Background. The spread of COVID-19 has forced organizations to quickly offer remote work arrangements to employees.
Objective. The study focuses on remote work during the first wave of the pandemic and describes how Russian employees experienced remote work. The research has three main objectives: (1) to investigate the influence of gender and age on employees’ perceptions of remote work; (2) to investigate the relationship between remote work and psychosocial variables, such as remote work stress, remote work engagement, and family–work conflict; (3) to examine whether and how much such psychosocial factors are related to remote work satisfaction and job performance. These objectives were the basis for developing six hypotheses.
Design. A cross-sectional study involved 313 Russian employees. Data were collected using an online survey distributed in April and May 2020. The hypotheses were tested using ANOVA, correlations, and multiple linear regression analyses.
Results. Women experienced more stress and more engagement when working remotely; older employees perceived remote work as a less positive experience; opinions about remote work and remote work engagement were positively related to remote work satisfaction; leader–member exchange (LMX) was a significant predictor of job performance.
Conclusion. During the lockdown, remote work was perceived as a positive experience. We discuss some practical implications for organizations and managers.
Remote work stress/ remote work engagement/ family–work conflict/ opinions about remote work/ leader–member exchange
The Psychological Space of Professionals’ Trust and Distrust in Socio-Technical Systems
Background. The spatial aspect of professionals’ trust and distrust in socio-technical systems has not been sufficiently explored. The study of its structure, criteria for spatial distribution, and interrelationships of elements is of both scientific and practical interest.
Objective. To perform a comparative analysis of the trust and distrust experienced by professional operators in a socio-technical system of subject–subject and subject–object interactions.
Design. This work is based on A.B. Kupreychenko’s methodological approach to studying trust and distrust in socio-technical systems, adapted by the authors to the railway transport system in Russia. The subjects were 86 locomotive crew members. The main focus was on their trust/distrust in the operation of the socio-technical (railway transport) system, including their workmates, managers, and themselves, as well as the technical objects they operate (locomotives), manufacturers of railway equipment, and conditions of its operation.
Results. The authors identified two relatively independent groups of indicators of trust/distrust in subject–subject and subject–object interactions. Trust in the elements of subject–subject interactions (involving workmates, managers, and the study participants themselves as specialists) was reliably higher than their trust in the elements of subject–object interactions (technical objects, manufacturers of railway equipment, and conditions of its operation). The correlations between trust and distrust in the elements of the socio-technical system were positive.
Conclusions. Trust and distrust perform the functions of integrating/differentiating elements of a socio-technical system according to their predictability in various operating conditions. The degree of trust/distrust in the system elements and their “location” in the space of trust/distrust are important when professionals make decisions in the course of performing professional actions. The results of the study can be used for designing socio-technical systems to increase the predictability of their operation in unstable conditions.
Background. Patients with Celiac Disease (CD) experience psychological disorders
and emotion-regulation disruptions. Although following a gluten-free diet alleviates
their symptoms, these patients report social relationship problems.
Objective. The first aim of this study was to analyze the level of FFMQ mindfulness
(describing emotions, acting with awareness, observing, non-judging of inner
experience, and non-reactivity to inner experience) and harmony in life (HiL)
in patients with CD. The second goal was to examine the relationship between the
FFMQ and HiL scales in patients with CD. The third was to detect the effects of the
duration of the illness, education level, and employment status on FFMQ-measured
mindfulness and HiL.
Design. The study involved 111 Turkish patients with CD (N Females = 75,
67.6%) living in Turkey. The patients filled out the FFMQ and HiL questionnaires via
a google form survey. The duration of their diagnosis, age, employment status, and
education level were nominal variables. A Pearsons’ correlation test, independent ttest,
multiple linear regression, and one-way ANO VA were implemented.
Results. The results showed that patients with CD had a low level of HiL. The
total FFMQ score was positively related to the HiL scale. Education and duration
of diagnosis had a significant impact on the FFMQ and HiL scores. Age affected the
level of describing emotions, and employment status had a strong effect on acting
with awareness. However, gender affected neither the FFMQ nor HiL levels.
