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ISSN - 2074-6857

Clinical Psychology


Y.P. Zinchenko, E.I. Pervichko, O.D. Ostroumova (2013). Motivation as a factor affecting the efficiency of cognitive processes in elderly patients with hypertension. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 186-198

The main purpose of the present study was to assess the role of motivation in the effective cognitive activity of elderly hypertension (HTN) patients provided with antihypertensive treatment; 25 patients with HTN took part in the study, stage 1-2; their mean age was 67.6±6.1. The psychological examination program embraced a quantitative measurement of intelligence quotient (IQ) with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and an investigation into the qualitative features of their cognitive processes, applying a pathopsychological study procedure (Zeigarnik, 1962, 1972) and the principles of psychological syndrome analysis (Vygotsky-Luria-Zeigarnik school). The results showed that within the psychological syndrome structure of cognitive disorders in HTN patients, the leading part is played by two syndrome-generating factors: a neurodynamic factor and a motivational factor. The patients with reduced motivation would achieve poor general test results, if compared with the group of highly motivated participants. A correlation analysis of the data revealed the interconnection between frequency disturbances in motivation and the frequency in occurrence of various signs of cognitive decline, such as low efficiency in memorization and delayed recall, as well as lower IQ test results. The data provide a strong argument to support the hypothesis that motivation is of particular importance as a factor in the generation of cognitive disorders in HTN patients.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Pervichko, Elena I. ; Ostroumova, Olga D.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  186-198
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0417
Keywords:  hypertension at work, essential hypertension, mental stress, state anxiety, psychophysiological mechanisms, aspiration level, emotion regulation, repression of emotions.

C. Anauate (2013). Psychological problems of late adoption as observed in Brazil through a cultural-historical approach. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 176-185

This work discusses certain cultural-historical concepts relating to late adoption. This term is used for the adoption of children over 2 years old. Unfortunately most people do not wish to adopt children over 2 years old. Generally they seek newborn babies, which are a rare population, probably because of birth control campaigns. The children who are available in orphanages are older children who are unwanted. This paper tries to deal with this issue emphasizing that relationships are built within a family, transforming those involved. It lays out principles for a successful adoption and illustrates this matter with a case study. Relationships should be provided so that people can interact. This interaction will lead to the transformation of all of those involved within the established relationship, which constitute the human being. We intend to demystify the difficult matter of late adoption, which is one of the key aspects concerning the return of the child to an orphanage. The adaptation of late adopted children is said to be more difficult, but when we believe that human beings can change and be modified through the relationships they establish, we see a promising possibility for late adoption. Late adoption can be successful when we view it from a relational point of view, stressing that relationships transform all the individuals involved within the group.

About the authorsAnauate, Carla
ThemesClinical psychology; Family psychology; Developmental psychology
Pages:  176-185
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0416
Keywords:  adoption, relationship, mediation, transformation, children, cultural-historical

I.K. Makogon, S.N. Enikolopov (2013). Problems with the assessment of shame and guilt. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 168-175

Moral emotions play a significant role in human behavior, and yet scholars are not unanimous in defining, differentiating, and measuring the basic moral experiences: shame and guilt. Because of this problem, the theory goes far beyond the empirical research on these emotions.

In this article we analyze the most widely accepted points of view on the difference between guilt and shame; those who espouse each point of view suggest their own assessment tools. Thus, one of the often-used methods, the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 (TOSCA-3) (Tangney, Dearing, Wagner, & Gramzow, 2000), is based on a theory that differentiates shame and guilt according to where the negative evaluation of the misbehavior is aimed (at one’s actions or at one’s self). Another widely used questionnaire, the Dimensions of Conscience Questionnaire (DCQ) (Johnson et al., 1987), differentiates these emotions on the basis of whether the event causing them is public or personal.

The latest studies have shown that those methods are not contradictory. In addition, both the TOSCA-3 and the DCQ have their disadvantages; for example, they do not differentiate between emotional and behavioral aspects of guilt and shame. Thus, there is a need to develop a new assessment scale that overcomes these disadvantages. One such scale is the Guilt and Shame Proneness Scale (GASP) (Cohen, Wolf, Panter, & Insko, 2011). The research conducted by its authors has established its reliability and validity, which allow us to consider the GASP as a progressive tool in assessing moral emotions, one that has great theoretical and practical value.

About the authorsEnikolopov, Sergey N. ; Makogon, Irina K.
ThemesClinical psychology; Psychological assessment
Pages:  168-175
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0415
Keywords:  shame, guilt, moral emotions, psychological assessment tools, TOSCA-3, GASP

L.A. Bokeria, Y.P. Zinchenko, M.G. Kiseleva (2013). Psychological factors and outcomes of coronary surgery. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6(4), 160-167

Although heart surgery is one of the most effective methods in treating cardiovascular diseases, more than 50% of patients have problems in personal, social, professional adaptation after surgery (Pogosova, 1996).

According to recent studies, psychological factors contribute significantly to negative outcomes of coronary surgery. The main factors are: depression, anxiety, personal factors and character traits, social isolation, and chronic life stress (Blumental, 2003; Connerney, 2010; Contrada, 2008; Cserep, 2010, Gallagher, 2007; Hoyer, 2008; Pigney-Demaria, 2003; Rozancki, 1999; Rymaszewska, 2003; Viars, 2009, Zaitsev, 1997).

The aim of the article is to describe the association between psychological factors and the outcomes of coronary surgery. We have studied how the patient’s attitude towards forthcoming open heart surgery is associated with the outcomes.

We have picked out four types of attitude towards forthcoming heart surgery: 1) pessimistic (no belief in recovery, surgery is threatening, damaging), 2) indifferent (no belief in recovery, surgery will not change anything), 3) optimistic but not realistic (exaggerated expectations, belief in full recovery), 4) optimistic and realistic (adequate expectations, belief in improvement).

The study has shown that patients with optimistic-realistic attitudes towards forthcoming heart surgery have better outcomes, better emotional status, and shorter stays in hospital.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Bokeria,Leo A. ; Kiseleva, Maria G.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  160-167
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0414
Keywords:  heart surgery, nocebo effect, depression, anxiety, postoperative period