A Pilot Study to Assess the Psychometric Properties of the Job Apathy Scale with Russian Employees

A Pilot Study to Assess the Psychometric Properties of the Job Apathy Scale with Russian Employees

Abstract

Background. The Job Apathy Scale (JAS), developed by G.B. Schmidt (2017), has been widely used in industrial and organizational psychology. This scale examines two dimensions of job apathy, namely apathetic thought (weak interest in the job processes and unwillingness to develop strategies for the promotion of job efficacy) and apathetic action (investing little emotional energy in job tasks, coworkers, or the organization).

Objectives. 1) To examine the psychometric properties of the JAS with Russian employees; 2) to assess the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on job apathy.

Design. The sample was recruited using the convenience sampling method. Two hundred and seventy-five Russian employees were included in this cross-sectional study. In addition to the JAS, all participants completed measures assessing professional burnout, work engagement, and job satisfaction.Cronbach’s alpha values were used to assess the internal consistency of the JAS. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were employed to examine the factor structure of the JAS. The nonparametric Spearman rank order correlation coefficient was used to examine the convergent and divergent validity of the JAS. The Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to assess the sociodemographic differences in job apathy.

Results. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-dimensional structure of the JAS. The Cronbach’s alpha values were .86 and .73 for the apathetic thought scale and the apathetic action scale, respectively. Job apathy was positively correlated with professional burnout and was negatively correlated with work engagement and job satisfaction. There is evidence of convergent and divergent validity of the JAS. The analysis using a one-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect of age and marital status on job apathy: Younger and married employees are more prone to apathetic action than their older and single colleagues.

Conclusion. The JAS with the Russian employees is psychometrically reliable and valid, which argues for its scientific and practice-oriented applications.

Authors

Zolotareva, A.A.
National Research University "Higher School of Economics", Moscow, Russia

Received: 03.27.2020

Accepted: 07.14.2020

Themes: Organizational psychology

PDF: http://psychologyinrussia.com/volumes/pdf/2020_3/Psychology_3_2020_51-65_Zolotareva.pdf

Pages: 51-65

DOI: 10.11621/pir.2020.0304

Keywords: JAS; job apathy; psychometric properties; factor structure; reliability; validity; sociodemographic characteristics

Introduction

It is reasonable that modern employees may feel psychological distress in the workplace. A growing number of job tasks, work-family conflict, family-work conflict, and a general trend of increasing complexity are the reality for many employees around the world (Findlay, Kalleberg, & Warhurst, 2013; Kelly et al., 2014; Moczydłowska, 2016). Cadieux and Marchand (2014) investigated the role of working in the mental health of professionals and found that skill utilization, psychological demands, and job insecurity were positively correlated with psychological distress, whereas social support in the workplace was negatively related to psychological distress. It is known that psychological distress is characterized by three symptoms: depression, anxiety, and apathy (Simard, Hudon, & van Reekum, 2009). Haslam, Atkinson, Brown, and Haslam (2005) examined the effects of psychological distress and the treatment for these comorbid conditions on performance and safety in the workplace and found that depression and anxiety symptoms and psychotropic medications to treat them significantly impaired work performance. Unfortunately, they have not studied apathy, the third component of psychological distress in employees.

To date, there have been several studies evaluating job apathy. Csikszentmihalyi and LeFevre (1989) wondered what affects the quality of experience more: whether a person is at work or leisure, or whether a person is “in the flow”, defined as a combination of high challenges and skills. Analyzing data from 78 adult employees, they found that workers functioning in the flow reported more positive experiences in the workplace than those who were subject to apathy. Spector (1975) investigated the influence of organizational frustration and locus of control on emotional and behavioral reactions of employees to frustrating conditions. Analyzing the factor structure of the employee responses, he discovered a specific factor that he labeled “apathy about the job”. The items of this factor were represented by apathetic employee behavior and job frustration (e.g., “purposely did job incorrectly”, “taking any kind of drug at work to get high”). Later, Ladebo (2005) assessed the effects of work-related attitudes on the intention to leave the profession among primary school teachers in Nigeria. She used a job satisfaction scale and found a factor that she labeled “job apathy”. This factor comprised five items (e.g., “I feel isolated from my colleagues”, “I do not feel that I can choose my own tasks in relation to my teaching”). The job apathy subscale, encoded such that a higher score meant a lower level of job apathy, was positively correlated with a career commitment scale, a global job satisfaction index, and a quit intentions scale, where a higher score meant a lower intention to leave the profession. Thus, in the studies of Spector (1975) and Ladebo (2005), job apathy was found as a result of data factorization.

