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Yury P. Zinchenko, Elena I. Pervichko, Anatoliy I. Martynov. (2013). Psychological underpinning of personalized approaches in modern medicine: syndrome analysis of mitral valve prolapsed patients. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 89-102

The article aims to demonstrate a high efficiency of the methodological means suggested by psychological syndrome analysis approach (Vygotsky-Luria school) for solving theoretical and applied issues in contemporary person-centered medicine. 

This is achieved through an example of empirical study meant to construct a psychosomatic syndrome for 290 patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Analysis of all collected data was based on psychological syndrome analysis concept (Vygotsky–Luria school) and A.R. Luria’s principles for psychological factors (causes) selection, which determine the logic and structure of a neuropsychological syndrome. It demonstrated the association between characteristics of emotional experiences and clinical symptoms manifested in MVP patients. This correlation was statistically verified. The results proved that the most important syndrome-establishment factor (radical) is a specific emotionality and dysfunction of emotion regulation and emotional control in MVP patients (excessive emotional repression with insufficient reflection of emotional experiences). Features of the motivation sphere of MVP patients appear as a second psychological syndrome-establishment factor: these are domination of the motive of failure avoidance and unsatisfied self-approval need. 

We argue that psychological syndrome analysis can be used as a means to approach not only diagnostic but also prognostic tasks both in clinical psychology and medicine, as well as for the development and implementation of the person-centered integrative diagnosis model. 

We maintained that this approach, applied in theoretical and practical fields of clinical psychology and mental health care is highly efficient at the current stage of the science evolution due to prospects revealed by s new methodological context of postnonclassical model of rationality and a comprehensive character of the cultural-historical concept regarding an individual and his mind as a self-developing open systems.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Pervichko, Elena I. ; Martynov, Anatoliy I.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  89-102
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0208
Keywords:  person-centered integrative diagnostic model, psychological syndrome analysis, Vygotsky-Luria school, psychosomatic syndrome, mitral valve prolapse, postnonclassical model of scientific rationality, self-developing system.
4196

N. Veraksa, A. Belolutskaya, I. Vorobyeva, E. Krasheninnikov, E. Rachkova, I. Shiyan, O. Shiyan (2013). Structural dialectical approach in psychology: problems and research results.Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6 (2), 65-77

In this article dialectical thinking is regarded as one of the central cognitive processes. Because of this cognitive function we can analyze the development of processes and objects. It also determines the possibilities for the creative transformation of some content and for solving problems.

The article presents a description and the results of experimental studies. This evidence proves that dialectical thinking is a specific line of cognitive development in children and adults. This line can degrade during school time if the educational program follows formal logical principles, or it can become significantly stronger if the pedagogy is based on dialectical methodology.

About the authorsVeraksa, Nikolay E. ; Belolutskaya, Anastasiya K. ; Vorobyeva, Irina I.; Krasheninnikov, Eugene E. ; Rachkova, Elena V. ; Shiyan, Igor B. ; Shiyan, Olga A.
ThemesEducational psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  65-77
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0206
Keywords:  structural-dialectical approach, dialectical thinking, dialectical tasks, strategy of mental handling of oppositions
7907

Zinchenko Yu.P., Pervichko E.I. (2012). The Methodology of Syndrome Analysis within the Paradigm of "Qualitative Research in Clinical Psychology". Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 157-184

This article considers the potential for applying contemporary philosophical theories (which distinguish classical, nonclassical, and postnonclassical types of scientific rationality) to the specification of theoretical methodological principles in the study of clinical psychology. We prove that psychological syndrome analysis (developed by the Vygotsky–Luria–Zeigarnik school), taken as a system of principles for organizing research as well as for interpreting its results, conforms to the epistemological complexity of the object of study in clinical psychology, which is understood in the postnonclassical scientific view as a self-developing system. We present an example of the formation of a psychosomatic syndrome in 290 patients with mitral-valve prolapse, applying methods of qualitative and statistical data analysis in a longitudinal clinical-psychological study. We prove that the syndrome is system-defined and has a multilevel character, and that its structure is determined by several factors: the motivational factor (with the domination of the failure-avoidance motive and the unsatisfied self-approval need); the factor of the emotional-regulation disorders, represented by both excessive emotional repression and lack of emotional control; and a psychophysiological factor. We argue that a psychosomatic syndrome can be used as a means for approaching not only diagnostic but also prognostic tasks both in clinical psychology and in medicine. We conclude that the results of our empirical study, conducted within the framework of postnonclassical philosophy and using the methods of psychological syndrome analysis, not only expand the scientific background on the nature of a particular disease (mitral-valve prolapse) but also pose further questions whose investigation will broaden our view of the psychological mechanisms of psychosomatic- syndrome genesis.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Pervichko, Elena I.
ThemesClinical psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  157-184
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0010
Keywords:  postnonclassical scientific rationality, self-developing system, psychological syndrome analysis, psychosomatic syndrome, psychological factors of psychosomatic-syndrome genesis, mitral valve prolapse, emotional tension, emotional regulation, failure-avoidance motive.
6405