Conclusion. The results showed that patients with CD expressed a low level of
HiL. Non-reactivity to inner experience, observing, and acting with awareness were
positive predictors of the HiL scores. Moreover, since the HiL and FFMQ scales
showed high internal consistency, the FFMQ and HiL questionnaires can be used in
further studies of patients with CD.
FFMQ/ mindfulness/ celiac disease/ harmony in life/ duration of diagnosis
Trends in the Study of Cultural-historical Phenomena on the Internet (based on a study of Russians’ attitudes towards money)
Background. The development of information technologies has led to the intensification of sociocultural interaction, allowed the creation of new systems for storing and processing information, and provided space for users to share their opinions, ideas, and standpoints. Thus, the Internet has become a major social-humanitarian scientific space. In this modern scientific space, one can single out a wide range of studies in psychology that show which topics are most popular and most widely discussed, or which moral grounds the participants of radical political movements share. Such studies show, for example, that U.S. working people experience psycho-physiological strain, and that infectious diseases spread more easily under modern conditions.
Objective. This study focused on the attitude that users of the Twitter social network hold towards money.
Design. It was carried out by analyzing the texts of messages posted by Russian and Japanese users (background research) which contained the word “money.” The research methods included program tools for word frequency analysis, semantic grouping of content, and analyzing the emotional nature of informal short messages. To interpret the results, the authors used expert analysis, theoretical justification, and content analysis.
Results. We found that Russians’ attitudes toward money can be divided into eight main categories: people, time, country, expenses, economy, philosophical speculations, power, and income. The main economic concerns were centered on the expenses and income coming from salaried jobs. Russians’ major expenses were mainly associated with everyday financial problems. A comparison of Russian and Japanese messages revealed a number of clear-cut psychological differences.
Conclusion. In conclusion, we point out that analyzing “digital traces” helps uncover a variety of psychological factors influencing human life and behavior. Within the framework of this kind of study, it seems very promising to single out the interconnection between the population’s overall psychological features and a given society’s existing social-economic circumstances.
Attitude toward money/ social networks/ information technologies/ ideas about income and expenses/ attitude toward time/ expert analysis
Differences in Attitudes toward Mental Health among Boys from Religious and Non-religious Families Experiencing Religious and Secular Education
Background. Post-industrial society faces multiple stresses and developmental risks, both environmental and biological. The issues of mental health have become more dramatic and subject to debate. The current discourse about the religiosity-mental health nexus makes the study of differences in attitudes towards mental health among children from religious and non-religious families experiencing religious and secular education significant and relevant for practice.
Objective. We studied the attitudes toward different spheres of life of children from Orthodox and non-religious families experiencing religious and secular education. We hypothesized differences in attitudes toward mental health by children from Orthodox families and non-religious families regardless of school choice. We expected the positive attitudes toward mental health to be greater for the children experiencing religious and secular education.
Design. Our study assessed 340 primary school boys on a number of measures. The boys’ average age was 10.4 years old. The participants were divided into three groups, taking into consideration the family’s religiosity and educational characteristics.
Results. The boys from Orthodox families had more positive attitudes toward family, life, people, their bodies, and their mental health than the boys from non-religious families. These differences were also significant between groups of boys from religious and non-religious families experiencing secular education. The boys from religious families experiencing religious education had more positive attitudes toward their physical and mental health than the boys from religious families experiencing secular education.
Conclusion. Positive attitudes toward both physical and mental health are more likely to be formed within religious families.
Background. Kindness and acts of kindness have the potential to cause tremendously positive effects on subjective well-being, reflected in improvements in mental and physical health, and interpersonal relationships. Fostering knowledge about kindness may help in self-development and psychotherapeutic interventions aimed to improve an individual’s emotional well-being. However, existing research data and understanding of this phenomenon in Russia, as well as descriptions of acts of kindness, are presently relatively limited.
Objective. To study the Russian understanding of kindness, its meaning in the Russian context; to categorize a variety of identified acts of kindness; and to define kindness based on the data derived from a Russian sample.