Finally, Schmidt, Park, Keeney, and Ghumman (2017) defined job apathy as “a state of diminished motivation and affect toward one’s job” (p. 486). They suggested that job apathy comprises three dimensions: apathetic emotion (emotional detachment from the job and organization), apathetic thought (little thought or mental attention being paid to the job or the workplace), and apathetic action (a lack of action in the workplace beyond what is absolutely required). Thus, “the apathetic worker should display signs of decreased affect toward the workplace, decreased mental investment in their job, and a lower level of effortful action toward workplace tasks” (Schmidt et al., 2017, p. 488).

Schmidt et al. (2017) developed the Job Apathy Scale (JAS), with data from a sample of employed college students supporting two dimensions: apathetic thought and apathetic action (according to the results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the apathetic emotion subscale and the apathetic thought subscale were combined). The authors suggested that, firstly, job apathy was distinct from clinical apathy, negative affectivity, cynicism, and employee engagement; and secondly, that job apathy can predict personal initiative, withdrawal, and organizational deviance. To date, there is only one study in which the JAS has been used. Ugwu et al. (2019) investigated job apathy in a Nigerian mass transit company. They found that apathetic employees reported being less engaged in work; they had less organizational tenure and spiritual intelligence than those with a high perception of leader integrity. The data confirmed the convergent validity of the JAS.

In consideration of the potential utility of the JAS, as well as its current unavailability in Russia, the main aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the JAS with Russian employees. The current study aimed to assess the factor structure of the JAS by performing exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and also to examine the reliability and validity of the Russian version of the JAS.

Several studies have assessed the proposed relationships among apathy, addiction, engagement, burnout, and satisfaction with life. Kirschner, Rabinowitz, Singer, and Dagher (2020) investigated the common mechanism of apathy and addictionin subjects with Parkinson’s disease. Holmes and his colleagues (2006) suggested that live interactive music has immediate and positive engagementeffects in apathetic individuals with dementia, regardless of the severity of their disease. Maslach and Jackson (1981) proposed that burnoutleads to irritability, frustration, excessive fatigue, and an apathetic attitude towards work. Montoya-Murillo, Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Peña, and Ojeda (2020) found that integrative cognitive rehabilitation program groups showed significant improvements compared to the control group in apathy and satisfaction with life. It was hypothesized that job apathy may be correlated with work addiction, work engagement, professional burnout, and job satisfaction.

Finally, the current study aims to assess the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on job apathy, in particular depending on gender, age, marital status, educational level, and work experience.

Method

Participants. This study is cross-sectional.The sample was recruited using the convenience sampling method. The participants were 369 Russian employees of an express delivery company working in the office in Moscow. They were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous survey. The sample was selected due to its availability for research. All employees were informed in advance about the aim of the study and they provided their informed consent to participate. They completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Data were collected between April and May 2019.

Instruments. The participants filled out a sociodemographic form and measures assessing job apathy, apathy, work addiction, work engagement, professional burnout, and job satisfaction.

Sociodemographic Form

The sociodemographic form covers gender, age, marital status, educational level, and work experience.

Job Apathy

The Job Apathy Scale(JAS) was developed by Schmidt et al. (2017) to examine job apathy as a type of selective apathy characterized by diminished motivation and affect toward one’s job. The JAS is a 10-item measure comprised of two subscales: apathetic thought (weak interest in the processes of the job and unwillingness to develop strategies for promoting job efficacy) and apathetic action (investing little emotional energy in job tasks, coworkers, or the organization). The study by Schmidt et al. (2017), conducted on a sample of 248 undergraduates and 442 working students, examined the factor structure, convergent, divergent, and criterion-related validity of the JAS and found that the original measure is psychometrically sound.

The translation of the JAS into Russian was carried out following the standard procedure recommended by Krach, McCreery, and Guerard (2017). In the first step, the author of this study translated the JAS from English to Russian. In the second step, a bilingual expert back-translated the Russian version of the JAS into English. In the third step, the back-translation was matched against the original English version, and the Russian version was then revised after resolving discrepancies. The back-translation was approved by Gordon Schmidt, the author of the original version of the JAS.