Kozlovskiy S.A., Vartanov A.V., Nikonova E.Y., Pyasik M.M., Velichkovsky B.M. (2012). The Cingulate Cortex and Human Memory Processes. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 231-243

This study presents data from a magnetic-resonance morphometric (MRMM) analysis of the main regions of the cingulate cortex (in both hemispheres) and their role in memory processes in a group of healthy, females of older age. The results demonstrate a statistically reliable correlation between overall performance and the type of errors in different neuropsychological memory tests and the relative size of these regions. The discovered pattern of correlations can be explained by hypothesizing the reciprocal functional influence of the two major areas of the cingulate cortex – its anterior and posterior dorsal parts – on performance in neuropsychological memory tests.

About the authorsKozlovskiy, Stanislav A. ; Vartanov, Alexsander V. ; Nikonova, Evgenia Y. ; Pyasik, Maria M.; Velichkovsky, Boris M.
ThemesPsychophysiology
Pages:  231-243
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0014
Keywords:  cingulate cortex, cingulate gyrus, magnetic-resonance morphometric analysis, human neuropsychology, memory.
8591

Mezzich J.E., Zinchenko Y.P., Krasnov V.N., Pervichko E.I., Kulygina M.A. (2013) Person-centered approaches in medicine: clinical tasks, psychological paradigms, and postnonclassic perspective. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 95-109

The article aims to demonstrate advances in methodological means suggested by Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept in association with a theoretical model of a Person-centered diagnosis and practical use of the construct for clinical psychology and medicine. This, to a greater extent, arises from the fact that the cultural-historical concept (due to its humanistic nature and epistemological content) is closely related to the person-centered integrative approach. But for all that the concept corresponds to the ideals of postnonclassical model of scientific rationality with a number of ‘key’ features. Above all it manifests its “methodological maturity” to cope with open self-developing systems, which is most essential at the modern stage of scientific knowledge.

The work gives consideration to ‘defining pillars’ of Person-centered approach in modern medicine, to humanistic traditions of the Russian clinical school, and high prospects in diagnostics of such mental constructs as “subjective pattern of disease” and “social situation of personal development in disease” - within the context of person-centered integrative diagnosis.

This article discusses the need for implementation a cross-cultural study of subjective pattern of disease and its correlation with a particular “social situation of personality development under disease conditions”. It aims at development and substantiation of the model of person-centered integrative approach, enhancement of its diagnostic scope and, consequently, improvement of the model of person-centered care in modern psychiatry and medicine.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Pervichko, Elena I. ; Mezzich, Juan E.; Krasnov, Valeriy N.; Kulygina, Maya A.
ThemesClinical psychology
Pages:  95-109
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0109
Keywords:  Person-centered approach, Person-centered integrative diagnosis (PID), Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept , Subjective pattern of disease, Social situation of development, Postnonclassical model of scientific rationality, Self-developing systems.
7186

Veraksa A.N. (2013) Symbol as cognitive tool of mental activity. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 57-65

The article describes various aspects of symbolic mediation and is aimed at showing its specificity. The author views a situation of uncertainty as a structural element of a symbol and introduces the notion of a symbol being a special tool for orientation in such situations. On the one hand, a symbol is contrasted to a sign, and on the other, is regarded as a transitional form in the process of its mastering. Author pays special attention to understanding the role of symbol in connection with understanding of play and its role in child’s development. Emotional and cognitive functions of symbol are defined and illustrated by examples.

About the authorsVeraksa, Aleksandr N.
ThemesTheories and approaches; Cognitive psychology
Pages:  57-65
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0105
Keywords:  sign, symbol, mediation, developmental psychology, education.
4448

Zinchenko Y.P., Pervichko E.I.(2013) Nonclassical and Postnonclassical epistemology in Lev Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach to clinical psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 43-56

The work presents historiographic and theoretical methodological study of establishment of fundamental theses of L.S. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept within the field of clinical psychology.

We prove potency in application of contemporary philosophical concepts, which help distinguish between the types of scientific rationality (classical, nonclassical, and postnonclassical), for scientific reflection over the development of psychology and designation of paradigmatic status of cultural-historic concept suggested by L.S. Vygotsky and Vygotsky-Luria syndrome approach at the contemporary stage of science.

