow University Herald. Series 14. Psychology”, annual “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art”, and a member of the editorial boards of the journals “Methodology and History of Psychology”, “Psychology and Natural Science”, “Psychology and Social Studies”, “Cognitive Science”, “Bulletin of Practical Educational Psychology”, “Forensic Psychology”, “The World of Psychology”, “Bulletin of South Ural State University. Series “Psychology”, “Siberian Psychological Journal”. He is the Executive Editor of the series “Classical MSU University Textbook”, a member of the Scientific Editorial Board of the publishing house Ekonomika and a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the Russian Academy of Education.
Dr. Zinchenko has been decorated with the medals “In honor of the 850th Anniversary of Moscow” and “For Cooperation between Rescue Services”. He is the Russian Government Education Award recipient and Honored Fellow of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation.
(2015) Psychology of securit. Textbook. Moscow: Urait (co-author with A.Dontsov, E.Perelygina, & O.Zotova).
(2013) "Lomonosov" school competition in psychology: methodological recommendations. Moscow: KDU (co-author with Volodarskaya I.A., Matyushkina A.A., & Shilko R.S.).
(2012). Vygotsky, une théorie du développement et de l'éducation: recueil de textes et commentaires (Y.Zinchenko, & F.Yvon, Eds.). Moscow: MSU.
(2012). Macro-psychological aspects of Russia Security. Moscow: Optimum Group (co-author with A.Dontsov, E.Perelygina, & O.Zotova).
(2011). Methodological Issues of Security Psychology. Personality, Society, State. Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Psychology of Virtual Reality. Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Psychology of Public Service. Moscow: MSU (co-author with A.Soroko, A.Potapkin, &V.Fiveisky).
(2011). Sport Psychology. Moscow: MSU (co-author with A. Tonevitsky, A.Veraksa, S.Isaythchev, S.Leonov, et al.).
(2011). Theoretical and methodological foundation of psychological research: determination and social value. Moscow.
(2011). Tolerance as a Factor of Opposition to Xenophobia: Control of Xenophobia Risks in the Risk Society (Ed.). Moscow.
(2011). The person as a subject and an object of Media-Psychology (Ed.). Moscow: MSU
(2010). Security Foundation of Personality and Society. Moscow.
(2010). Psychology of Corporation Security. Moscow (co-author with E.Perelygina, I.Busygina, &O.Zotova).
(2008). Information and Psychological Security in Mass media. Moscow: Aspect Press.
(2008). Foundation of Security Psychology: functionality and integrity. Yekaterinburg (co-author with V.Gratchev, L. Zaks, et al.).
(2008). Contemporary Image of Russia: development prospects. Moscow (co-author with A.Otchirova, &L.Matveeva).
(2008). Philosophy of social sciences and humanities. Moscow: Academitchesky Project (co-author with V.Kapitsin, S.Lebedev, V.Ilyin, L.Ionin, et al.).
(2007). Innovational Education Programs in Psychology. Moscow: MSU (co-author with I.Volodarskaya).
(2007). Psychology in Moscow University, 1755-2005. Moscow: MSU.
(2007). Contemporary terrorism and struggle against it: social- humanitarian dimensions. Moscow (co-author with S.Aphonin, R.Shilko, et al.).
(2003). Clinical Psychology of Sexuality in the Context of Cultural-Historical Approach. Moscow.
Chapters in Books
(2012). Methodological issues of Art Psychology: from semiotic classics to postmodern nonclassics. In Collection of articles on art, philology and history (pp.129-139), Moscow: MSU.
(2012). L'héritage vygotskien dans la psychologie du développement en Union Soviétique. In Y.Zinchenko & F.Yvon (Eds.), Vygotsky, une théorie du développement et de l'éducation (pp.319-334). Moscow: MSU (co-author with L. Chaiguerova).
(2012). Vie et œuvres de L.S.Vygotsky: un parcours vers la psychologie culturelle-historique. In Y.Zinchenko & F.Yvon (Eds.), Vygotsky, une théorie du développement et de l'éducation (pp.27-60). Moscow: MSU (co-author with L.Chaiguerova & F.Yvon).
(2012). Virtualisation of reality and cultures: risks of socialisation in globalised world. In Dialog of Cultures during Globalisation. V.1 (pp.92-94). Saint-Petersburg.
(2012). Methodological foundation of application of virtual reality and super-calculators in psychology. In The V Congress of the Russian Psychological Society (pp.402-404). Moscow.
(2012). The Methodology of Syndrome Analysis of Vygotsky-Luria Approach and Postnonclassic Rationality. In N.K.Korsakova, &Yu.V.Mikadze (Eds.). Heritage of A.R.Luria in the contemporary scientific and cultural-historical context: To the 110 anniversary of A.R.Luria (pp.37-69). Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Models and Methods of Increasing of Information Security and Diagnostics of Xenophobia Risks in the Real and Virtual Worlds. In Tolerance as a factor of opposition to xenophobia: Control of Xenophobia Risks in the Risk Society (pp. 409-480). Moscow (co-author with L. Chaiguerova, R.Shilko, &A.Voiskunsky, et al.).
(2011). Virtual reality in experimental psychology: about methodology. In Yu.Zinchenko (Ed.). The person as a subject and an object of Media-Psychology (Ed.) (pp.58-75). Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Virtualisation of reality: from psychological tools to a new subculture. In Yu. Zinchenko (Ed.). The person as a subject and an object of Media-Psychology (Ed.) (pp.231-278). Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Mass media as an effective tool of prevention against social-psychological factors of development of terrorism. In Yu. Zinchenko (Ed.). The person as a subject and an object of Media-Psychology (Ed.) (pp.575-594). Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Coping Strategies. In A.Bodalev (Ed.) Psychology of Communication. Encyclopaedic dictionary (pp.409-410). Moscow: Cogito-Centre (co-author with R.Shilko).
(2011). Role of Mass Media in struggle against the terrorism. In Diplomatic Yearbook (pp.143-172). Moscow: East-West.
(2011). Virtual reality technologies: theory, practice and application to sport. In Yu.P.Zinchenko, &Tonevitsky (eds.). Sport Psychology (pp.377-392). Moscow: MSU.
(2008). Topical issues of security in the information space. In Informational and Psychological Safety (pp.9-14). Moscow: Aspect Press (co-author with E.Vartanova).
(2008). Psychological Aspects of Informational Security and opposition to terrorism by means of mass media. In Informational and Psychological Safety (pp.199-226). Moscow: Aspect Press (co-author with R.Shilko).
(2006). Psychological Aspects in Research of Terrorism. In Security, Terrorism and Privacy in Information Society (pp.123-126). Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann Verlag (co-author with R.Shilko).
(2006). Classification of psychological disorders. In Psychological lexicon: encyclopedia in 6 vol., V.1 (pp.15-18). Moscow: Per Se (co-author with R.Shilko).
(2006). Philosophical and methodological issues of psychology. In Philosophy of social sciences and humanities (pp.523-567). Moscow: Academitchesky project.
(2003). Clinical Psychology as a tool of study of sexual disorders. Bulletin of Ministry of Industry, Science and Technologies (pp.49-55). Moscow.
(2001). Pathopsychological aspects of PTSD. In Psychologists on Migrants and Migration in Russia. Information and Analytical Bulletin of the Russian Red Cross, №3 (pp.10-18). Moscow.
(1993). Sexualité en psychanalyse . In Archives de Psychanalyse (pp.21-25). Paris: Eolia.
(1992). Evolution of Concept "Symptom". In Unconscious: its manifestation and forms (pp.41-49). Moscow.