Background. Attachment-related anxiety and avoidance have a significant impact on self-esteem, optimism, and hope. Moreover, previous studies have shown that religiosity can also be an important factor in promoting hope and emotional regulation.
Objective. The first aim of this study was to explore the relationship between attachment-related anxiety, attachment-related avoidance, dispositional hope, generalized self-efficacy (GSE), future time perspective (FTP) as future time opportunities (FTO), and focus on limitations (FOL). The second purpose was to detect the effect of religiosity on hope, GSE, and FTP.
Design. The study involved 153 Turkish participants (Females n = 81, 52.9%), between the ages of 18 and 66, who filled out the Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Experience in Close Relationship-Revised (ECR-R), FTP, and GSE inventories via a Google survey. A Pearson correlation test, multiple linear regression analysis, and an independent t-test were computed.
Results. Attachment-related anxiety was inversely related to dispositional hope and GSE, while it was positively associated with FOL. Attachment-related avoidance was negatively related to dispositional hope and FTO, whereas it was positively correlated with FOL. FTO was positively correlated with GSE and dispositional hope. Religious participants had a higher level of dispositional hope and GSE than non-religious participants. A lower level of attachment-related anxiety and religiosity was associated with a higher level of GSE and hope. Females showed a higher level of makeup agency than men, whereas the men reported a higher level of FOL than the women.
Conclusion. This study concluded that both attachment-related anxiety and religiosity were predictors of hope and GSE. Gender differences played a significant role in FOL and make-up agency. Moreover, it was found that attachment-related anxiety and avoidance have different functions in GSE and FTO.
Keywords: Adult Attachment Styles/ Dispositional Hope/ Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE)/ Focus on Limitation (FOL)/ Future Time Opportunities (FTO)/ Experience in Close Relationships-Revised Questionnaire
Background. Patients with Celiac Disease (CD) experience psychological disorders and emotion-regulation disruptions. Although following a gluten-free diet alleviates their symptoms, these patients report social relationship problems.
Objective. The first aim of this study was to analyze the level of FFMQ mindfulness (describing emotions, acting with awareness, observing, non-judging of inner experience, and non-reactivity to inner experience) and harmony in life (HiL) in patients with CD. The second goal was to examine the relationship between the FFMQ and HiL scales in patients with CD. The third was to detect the effects of the duration of the illness, education level, and employment status on FFMQ-measured mindfulness and HiL.
Design. The study involved 111 Turkish patients with CD (N Females = 75, 67.6%) living in Turkey. The patients filled out the FFMQ and HiL questionnaires via a google form survey. The duration of their diagnosis, age, employment status, and education level were nominal variables. A Pearsons’ correlation test, independent ttest, multiple linear regression, and one-way ANO VA were implemented.
Results. The results showed that patients with CD had a low level of HiL. The total FFMQ score was positively related to the HiL scale. Education and duration of diagnosis had a significant impact on the FFMQ and HiL scores. Age affected the level of describing emotions, and employment status had a strong effect on acting with awareness. However, gender affected neither the FFMQ nor HiL levels.
Conclusion. The results showed that patients with CD expressed a low level of HiL. Non-reactivity to inner experience, observing, and acting with awareness were positive predictors of the HiL scores. Moreover, since the HiL and FFMQ scales showed high internal consistency, the FFMQ and HiL questionnaires can be used in further studies of patients with CD.
Keywords: FFMQ/ mindfulness/ celiac disease/ harmony in life/ duration of diagnosis