Design. There were 291 Russian participants, recruited using an online recruiting platform, who filled out an online questionnaire that identified definitions of kindness with corresponding examples. Also captured in the sample were the participant’s age, gender, and religiosity. The data underwent qualitative analysis through open, axial, and focused coding.
Results. As a result of qualitative analysis, four theme categories emerged to define kindness: a) personal states and qualities (one’s own states and self-perception, moral values and qualities, self-regulation and emotional stability); b) openness to others (attention to others, love and positive attitude); c) emotional and cognitive understanding of others and tolerance, actions and behavior(altruistic sacrifice, help, politeness and respect, forgiveness, generosity, pleasing actions). Concrete examples of kind acts and behavior were categorized. A definition of kindness was formulated based on the data.
Conclusion. The research results can be used in training, counselling, and therapeutic sessions to increase subjective well-being. Directions for further research have been defined.
Acts of kindness/ kind behavior/ kindness/ network of kindness/ prosocial behavior/ well-being
Fake News through the Eyes of Three Generations of Russians: Differences and Similarities in Social Representations
Background. The problem of fake news becomes especially prominent during periods of social exacerbation, such as the coronavirus pandemic, wherein the events have a significant impact on many lives. Generational differences are considered as a factor affecting perceptions of the reliability of news.
Objective.The aim of this study was to reveal and compare the social representations of information reliability and news verification criteria among people belonging to the Generation of Reforms (born 1968-1981), the Millennial Generation (1982-2000) and Generation Z (2001 and later) in Russia.
Design. The study involved 431 participants and was comprised of two stages: focus groups and a survey. The data analysis methods employed were thematic analysis, qualitative and quantitative content analysis, coefficient of positive answers (according to J. Abric), Kruskal-Wallis H test, Pearson's chi-square test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and Kendall's t-rank correlation coefficient.
Results. We have found significant differences between the Generation of Reforms (CPA: 80,5; p = 0,000) and Generation Z (CPA: 90,2; p = 0,000), and similarities between the Millennial Generation (CPA: 90,3; p = 0,000) and Generation Z, in the structure and content of social representations regarding “fakes”. Notably, Generation Z favors a fact-checking strategy to identify news reliability, while “Reformists” rely on offline contacts.
Conclusion.Generations in Russia differ with respect to their tolerance of “fakes” and their strategies for news verification. The results advance our understanding of “fakes” as purely social constructs. The attribution of media incompetence to older and younger cohorts by each other was discussed as the generational conflict.
generation/ social representations/ fake news/ media trust/ Generation Z/ Millennials
New Psychometric Evidence of a Bifactor Structure of the Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) in Ecuadorian College Students
Background. Emotion Regulation comprises a set of strategies (cognitive, emotional, and physiological) that allow individuals faced with internal or external stimuli to manage their emotional response, to adapt to the environment, and to achieve goals. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) is used to assess Emotion Regulation. It has been translated into several languages (including Spanish) and has been adapted around the world, but its psychometric properties have not been tested in Ecuador.
Objective. To confirm the bifactor structure of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and its reliability in a sample of Ecuadorian college students.
Design. A quantitative and instrumental study using Confirmatory Factor Analysis with Robust Maximum Likelihood estimation. The sample consisted of 400 participants (62.5% women), aged 18 to 25 (M = 21.1; SD = 1.95) from two universities in Ecuador and seven different undergraduate courses.
Results. The bifactor model of the test is confirmed with an adequate adjustment ꭓ2 = 35.99; p > .001; ꭓ2/df = 1.43; CFI = .98; TLI = .96; SRMR = .034; and RMSEA = .033 CI95%: [.033–.052]; ωH = .70; ωHs1 = .23; ωHs2 = .35. Reliability is high with ω = .86 CI95%: [.81–.88].
Conclusion. The bifactor model of the ERQ is an adequate and reliable test to assess Emotion Regulation among Ecuadorian college students.
Background. Multitasking is a rapidly evolving construct and we are in dire need of a sound tool for measuring multitasking behaviors and abilities across socio-cultural contexts. To this end, this study has put forward a cultural adaptation (through back translation) of an already developed (Kushniryk, 2008) measure i.e., Communication Specific Multitasking Measurement Instrument.
