doctor in Psychology
The study described in this article investigated contemporary young people’s perceptions of drugs and psychoactive substances (PAS). In the course of the research the following hypothesis was tested: in young people’s perceptions about drugs and PAS there are differences in emotional coloring, coherence, and tolerance. J.-C. Abric’s structural approach was used as the basic methodology. The free-associations method provided the bulk of the empirical material. The results obtained were processed via prototypic analysis (by P. Vergès’s method), indexing of emotional associations (by E.E. Pronina’s method), and frequency and content analysis.
As a result the core and the periphery of the perceptions of youth about drugs and PAS were described, and generalized notional categories that synthesize the structural elements of the perceptions were identified. The study revealed that the perceptions of young people about drugs and PAS do differ in coherence, tolerance, and emotional coloring. Perceptions of drugs are firm, consistent, and negative, while perceptions of PAS are less coherent but dynamic and have an ambivalent emotional coloration. The results are of prognostic importance for understanding young people’s attitudes toward drugs and PAS and can be used to design programs and measures directed to the prevention of PAS and drug abuse.
Keywords: perceptions, structure of perceptions, core and periphery of perceptions, perceptions of drugs, perceptions of psychoactive substances
The article aims to demonstrate advances in methodological means suggested by Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept in association with a theoretical model of a Person-centered diagnosis and practical use of the construct for clinical psychology and medicine. This, to a greater extent, arises from the fact that the cultural-historical concept (due to its humanistic nature and epistemological content) is closely related to the person-centered integrative approach. But for all that the concept corresponds to the ideals of postnonclassical model of scientific rationality with a number of ‘key’ features. Above all it manifests its “methodological maturity” to cope with open self-developing systems, which is most essential at the modern stage of scientific knowledge.
The work gives consideration to ‘defining pillars’ of Person-centered approach in modern medicine, to humanistic traditions of the Russian clinical school, and high prospects in diagnostics of such mental constructs as “subjective pattern of disease” and “social situation of personal development in disease” - within the context of person-centered integrative diagnosis.
This article discusses the need for implementation a cross-cultural study of subjective pattern of disease and its correlation with a particular “social situation of personality development under disease conditions”. It aims at development and substantiation of the model of person-centered integrative approach, enhancement of its diagnostic scope and, consequently, improvement of the model of person-centered care in modern psychiatry and medicine.
Keywords: Person-centered approach, Person-centered integrative diagnosis (PID), Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept , Subjective pattern of disease, Social situation of development, Postnonclassical model of scientific rationality, Self-developing systems.
Background. This study addresses a current problem relating to trust and the identification of gender differences in trust/mistrust manifestation. Gender identity is associated with cultural stereotypes and social roles, which facilitate the formation of trust in people. It acts as a significant integral meaning-based component of an individual’s “I”- conception, which contributes to the formation of trust in himself and the world around him.
Objective. To study features of trust/mistrust towards others in young people with different gender identities.
Design. The cross-gender-typical sample consisted of 179 representatives, 83 males and 96 females, ages 17 to 23 (M = 19.34 and SD = 1.79). The techniques for collecting data included the MMPI, the Sex-Role Inventory by S. Bem, and the Trust/Mistrust towards Others questionnaire by A. Kupreychenko. The results were processed via the Mann-Whitney U Test, the Kruskal-Wallis H criterion, and cluster analysis.
Results. Criteria of trust/mistrust among the youth with different gender identities were identified, and basic types of trust — categoric, irrational–emotional, ambivalent– contradictory, and non-differentiated — were singled out. Irrespective of biological sex, bearers of different gender identities do not exhibit the same criteria to determine trust/ mistrust.
Conclusion. This study makes it possible to enrich our understanding of the role of social gender in the formation of interpersonal trust and differences in the foundations of trust toward others, in people with different gender identities. The empirical typology of trust in youth with different gender identities allows for using the typology in organizing psychological diagnostics, and for support and improvement of their interpersonal relations.