Apathy

The Apathy Scale(AS) was developed by Zolotareva (2020b) to measure apathy as a lack of interest in life activities or interactions with others. The scale consists of 12 items (e.g., “I am familiar with situations on the brink of despair”). Each item needs to be assessed using a 4-point scale from 1 (“disagree”) to 4 (“agree”). Zolotareva’s (2020a) study, conducted on both non-clinical and clinical samples (985 community subjects and 52 depressed patients), suggested that the AS had good psychometric properties.

Work Addiction

The Dutch Work Addiction Scale(DUWAS) was developed by Schaufeli, Taris, and Bakker (2006). Work addiction can be defined as “the compulsion or the uncontrollable need to work incessantly” (Oates, 1971, p. 11). The DUWAS consists of two subscales: working excessively (“It is hard for me to relax when I’m not working”) and working compulsively (“I often feel that there’s something inside me that drives me to work hard”). Patients were asked to rate their agreement with the statements on 4-point Likert scales from 1 (“almost never”) to 4 (“almost always”). Lovakov (2016) examined the psychometric properties of the Russian version of the DUWAS by using a sample of 1,783 Russian employees and reported that the adapted measure is reliable and valid.

Work Engagement

The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale(UWES-9) was developed by Schaufeli and Bakker (2003) to measure “a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption” (p. 4). The UWES-9 comprises 9 items integrated into three subscales: vigor (“At my job, I am very resilient, mentally”), dedication (“My job inspires me”), and absorption (“I feel happy when I am working intensely”) (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2003). Each item should be assessed on a 7-point scale from 0 (“never”) to 6 (“always, every day”). Schaufeli, Bakker, and Salanova (2006) found that the UWES-9 had good psychometric properties. Lovakov, Agadullina, and Schaufeli (2017) analyzed the psychometric properties of the Russian version of the UWES-9 by using a sample of 1,783 employees of a large Russian organization and found that the adapted measure is reliable and valid.

Professional Burnout

The Maslach Burnout Inventory(MBI) was developed by Maslach, Jackson, and Leiter (1997) to assess burnout as “a psychological syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among individuals who work with other people in some capacity” (p. 192). The MBI includes 22 items comprising three subscales: emotional exhaustion (feelings of being emotionally overextended and exhausted by one’s work), depersonalization (an unfeeling and impersonal response toward recipients of one’s service, care, or instruction), and personal accomplishment (feelings of competence and successful achievement in one’s work). Participants were asked to rate their agreement with the statements on 7-point Likert scales from 1 (“never”) to 7 (“daily”). Vodopjanova and Starchenkova (2008) assessed the psychometric properties of the Russian version of the MBI by using a sample of 947 Russian respondents and found that the adapted measure is reliable and valid.

Job Satisfaction

The Job Satisfaction Components Questionnaire(JSCQ) was developed by Ivanova, Rasskazova, and Osin (2012) to measure five job satisfaction dimensions: salary satisfaction, satisfaction with the organization of work, satisfaction with the leadership, satisfaction with the team, and satisfaction with the process and content of work. The JSCQ consisted of 19 items. Each item should be assessed on a 5-point scale from 1 (“disagree”) to 5 (“agree”). The study was conducted on a sample of 4,708 Russian employees, and the results suggested that the JSCQ had good psychometric properties.

Data Analysis

The data was analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0 and AMOS. First, descriptive analysis and internal consistencies were computed. Cronbach’s alpha values above 0.6 indicate a satisfying internal consistency (Cronbach & Meehl, 1955). Second, exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were employed to examine the factor structure of the Russian version of the JAS. The EFA results were assessed by using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkein measure of sampling adequacy. The CFA results were examined by using several indicators: Satorra-Bentler χ2, the comparative fit index (CFI), the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), and the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR). The model is considered acceptable for the values of  >.93 for the CFI, ≤.80 for the RMSEA, and ≤.60 for the SRMS (Hu & Bentler, 1999). Third, the nonparametric Spearman rank order correlation coefficient (r) was used to examine the convergent and divergent validity of the Russian version of the JAS. Correlations between .40 and .60 are considered as acceptable values (Nunnally, 1994). Fourth, the Student’s t-test and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to assess the sociodemographic differences in job apathy.Ap-value of ≤.05 was regarded as significant.