Present study of scientific works of L.S. Vygotsky and his followers demonstrated that fundamentals of cultural-historic conception suggested by L.S. Vygotsky and further developed in methodology of Vygotsky-Luria syndrome approach, these fundamentals presented the origins of not only non-classical, but as well post-nonclassical model of scientific rationality. They are characterized by post-nonclassical understanding of the object and method of psychological study and post-nonclassical mode of thinking of the scientists.

As it was showed, in works of L.S. Vygotsky there formulated general methodological requirements to organization of mental studies, which, on the whole, go in tune with the requirements introduced for study of complex self-developing systems. There were produced arguments to prove that the concept of Vygotsky-Luria syndrome approach describes mental syndromes as dynamic structures, which display the features of self-organization, self-determination and adaptive rationality. Hence, they can be regarded as open self-developing systems.

We assume and verify the hypothesis that the syndrome analysis, due to the features of post-nonclassic modeling of scientific rationality it reveals, may be regarded as theoretically productive methodological approach at the modern stage of science.

About the authorsZinchenko, Yury P. ; Pervichko, Elena I.
ThemesTheories and approaches; Clinical psychology; Methodology of psychology
Pages:  43-56
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0104
Keywords:  nonclassical epistemology, postnonclassical epistemology, self-developing systems, cultural-historical psychology, Vygotsky-Luria school, psychological syndrome analysis, higher mental functions.
7371

Bayanova L.F. (2013) Vygotsky’s Hamlet: the dialectic method and personality psychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 6, 35-42

This article presents an analysis of Vygotsky’s work on the psychology of art and his use of the image of Hamlet in the psychological analysis of personality. It also describes the capabilities of the dialectic method for assessing psychological problems. Reference to three dialectical oppositions—of the story and the plot, of the main character’s spinelessness and his insanity, and of subject and personality—allows the development of a theoretical analysis of the psychology of personality in its relationship to culture. Culture is defined as the system of normative situations. Keywords: image of Hamlet, dialectic method, culture, normative situation, personality, subject.

About the authorsBayanova, Larisa F.
ThemesPsychology and culture; Personality psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  35-42
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2013.0103
Keywords:  : image of Hamlet, dialectic method, culture, normative situation, personality, subject.
5101

Akhutina T.V., Pylaeva N.M. (2011). L.Vygotsky, A.Luria and Developmental Neuropsychology. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 4, 155-175

This article is devoted to Lev Vygotsky’s and Alexander Luria’s contribution to the theory and methods of neuropsychology, and particularly, developmental neuropsychology. The first part of the article covers the principle foundations of neuropsychology as elaborated by Vygotsky and Luria. The goal of the second part is to show what interpretation of learning disabilities can be derived from it.

About the authorsAkhutina, Tatyana V. ; Pylaeva, Nataly M.
ThemesNeuropsychology; Developmental psychology; Theories and approaches
Pages:  155-175
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2011.0009
Keywords:  neuropsychology, cultural-historical psychology, higher mental functions.
6120

Galazhinsky E.V., Klochko V.Y. (2012). System Anthropological Psychology: Methodological Foundations. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 5, 81-98

The article considers methodological foundations of the system anthropological psychology (SAP) as a scientific branch developed by a well-represented group of Siberian scientists. SAP is a theory based on axiomatics of cultural-historical psychology of L.S. Vygotsky and transspective analysis as a specially developed means to define the tendencies of science developing as a self-organizing system. Transspective analysis has revealed regularities in a constantly growing complexity of professional-psychological thinking along the course of emergence of scientific cognition. It has proved that the field of modern psychology is shaped by theories constructed with ideation of different grades of complexity. The concept “dynamics of the paradigm of science” is introduced; it allows transitions to be acknowledged from ordinary-binary logic characteristics of the classical science to a binary-ternary logic, adequate to non-classical science and then to a ternary-multidimensional logic, which is now at the stage of emergence. The latter is employed in SAP construction. It involves the following basic methodological principles: the principle of directed (selective) interaction and the principle of generative effect of selective interaction. The concept of “complimentary interaction” applied in natural as well as humanitarian sciences is reconsidered in the context of psychology. The conclusion is made that the principle of selectivity and directedness of interaction is relevant to the whole Universe embracing all kinds of systems including the living ones. Different levels of matter organization representing semantic structures of various complexity use one and the same principle of meaning making through which the Universe ensures its sustainability as a self-developing phenomenon. This methodology provides an explanation for nature and stages of emergence of multidimensional life space of an individual, which comes as a foundation for generation of such features of consciousness as its system character and sensibility.

About the authorsGalazhinskiy, Eduard V. ; Klochko, Vitaliy Y.
ThemesMethodology of psychology
Pages:  81-98
DOI:  10.11621/pir.2012.0005
Keywords:  paradigmal dynamics of science, self-development, self-organization, selective interaction, complementarity, one-dimensionality, binarity, ternarity, multi-dimensionality
12301