Zalevskii, G.V. (2021). Fixed Forms of Behavior as Excessively Rigid Behavior in Normal and Pathological Individual and Group Systems. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 14(1), 2-18. DOI: 10.11621/pir.2021.0101
Background. This article is devoted to the problem of excessively rigid behavior, which the author has named “fixed forms of behavior” (FFB). This term was suggested to me by the concepts of P. Janet (idéefixe), S. Freud (Fixierung), and D. Uznadze (fiksirovanaya ustanovka– fixed set/attitude). By FFB, the author understands a broad spectrum of behaviors of a person or a group of people, which, according to the cultural norms of a given society for persons of a certain age, gender, and status,have become inappropriate, yet are repeated in situations objectively requiring that they change; the degree of realization and acceptance of the need for this change can vary.
Results. Through literature analysis and the collection of experimental data over many years of research, in which over 1,150 persons took part – 550 healthy subjects and 600 mental patients from a broad spectrum – and on the basis of a biopsychosocionoetic model of the nature of man and his health, and a system-network approach, it has become possible to distinguish the following models to explain the nature of fixed forms of behavior: neurodynamic, energy-economic, phylogenetic, person-environment relationship, dispositional, stressogenic, pathogenic, psychodynamic, learning (behavioral-cognitive), system (an excessively rigid system and structural relations between levels of action).
FFB, fixed forms of behavior, individual and group systems, biopsychosocionoetic model, system-network approach
Background. At the beginning of 20thcentury, the phenomenon of oddity began to be studied. It was defined as a set of characteristics responsible for an individual giving the impression of being unusual, odd, and peculiar. Later, psychiatrists integrated oddity into the concept of schizotypy. Yet, while considered a part of the schizotypy construct, oddity has remained singular and maintained its status as an independent dimension.
Objective.The present article discusses oddity as a set of particular clinical traits that can be evaluated both by self-report measures and clinical assessment. We set out to investigate the oddity phenomena as manifested in a clinical sample, in order to delineate key features that constitute this concept.
Design. Seventy-one patients were selected according to a specific set of criteria and subjected to a set of self-report measures (the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Adult Personality Traits Questionnaire), a clinical interview, and a pathopsychological experiment. A number of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional characteristics were analyzed. An intra-group comparison was carried out in order to clarify the potential differences between the self-reported and clinically assessed phenomenon of oddity.
Results. The study’s first finding was that the SPQ-74 does not identify odd personalities in the general population, as reflected in the fact that the sample’s average scores proved to be low. Secondly, restricted emotionality and a deficit in social interactions proved to be the prevalent characteristics of the sample of “odd” individuals. Furthermore, a set of certain speech peculiarities (word coinage, bizarrerie, etc.) and thinking impairments of various types (distortion of abstraction level and motivational deficit) emerged as prominent characteristics in the majority of subjects. Finally, it was determined that clinical assessment allows for a more comprehensive evaluation of the psychology of odd personalities than self-report measures, due to a number of the personality, temperamental, and cognitive characteristics that the latter tend to exhibit.
Conclusion. “Odd” individuals can be characterized by a number of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral features independent of social perception and relevant to clinical practice; they can be captured more successfully by the application of qualitative methods. Further research is needed to elaborate this set of traits and test this hypothesis on new samples.
Background. In European countries, postpartum depression (PPD) occurs in 13–19% of women. The statistics indicate that postpartum depressive disorders affect up to 300,000 women in Russia annually. There is still an extremely acute lack of psychological comfort provided to women during labor in Russia.
Objective. To our knowledge, ours is the first study that examines the association between childbirth experience and the risk of PPD in Russia.
Design. We collected data from 190 Russian-speaking mothers, ages 19 to 46, (M = 32 +4.3) two months after their delivery.
Results. Birth satisfaction and physical well-being two months after delivery were significantly inversely associated with PPD. Birth satisfaction negatively correlated with the perceived severity and unpredictability of labor, and positively correlated with physical well-being two months after delivery. The presence of a partner and a personal midwife or doula at birth was associated with higher birth satisfaction.
Conclusion. Our results emphasize the significance of childbirth satisfaction in the context of PPD and suggest the importance of individual professional support during labor.
postpartum depression (PPD); birth satisfaction; maternal mental health; prevention of postpartum depression; doula support
The Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Scale for the Assessment of Fatigue in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 7-18 s in Russia
Deviaterikova, A.A., Kasatkin, V.V., Velichovsky, B.B. (2021). The Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Scale for the Assessment of Fatigue in Pediatric Oncology Patients Aged 7-18 s in Russia. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 14(1), 39-48. DOI: 10.11621/pir.2021.0104
Background. Fatigue is the most common complaint by children both during and after cancer treatment, but in Russia, there is no reliable method for assessing fatigue.
Objective. To develop a Russian version of the Turkish Scale for the Assessment of Fatigue in Pediatric Oncology Patients Ages 7-18.
Design. Our first step was to translate all the items of the Turkish questionnaire into Russian. Then, through discussion, we created a single proposition for each item. The next step was obtaining expert opinions to assess the validity. Once the expert estimates agreed, a pilot version of the questionnaire was formed. The next step was to collect a large sample of patients to study the reliability and validity of the questionnaire.
Results. As a result of factor analysis, three factors were identified. The first factor was "fatigue associated with actions;" the second was "fatigue as feeling;" and the third was "fatigue associated with sleep difficulties." The children's and parents’ versions had the same factor structure.