Results

Participant Characteristics

Two hundred and seventy-five employees (74.5%) responded to the invitation to participate in this study. The mean age of participants was 33.33 years (SD = 7.85) and the mean work experience was 4.56 years (SD = 4.47). Of these employees, 50.2% were female, 36.1% were single, 52.5% were married, and 11.4% were divorced. The educational level was: 5.5% secondary general education, 15.8% secondary vocational education, 16.9% unfinished higher education, 53.7% higher education, and 8.1% two or more higher educational degrees.

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics for the measures are presented in Table 1and descriptive statistics for the Russian version of the JAS items are presented in Table 2.

Table 1

Descriptive statistics for the measures

Measures

Mean (SD)

Cronbach’s α

Job Apathy Scale (JAS)

 

 

Apathetic thought

1.66 (.97)

.86

Apathetic action

1.99 (.99)

.73

Apathy Scale (AS)

1.92 (.55)

.81

Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS)

 

 

Work excessively

2.71 (.65)

.69

Work compulsively

2.46 (.65)

.71

Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9)

 

 

Vigor

3.82 (1.35)

.79

Dedication

4.08 (1.39)

.87

Absorption

4.28 (1.23)

.73

Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI)

 

 

Emotional exhaustion

2.61 (.93)

.75

Depersonalization

2.31 (.92)

.81

Personal accomplishment

4.26 (.74)

.89

Job Satisfaction Components Questionnaire (JSCQ)

 

 

Salary satisfaction

3.37 (1.04)

.84

Satisfaction with the organization of work

3.54 (.91)

.72

Satisfaction with leadership

3.77 (.84)

.79

Satisfaction with team

4.29 (.64)

.91

Satisfaction with the process and content of work

3.94 (.75)

.87

The Cronbach’s alpha values for the apathetic thought scale and the apathetic action scale scores were .86 and .73, respectively. The Cronbach’s alpha values are not excellent but are considered as the minimum acceptable criterion of an instrument’s internal consistency (Streiner, 2003). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were .86 (95% CI  = .83–.88, p < .001) and .73 (95% CI = .68–.78, p < .001), respectively, suggesting moderate reliability (Koo & Li, 2016).

Table 2

Descriptive statistics for the Russian version of the JAS items

JAS items and subscales

Mean (SD)

Cronbach’s α

(01)

It is difficult to become motivated in my job.

1.89 (1.08)

.85

(02)

I am indifferent toward my job.

1.49 (.87)

.82

(03)

I feel mentally checked out from work.

1.78 (1.04)

.83

(04)

I am emotionally detached from my job.

1.67 (1.01)

.83

(05)

My mood at work could be described as passive.

1.45 (.84)

.82

(06)

If I don’t find something needed for a work task I give up looking quite easily.

1.37 (.69)

.72

(07)

As long as I finish things assigned to me, I usually do not work harder than necessary.

1.72 (1.00)

.67

(08)

Producing work of average quality is good enough.

1.70 (.97)

.67

(09)

Whenever new tasks present themselves, I let others take them on.

2.79 (1.19)

.68

(10)

I refrain from volunteering to take on assignments.

2.40 (1.11)

.69

Factor Structure

The results of the EFA suggested that two factors explained over 58% of the variance. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test for measure of sampling adequacy showed 0.887, and Chi square for Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant (χ2 = 1019.369, df = 45, p < 0.001). The first factor corresponded to the apathetic thought subscale, and the second factor paralleled the apathetic action subscale.

The results of the CFA yielded a good fit to the data (Satorra-Bentler χ2(39) = 54.029, p = .055; CFI = .985; RMSEA = .038 (95% CI .000 to .060), SRMR = .059), providing construct validity (Perry, Nicholls, Clough, & Crust, 2015). The significant correlation between the two scales of the JAS (r = .77, p < .001) supported nomological validity (Hagger, Gucciardi, & Chatzisarantis, 2017). The factor loadings for each item are displayed in Table 3.

Table 3

Factor loadings for the Russian version of the JAS items

Subscale item

EFA

CFA

Apathetic thought

 

 

(01)

It is difficult to become motivated in my job.

.70

.65

(02)

I am indifferent toward my job.

.84

.83

(03)

I feel mentally checked out from work.