Keywords: gender identity, trust, trust/mistrust identity, gender differences, social roles
This article considers the potential for applying contemporary philosophical theories (which distinguish classical, nonclassical, and postnonclassical types of scientific rationality) to the specification of theoretical methodological principles in the study of clinical psychology. We prove that psychological syndrome analysis (developed by the Vygotsky–Luria–Zeigarnik school), taken as a system of principles for organizing research as well as for interpreting its results, conforms to the epistemological complexity of the object of study in clinical psychology, which is understood in the postnonclassical scientific view as a self-developing system. We present an example of the formation of a psychosomatic syndrome in 290 patients with mitral-valve prolapse, applying methods of qualitative and statistical data analysis in a longitudinal clinical-psychological study. We prove that the syndrome is system-defined and has a multilevel character, and that its structure is determined by several factors: the motivational factor (with the domination of the failure-avoidance motive and the unsatisfied self-approval need); the factor of the emotional-regulation disorders, represented by both excessive emotional repression and lack of emotional control; and a psychophysiological factor. We argue that a psychosomatic syndrome can be used as a means for approaching not only diagnostic but also prognostic tasks both in clinical psychology and in medicine. We conclude that the results of our empirical study, conducted within the framework of postnonclassical philosophy and using the methods of psychological syndrome analysis, not only expand the scientific background on the nature of a particular disease (mitral-valve prolapse) but also pose further questions whose investigation will broaden our view of the psychological mechanisms of psychosomatic- syndrome genesis.
Keywords: postnonclassical scientific rationality, self-developing system, psychological syndrome analysis, psychosomatic syndrome, psychological factors of psychosomatic-syndrome genesis, mitral valve prolapse, emotional tension, emotional regulation, failure-avoidance motive.
The postnonclassical paradigm has increasingly become a conceptual basis for social research in various fields in an attempt to overcome the limitations of the classical and non-classical approaches. Subjects of social research activities require changes in the paradigm at all levels of research: from the statement of the problem to the elaboration of the appropriate methods and the analysis of the research data. The search for new research methods, technologies and techniques plays a crucial role in this process. One of the most promising methods that has rapidly developed in recent years is the technology of virtual reality (VR). This technology is being widely applied to both natural science and social science research. In this article, we examine the possibilities of using VR technology for the resolution of current tasks in social research from the perspective of the postnonclassical approach.
Keywords: postnonclassical paradigm, social research, virtual reality technology, ethnic and racial attitudes, verbal and non-verbal communication, avatar
This study examines the role of cognitive characteristics in the success in learning Russian, assessed through teachers’ grades and test scores on standardized state exams.
This paper examines the relationship between cognitive characteristics, such as nonverbal intelligence, working memory and speed of information processing, and the results of the Unified State Exam for 11th grade students, the Basic State Exam for 9th grade students and the traditional assessment of Russian language learning.
This study involved students in the 9th and 11th grades from four educational institutions in the Moscow and St. Petersburg regions; 427 students were studying in the 9th grade (50.3% were boys) and 398 students were studying in the 11th grade (44.8% were boys).
This study concluded that expert assessment of Russian language learning is more associated with successful test scores on the Unified State Exam (r = 0.71, p < 0.01) than with the results of the Basic State Exam (r = 0.46, р < 0.01).
This study showed that at the lower and upper levels of secondary education, nonverbal intelligence is a significant predictor of success in learning the Russian language according to expert estimates. In addition, we found differences in the relationship between cognitive performance and success in learning the Russian language as assessed by tests. Nonverbal intelligence contributes significantly to individual differences in scores for the Unified State Exam in Russian, while the contribution of cognitive characteristics on the Basic State Exam is not statistically significant.
Keywords: nonverbal intelligence, cognitive characteristics, success in learning Russian, Unified State Exam, State Final Examination, annual assessment
The article aims to demonstrate a high efficiency of the methodological means suggested by psychological syndrome analysis approach (Vygotsky-Luria school) for solving theoretical and applied issues in contemporary person-centered medicine.