Conclusion. This study showed the possibility of using the questionnaire in a Russian sample. That’s why it is necessary to continue collecting and analyzing data in this direction. The reliability of the test was also assessed. The reliability of the parent version scored a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.91. The reliability of the children’s version showed a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.93.
fatigue; pediatric cancer; questionnaire; adolescent; quality of life
Counterproductive Work Behavior in Russian Nanotechnology Organizations
Background. Organizational behavior plays a significant role in the effectiveness of enterprises specializing in nanotechnology. Its negative side – counterproductive work behavior (CWB) – has not been analyzed sufficiently in this industry. We evaluated different theoretical approaches to this problem.
Objective. To estimate the predominant forms of counterproductive work behavior in relation to dimensions such as the intensity of the nanotechnology industry, seniority in the organization, and the age and gender of the subjects.
Design. We used a descriptive exploratory methodology that analyzes the preponderance of counterproductive work behavior in profile companies throughout the Russian Federation. CWB was assessed through a self-report questionnaire and in-depth interview with each employee. The results were analyzed by correlation-regression analysis in SPSS.
Results. We found significant correlations between the variables “intensity of the nanotechnology industry within the organization”, “seniority of employees within the organization”, “age of employees”, and the total score of CWB. Regarding the CWB dimensions, the highest average of the scores was obtained for “low level of conscientiousness” (mean = 21.75; SD = 2.9), followed closely by “low level of personal development” (mean = 20.53; SD = 3.09). Among the CWB dimensions, it seems that the conscientiousness of the employees plays a key role in the continuation of their professional activity and consequently in the increase of seniority in the organization.
Conclusion. A professional difficulty can be perceived as a challenge by an employee with good physical and/or psychological resilience. Russian nanotechnology companies should evaluate their approach to dealing with employees and mitigate situations that might be unnecessarily stressful. From the data obtained through the semi-structured interview, we found that what happens in a work group is essential in the emergence of CWB. Organizations need clear policies that empower employees to deal with certain work tasks and with employees who engage in specific CWB.
organizational behavior; counterproductive work behavior; organizational behavior management; nanotechnology
Psychological Burnout among Professionals Working with Children with Motor Disabilities
Al-Ali, T., Akour, M.M., Al-Masri, E., Mizaghobian, A.A.H., Ghaith, S. (2021). Psychological Burnout among Professionals Working with Children with Motor Disabilities. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 14(1), 69-85. DOI: 10.11621/pir.2021.0106
Background. Psychological burnout is a state of psychological and physical fatigue that shows the effect of work stress on the individual and negatively affects his/her attitudes towards work. The current study was motivated by the assumption that people who work directly with students with special needs are at the forefront of professions that can create feelings of frustration, and thus may be vulnerable to psychological burnout.
Objective. To identify the level of psychological burnout among professionals working with children with motor disabilities, and how these levels differ according to gender, workplace, years of experience, and the number of children the employees treat.
Design. The sample comprised 195 staff members at the Al-Hussein Society for the rehabilitation of the Physically Challenged and the Cerebral Palsy Foundation in Amman, Jordan. The researchers used the Maslach Burnout Inventory, which consists of three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and the lack of a sense of personal accomplishment.
Results. We found a low level of psychological burnout among those who work with children with motor disabilities. The level of psychological burnout was low for two dimensions: lack of a sense of personal accomplishment and depersonalization, whereas it was average for emotional exhaustion. The results showed statistically significant differences in the degrees of psychological burnout in its three dimensions according to the employee’s workplace, with higher levels at the Cerebral Palsy Foundation. However, no statistically significant differences were found among the participants due to gender, years of experience, or the number of children they treat.
Conclusion. The low levels of psychological burnout among professionals who work with children with motor disabilities might be due to the psychological and professional support they receive from their institutions.
psychological burnout; emotional exhaustion; depersonalization; children with special needs; Jordan
Korneev, A.A., Krichevets, A.N., Sugonyaev, K.V., Ushakov, D.V., Vinogradov, A.G., Fomichev, A.A. (2021). Sources of Artifacts in SLODR Detection. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 14(1), 86-100. DOI: 10.11621/pir.2021.0107
Background. Spearman’s law of diminishing returns (SLODR) states that intercorrelations between scores on tests of intellectual abilities were higher when the data set was comprised of subjects with lower intellectual abilities and vice versa. After almost a hundred years of research, this trend has only been detected on average.
Objective. To determine whether the very different results were obtained due to variations in scaling and the selection of subjects.
Design. We used three methods for SLODR detection based on moderated factor analysis (MFCA) to test real data and three sets of simulated data. Of the latter group, the first one simulated a real SLODR effect. The second one simulated the case of a different density of tasks of varying difficulty; it did not have a real SLODR effect. The third one simulated a skewed selection of respondents with different abilities and also did not have a real SLODR effect. We selected the simulation parameters so that the correlation matrix of the simulated data was similar to the matrix created from the real data, and all distributions had similar skewness parameters (about -0.3).
Results. The results of MFCA are contradictory and we cannot clearly distinguish by this method the dataset with real SLODR from datasets with similar correlation structure and skewness, but without a real SLODR effect. Theresults allow us to conclude that when effects like SLODR are very subtle and can be identified only with a large sample, then features of the psychometric scale become very important, because small variations of scale metrics may lead either to masking of real SLODR or to false identification of SLODR.
intelligence; Spearman’s law of diminishing returns; mathematical modeling; structural modelling; structure of intelligence