.76

.71

(04)

I am emotionally detached from my job.

.79

.73

(05)

My mood at work could be described as passive.

.88

.83

Apathetic action

 

 

(06)

If I don’t find something needed for a work task I give up looking quite easily.

.55

.69

(07)

As long as I finish things assigned to me, I usually do not work harder than necessary.

.65

.53

(08)

Producing work of average quality is good enough.

.73

.53

(09)

Whenever new tasks present themselves, I let others take them on.

.80

.42

(10)

I refrain from volunteering to take on assignments.

.64

.47

Note. Factor loadings with correspondent factors.

Evidence of Convergent and Divergent Validity

The correlations between the Russian version of the JAS subscales and other measures are presented in Table 4. Both apathetic thought and apathetic action were positively correlated with apathy and professional burnout and were negatively correlated with work engagement and job satisfaction, providing convergent and divergent validity evidence of the JAS subscale scores’ interpretations (Raykov, 2011). There was no significant correlation between job apathy and work addiction.

Table 4

Correlations between the Russian version of the JAS and other measures

Measures

Apathetic thought

Apathetic action

Apathy

.55a

.45a

Work addiction

Working excessively

.01

–.08

Working compulsively

.05

–.05

Work engagement

Vigor

–.53a

–.42a

Dedication

–.63a

–.50a

Absorption

–.46a

–.36a

Professional burnout

Emotional exhaustion

.53a

.36a

Depersonalization

.57a

.33a

Personal achievement

–.54a

–.42a

Job satisfaction

Salary satisfaction

–.37a

–.17b

Satisfaction with the organization of work

–.38a

–.16b

Satisfaction with leadership

–.42a

–.22a

Satisfaction with team

–.50a

–.35a

Satisfaction with the process and content of work

–.63a

–.47a

Note. ap < .001, bp < .01.

The Influence of Sociodemographic Characteristics on Job Apathy

There were no significant gender differences in job apathy. The analysis using a one-way ANOVA with post-hoc tests revealed a significant effect of age and marital status on job apathy. Younger employees (age 30 and under) are more prone to apathetic action than their older colleagues (age 31 and under) and single employees are less prone to apathetic action than married and divorced employees. Educational level and work experience do not affect job apathy. The findings are presented in Table 5.

Table 5

The influence of sociodemographic characteristics on job apathy

Characteristic

Apathetic thoughts

Apathetic actions

Mean (SD)

Difference

Mean (SD)

Difference

Gender

 

 

t = .09, p>.05

 

t = .89, p>.05

Male

8.26 (3.67)

 

10.16 (3.76)

 

Female

8.31 (4.11)

 

9.79 (3.22)

 

Age

 

 

F(2)=1.802, p>.05

 

F(2)=5.642, p<.01

30 and less 

8.91 (3.88)

 

10.88 (3.46)

 

31 to 40 

7.92 (4.11)

 

9.31 (3.53)

 

41 and more

8.08 (3.18)

 

9.59 (3.63)

 

Marital status

 

 

F(2)=.742, p>.05

 

F(2)=3.386, p<.05

Single

7.99 (3.73)

 

9.44 (3.26)

 

Married

8.63 (4.68)

 

10.54 (3.33)

 

Divorced

8.56 (3.86)

 

10.59 (4.69)

 

Educational level

 

 

F(4)=1.003, p>.05

 

F(4)=.552, p>.05

Secondary general education

9.67 (3.74)

 

10.81 (3.21)

 

Secondary vocational education

8.42 (3.89)

 

10.28 (3.78)

 

Unfinished higher education

8.02 (3.97)

 

10.24 (3.56)

 

Higher education

8.25 (3.79)

 

9.73 (3.41)

 

Two or more higher educational degrees

7.18 (3.65)

 

9.73 (3.81)

 

Work experience

 

 

F(3)=.846, p>.05

 

F(3)=1.467, p>.05

Less than a year

8.03 (3.82)

 

10.08 (3.71)

 

1 to 3 years

8.79 (4.19)

 

9.58 (3.44)

 

3 to 10 years

7.97 (3.83)

 

10.41 (3.51)

 

More than 10 years

7.78 (3.33)

 

9.09 (3.14)

 

Discussion    

The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the JAS with Russian employees. The results of the EFA and CFA showed that the Russian version of the JAS includes the two dimensions of apathetic thought and apathetic action. The first refers to emotional detachment from the job and organization and the little thought or attention being paid to the job or the workplace. The second implies a lack of action in the workplace beyond the absolute minimum. Regarding reliability, Cronbach's alpha values were satisfactory. Regarding validity, this research indicated a significant positive correlation between job apathy and professional burnout, as well as significant negative correlations between job apathy, work engagement, and job satisfaction.