This is achieved through an example of empirical study meant to construct a psychosomatic syndrome for 290 patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Analysis of all collected data was based on psychological syndrome analysis concept (Vygotsky–Luria school) and A.R. Luria’s principles for psychological factors (causes) selection, which determine the logic and structure of a neuropsychological syndrome. It demonstrated the association between characteristics of emotional experiences and clinical symptoms manifested in MVP patients. This correlation was statistically verified. The results proved that the most important syndrome-establishment factor (radical) is a specific emotionality and dysfunction of emotion regulation and emotional control in MVP patients (excessive emotional repression with insufficient reflection of emotional experiences). Features of the motivation sphere of MVP patients appear as a second psychological syndrome-establishment factor: these are domination of the motive of failure avoidance and unsatisfied self-approval need.
We argue that psychological syndrome analysis can be used as a means to approach not only diagnostic but also prognostic tasks both in clinical psychology and medicine, as well as for the development and implementation of the person-centered integrative diagnosis model.
We maintained that this approach, applied in theoretical and practical fields of clinical psychology and mental health care is highly efficient at the current stage of the science evolution due to prospects revealed by s new methodological context of postnonclassical model of rationality and a comprehensive character of the cultural-historical concept regarding an individual and his mind as a self-developing open systems.
Keywords: person-centered integrative diagnostic model, psychological syndrome analysis, Vygotsky-Luria school, psychosomatic syndrome, mitral valve prolapse, postnonclassical model of scientific rationality, self-developing system.
The paper introduces virtual reality systems as a new methodolology of carrying out both traditional and originally designed experimental studies in psychology and in a broader context - in neuroscience. This methodology, often differing from classical approaches toward planning and performing a study in cognitive, social, educational, organizational and numerous other disciplines within psychology, is placed in the context of genuine Russian and at the same time of world-wide psychological theories, conceptions and traditions. Advantages, currently available results, challenges and perspectives of the virtual paradigm in experimental psychology, psychotherapy and psychological rehabilitation are thoroughly described and analyzed. The ideas of immersive virtuality are also shown to play a profound role at diverse levels of innovative learning and teaching, including special, extracurricular, and college education. Besides, applied virtual reality systems are presented as being of serious importance for the university students' training: it is expected that new generations of professional psychologists will use these systems extensively. The multifaceted theoretical activities and applied work of the staff and students affiliated with the Psychology Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, aimed at development and usage of immersive virtual reality systems are fully presented in the paper.
Keywords: experimental psychology, neuroscience, psychotherapy, psychological rehabilitation, methodology, virtual reality, immersion, modality, innovative education, motor activity, psychophysics, cognitive psychology
This third issue of the yearbook Psychology in Russia: State of the Art is timed for the XXVIIth International Congress of Applied Psychology (11th-16th July 2010, Melbourne, Australia). The aim of the issue is to acquaint foreign colleagues with a broad spectrum of theoretical and applied research conducted by Russian psychologists in the last few years. Russian psychology is developing intensively today. To a very large extent this is determined by the great interest Russian society shows for psychology in general and for the possibilities of its practical application. An ever increasing number of organizations employ professional psychologists in Russia, and there is an ever increasing demand for scientifically sound innovations in management, production, education, and entertainment. In the last years, the quantity of popular psychology books has been steadily increasing, which is an unequivocal evidence for a rising concern of the Russian population with psychological issues. Although Russian psychology always was interested in solving applied problems, the dominance of applied research can today be regarded as one of its most characteristic features.