Objective. This study is intended to translate, adapt, and validate a multitasking measure i.e., Communication Specific Multitasking Measurement Instrument (CSMMI; Kushniryk, 2008) in the context of collectivist culture in Pakistan.
Design. The study was composed of two parts. The first part was completed in two phases. Phase I employed back and forward translation methods to translate the multitasking measure into an indigenous language. Phase II provided empirical validity of the translated and adapted instrument (CSMMI) using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on data collected from a sample of 230 married individuals. The second part of the study was designed to establish construct validity of the translated instrument using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on a larger data set of married individuals.
Results. EFA using a varimax rotation on all 19 items of CSMMI showed that the instrument is a three-dimensional measure. CFA confirmed that the translated and adapted instrument is also a three-dimensional measure on the larger data set. Analysis of the intraclass correlation and alpha coefficient provided sound evidence for validity and reliability of the measure (CSMMI).
Conclusion. The findings of this study indicate that the translated and adapted multitasking measure (CSMMI) is reliable and valid when applied to the culturally collectivist population of Pakistan. This also pertains to any other populations where the translation is adequately applicable.
Background. Whereas sleep and emotion are important factors affecting false memory, there is a lack of empirical research on the interaction effect of sleep and emotion on false memory. Moreover, it should be investigated further that how the effects of emotion on false memory varies from presenting emotional content to eliciting emotional state.
Objective. To examine how sleep and varying emotional context influence false memories. We predicted that sleep and emotion would interactively affect false memory when participants are presented with negative words in a learning session (Experiment 1) or when their emotional state is induced before a learning session (Experiment 2).
Design. We used the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) task. Emotional words were used to elicit emotion during learning in Experiment 1 and video clips were used to induce a particular mood state before learning in Experiment 2. Participants were divided into a “sleep group” and a “wake group” and completed an initial learning session either in the evening or in the morning respectively. After a learning session, participants in the sleep group slept at night as usual and completed a recognition test in the morning, while participants in the wake group stayed awake during the daytime and completed their recognition test in the evening. All participants completed a recognition test after the same period of time.
Results. In Experiment 1, the wake group falsely recognized more negative critical lure words than neutral ones, but no such difference existed in the sleep group, suggesting that sleep modulated the emotional effect on false memory. In Experiment 2, participants in either a positive or negative mood state showed more false recognition than those in a neutral state. There was no such difference in the wake group. We conclude that sleep and emotion interactively affect false memory.
False memory/ sleep/ emotion/ mood/ DRM
The Role of Valence and Uniqueness of Emotions in the Context of Infrahumanization Theory
Background. Infrahumanization is a result of group comparison when the ingroup is considered as fully human in comparison to an outgroup that is viewed as lacking humanness and similar to animals. Infrahumanization theory proposed that the attribution of emotions to ingroups and outgroups is based on their uniqueness, regardless of the valence of these emotions. Since the valence of information plays an important role in its processing and perception, it was decided to clarify the role of uniqueness and valence.
Objective. This article aims to explore the role of valence and uniqueness in the perception of emotions within the framework of the infrahumanization theory.
Design. Three studies were conducted. A preliminary study selected emotions with extreme values for uniqueness and valence to create a list for measuring infrahumanization for the Russian socio-cultural context. In Study 1, we tested three alternative models of perception of emotions’ uniqueness and valence. In Study 2, we replicate the results from Study 1 and check the robustness of the models obtained.
Results. In a preliminary study (N = 146), twelve emotions with different levels of uniqueness and valence were selected for the Russian socio-cultural context. CFA was used for testing the models in Studies 1 and 2. The results of Study 1 (N = 243) demonstrated the role of valence and uniqueness in the perception of emotions. Study 2 (N = 482) confirmed the results obtained in Study 1.
Conclusion. For the first time, the infrahumanization measure was adapted to the Russian socio-cultural context. Infrahumanization research should control valence for a qualitative discussion of the results.