Among prior studies, Blau and Boal (1987) described apathetic employees with low organizational commitment and low job involvement. Empirical studies have confirmed that job apathy is correlated with work engagement (Ugwu, 2019), professional burnout (Schmidt et al., 2017), and job satisfaction (Ladebo, 2005).

Finally, there was no significant correlation in the present study between job apathy and work addiction. In research that may bear on this issue, de Azevedo and da Silva Telles Mathias (2017) found that low quality of life may have negative outcomes, “such as increased absenteeism, lack of interest in activities, increased work-related accidents, apathy, muscle tension, tachycardia, headache, depression, sleep changes, as well as other physical, psychic and social problems” (p. 131). Perhaps quality of life can be a mediator between job apathy and work addiction, because the outcomes mentioned earlier may affect professional motivation (Andrade, Andrade, & Leite, 2015).

This study found that age and marital status are important factors in explaining job apathy. It was found that younger and married employees are more prone to apathetic action than their older and single colleagues. The relationship between marital status and job apathy can be explained by the constructs of family-work conflict and work-family conflict. For instance, Reddy, Vranda, Ahmed, Nirmala, and Siddaramu (2010) found that family-work conflict and work-family conflict lead to lower life satisfaction and greater internal conflict within the family. Furthermore, Warokka and Febrilia (2015) found that work-family conflict reduces job satisfaction, while family-work conflict encourages married employees to leave their jobs. There are no empirical studies on the relationship between job apathy, age, and educational level. However, Haley, Mostert, and Els (2013) suggested that young employees experience higher levels of burnout when compared to older employees, while older employees seemed to be more dedicated than their younger colleagues. Some researchers have written that “low educational level increases apathy and high educational level decreases apathy”, and that “apathy increases with younger age and decreases with older age” (Awosan, 2009, p. 115). Guliyev (2018) found that the decline in educational quality has contributed a great deal to public apathy in Azerbaijan. Thus, it can be assumed that the sociodemographic patterns of job apathy are a considerable issue requiring specific research.

The current study has several limitations. First, the research is cross-sectional, and it does not necessarily support the hypothesis that job apathy causes a high level of professional burnout and low levels of work engagement and job satisfaction. The future direction proposed for research is the experimental assessment of outcomes of job apathy among Russian employees. In particular, it appears necessary to examine the role of job apathy in career success, employee efficiency, work-family balance, psychological well-being of employees, and business and personal relationships between employees and management staff. Second, the fairly small sample from a single organization imposes meaningful constraints on the research. The sample for this study does not allow standardization of the JAS. Therefore, future studies should assess job apathy in a representative sample of employees from organizations covering a range of different employment sectors and professional activities. Third, the sample was recruited using the convenience sampling method, whereas both systematic sampling and stratified sampling methods have proven to be more reliable. Standardization of the JAS will enable devising diagnostic standards for apathetic thought and apathetic action scores that can be applied to the Russian population. Finally, a question that was not addressed in the current study is the possibility of social desirability bias in the Russian version of the JAS, although it is known that many measures assessing negative psychological states and features are subject to social desirability bias (van de Mortel, 2008).

Overall, this pilot study has shown that the JAS was reliable and valid in a small sample of Russian employees, arguing for its scientific and practice-oriented potential. The scientific potential of the JAS is that it can be used in organizational psychology research, specifically to validate other questionnaires and mass research on the organizational and psychological characteristics of employees in Russia. The practice-oriented potential of the JAS is that it can be an effective instrument for screening and monitoring job apathy when choosing candidates for a job, making personnel decisions, and performing routine psychological assessment with staff.

Acknowledgments

The research was supported by the grant of the President of the Russian Federation for the state support of young Russian scientists and candidates of sciences (project No. MK-541.2020.6).

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To cite this article: Zolotareva, A.A. (2020). A Pilot Study to Assess the Psychometric Properties of the Job Apathy Scale with Russian Employees. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 13(3), 51-65.

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