Keywords: Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, history of psychology
The year which passed since the last issue of this yearbook was published was marked by a considerable amount of activity by the professional community of Russian psychologists. This clearly reflects the growing role psychology as a discipline and a profession plays in the life of Russian society. Today, psychology has become very visible in Russia. It has made a miraculous transformation from a rather exotic – if not marginal – academic discipline to almost a mass occupation. The need for all sorts of psychological services (be it psychological help, consulting, or applied research) surely still exceeds the capabilities of the professional community of Russian psychologists. This imbalance creates many pressures for professional psychologists to weaken quality standards they follow in their day-to-day work and to trade scientifically sound psychological theories for ad-hoc invented explanations and questionable hypotheses. It is with content that the Russian Psychological Society (RPS) observes a re-orientation of psychologists in universities and in practice towards an increasing sensitivity to the use of scientifically validated methods and procedures. More importantly, Russian consumers of psychological services today oft en ask not for a quick remedy of a single problem, but are interested in a thorough analysis of the problem at hand in order to develop an integrated solution with a predictable chance of success.
Keywords: Introduction. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, history of psychology
Yuri Petrovich Zinchenko is full professor in the Faculty of Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University. He earned a Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from Moscow State University in 1998. He is dean of the Faculty of Psychology and chair of Department of Methodology of Psychology at Moscow State University.
He is member of the Russian Academy of Education; president of the Russian Psychological Society; head clinical psychologist in the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation; member of Lomonosov MSU Academic Board; president of the Academic Board of the Faculty of Psychology (Lomonosov MSU); president of MSU Dissertation Committee D501.001.15; member of the Commission for Education of the Russian Academy of Sciences; chairman of the Psychological Section of the Education Board for Classical University Education of Russia; deputy chairman of the Psychology Expert Board of the State Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles at Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation); Honorary President of the Society of Law Enforcement Agencies’ Docteur Honoris Causa (Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Portugal); Psychologists; member of a number of scientific and methodological commissions and expert boards of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergency Management and Natural Disasters Response, the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, and the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation.
He is member of the Presidium of IUPsyS under UNESCO; member of the IAAP administration; member of the EFPA Executive Council; Honorary Member of the Human Science Center at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany; Honorary Professor at the University Paris III (Sorbonne), France.
Dr. Zinchenko is a well-known scientist in Russia and abroad specializing in the methodology of psychology and the psychology of safety. He has successfully developed and applied Lev S. Vygotsky’s Cultural-Historical approach to fundamental psychological research from the perspective of postnonclassical methodology; applied this approach in several branches of psychological research, including the psychology of safety and counter-terrorism; together with academician Viktor A. Sadovnichy, suggested and used supercomputer calculations to process data packages and formalize patterns of functional state of human under extreme conditions; was the first scientist in Russia to have used the technologies of virtual reality (CAVE format) in psychological research; developed scientific and methodological recommendations on the implementation of safety practices aimed at preventing youth from getting involved in terrorist activities; developed a dynamic model of the psychological security of person and society; studied issues related to the ethics of conducting psychological research and psychological practice.
Dr. Zinchenko delivers lectures on the methodology of psychology, health psychology, psychology of safety and psychology of terrorism; has supervised two Drs. Sc. and 10 Cands. Sc. to date; was Head of the project “Developing a System of Innovative Education at Lomonosov MSU in the Field of Psychology” (part of the federal project Education), within the framework of which innovative programs of training masters in the psychology of safety and the psychology of negotiations and conflict resolution were launched. He has developed the Third Generation of Federal State Educational Standards for such special fields as “Theoretical and Experimental Psychology”, “Occupational Psychology”, “Clinical Psychology”, as well as for programs of training masters in psychology and the program of senior managers in the field of psychology of public service.
Dr. Zinchenko supervised the following scientific projects backed with grants from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation: “Conducting Fundamental Research in Psychology” (2009), “Elaboration of Innovation Methods of Research, Educational and Practical Activity of Psychologist with Application of Virtual Reality Technologies” (2009-2011), “Methodological Issues of Applying Modern IT to Psychology of Safety” (2010-2012), “Developing a Methodological Basis for Modeling Psychological and Psycophysiological Mechanisms of Human's Functional State through the Use of Supercomputers” (2011-2012). He headed the following research projects: “Socio-psychological Methods and Models of Increasing Effectiveness of Counter-Terrorist Activities” (2005-2006), “Psychological Methods and Models of Increasing Effectiveness of Counter-Terrorist Activities in Changing Russia” (2006-2008), “Methodological Bases of Virtual Reality Applications in Psychology” (2009-2011), “Tolerance as a Factor of Countering Xenophobia” (2010).
He was backed with a grant within the framework of the International Program of Russian-Swiss Scientific Collaboration (a research project “Executive functions in Preterm Born Children: Cognitive, Neuronal and Behavioral Aspects”, 2010-2011).
Dr. Zinchenko headed the following research projects in the field of health psychology carried out under the auspices of the Civic Chamber of the Russian Federation and the All-Russian Non-Governmental Organization “The League of National Health”: “Health Psychology: Innovations in Science, Education and Practice” (2006-2007), “The First Open All-Russian Student Competition of Social Advertising and Social Projects “Russia without Tobacco” (2009), “Psychological Support of Rehabilitation and Drug Addiction Prevention” (2011-2012).
Dr. Zinchenko has founded a scientific school rewarded with a grant from the President of the Russian Federation for the federal support of leading scientific schools of the Russian Federation. The school’s projects have been supported by the Federal Special Program “Scientific and Academic Staff in Innovative Russia for 2009-2013”.
He has over 180 scholarly publications, including those in foreign languages and is author and co-author of 46 books.
Dr. Zinchenko is the Editor-in-Chief of a number leading psychological journals: “Russian Psychological Journal”, “National Psychological Journal”, “The Moscow University Herald. Series 14. Psychology”, annual “Psychology in Russia: State of the Art”, and a member of the editorial boards of the journals “Methodology and History of Psychology”, “Psychology and Natural Science”, “Psychology and Social Studies”, “Cognitive Science”, “Bulletin of Practical Educational Psychology”, “Forensic Psychology”, “The World of Psychology”, “Bulletin of South Ural State University. Series “Psychology”, “Siberian Psychological Journal”. He is the Executive Editor of the series “Classical MSU University Textbook”, a member of the Scientific Editorial Board of the publishing house Ekonomika and a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the Russian Academy of Education.
Dr. Zinchenko has been decorated with the medals “In honor of the 850th Anniversary of Moscow” and “For Cooperation between Rescue Services”. He is the Russian Government Education Award recipient and Honored Fellow of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation.
(2015) Psychology of securit. Textbook. Moscow: Urait (co-author with A.Dontsov, E.Perelygina, & O.Zotova).
(2013) "Lomonosov" school competition in psychology: methodological recommendations. Moscow: KDU (co-author with Volodarskaya I.A., Matyushkina A.A., & Shilko R.S.).
(2012). Vygotsky, une théorie du développement et de l'éducation: recueil de textes et commentaires (Y.Zinchenko, & F.Yvon, Eds.). Moscow: MSU.
(2012). Macro-psychological aspects of Russia Security. Moscow: Optimum Group (co-author with A.Dontsov, E.Perelygina, & O.Zotova).
(2011). Methodological Issues of Security Psychology. Personality, Society, State. Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Psychology of Virtual Reality. Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Psychology of Public Service. Moscow: MSU (co-author with A.Soroko, A.Potapkin, &V.Fiveisky).
(2011). Sport Psychology. Moscow: MSU (co-author with A. Tonevitsky, A.Veraksa, S.Isaythchev, S.Leonov, et al.).
(2011). Theoretical and methodological foundation of psychological research: determination and social value. Moscow.
(2011). Tolerance as a Factor of Opposition to Xenophobia: Control of Xenophobia Risks in the Risk Society (Ed.). Moscow.
(2011). The person as a subject and an object of Media-Psychology (Ed.). Moscow: MSU
(2010). Security Foundation of Personality and Society. Moscow.
(2010). Psychology of Corporation Security. Moscow (co-author with E.Perelygina, I.Busygina, &O.Zotova).
(2008). Information and Psychological Security in Mass media. Moscow: Aspect Press.
(2008). Foundation of Security Psychology: functionality and integrity. Yekaterinburg (co-author with V.Gratchev, L. Zaks, et al.).
(2008). Contemporary Image of Russia: development prospects. Moscow (co-author with A.Otchirova, &L.Matveeva).
(2008). Philosophy of social sciences and humanities. Moscow: Academitchesky Project (co-author with V.Kapitsin, S.Lebedev, V.Ilyin, L.Ionin, et al.).
(2007). Innovational Education Programs in Psychology. Moscow: MSU (co-author with I.Volodarskaya).
(2007). Psychology in Moscow University, 1755-2005. Moscow: MSU.
(2007). Contemporary terrorism and struggle against it: social- humanitarian dimensions. Moscow (co-author with S.Aphonin, R.Shilko, et al.).
(2003). Clinical Psychology of Sexuality in the Context of Cultural-Historical Approach. Moscow.
Chapters in Books
(2012). Methodological issues of Art Psychology: from semiotic classics to postmodern nonclassics. In Collection of articles on art, philology and history (pp.129-139), Moscow: MSU.
(2012). L'héritage vygotskien dans la psychologie du développement en Union Soviétique. In Y.Zinchenko & F.Yvon (Eds.), Vygotsky, une théorie du développement et de l'éducation (pp.319-334). Moscow: MSU (co-author with L. Chaiguerova).
(2012). Vie et œuvres de L.S.Vygotsky: un parcours vers la psychologie culturelle-historique. In Y.Zinchenko & F.Yvon (Eds.), Vygotsky, une théorie du développement et de l'éducation (pp.27-60). Moscow: MSU (co-author with L.Chaiguerova & F.Yvon).
(2012). Virtualisation of reality and cultures: risks of socialisation in globalised world. In Dialog of Cultures during Globalisation. V.1 (pp.92-94). Saint-Petersburg.
(2012). Methodological foundation of application of virtual reality and super-calculators in psychology. In The V Congress of the Russian Psychological Society (pp.402-404). Moscow.
(2012). The Methodology of Syndrome Analysis of Vygotsky-Luria Approach and Postnonclassic Rationality. In N.K.Korsakova, &Yu.V.Mikadze (Eds.). Heritage of A.R.Luria in the contemporary scientific and cultural-historical context: To the 110 anniversary of A.R.Luria (pp.37-69). Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Models and Methods of Increasing of Information Security and Diagnostics of Xenophobia Risks in the Real and Virtual Worlds. In Tolerance as a factor of opposition to xenophobia: Control of Xenophobia Risks in the Risk Society (pp. 409-480). Moscow (co-author with L. Chaiguerova, R.Shilko, &A.Voiskunsky, et al.).
(2011). Virtual reality in experimental psychology: about methodology. In Yu.Zinchenko (Ed.). The person as a subject and an object of Media-Psychology (Ed.) (pp.58-75). Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Virtualisation of reality: from psychological tools to a new subculture. In Yu. Zinchenko (Ed.). The person as a subject and an object of Media-Psychology (Ed.) (pp.231-278). Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Mass media as an effective tool of prevention against social-psychological factors of development of terrorism. In Yu. Zinchenko (Ed.). The person as a subject and an object of Media-Psychology (Ed.) (pp.575-594). Moscow: MSU.
(2011). Coping Strategies. In A.Bodalev (Ed.) Psychology of Communication. Encyclopaedic dictionary (pp.409-410). Moscow: Cogito-Centre (co-author with R.Shilko).
(2011). Role of Mass Media in struggle against the terrorism. In Diplomatic Yearbook (pp.143-172). Moscow: East-West.
(2011). Virtual reality technologies: theory, practice and application to sport. In Yu.P.Zinchenko, &Tonevitsky (eds.). Sport Psychology (pp.377-392). Moscow: MSU.
(2008). Topical issues of security in the information space. In Informational and Psychological Safety (pp.9-14). Moscow: Aspect Press (co-author with E.Vartanova).
(2008). Psychological Aspects of Informational Security and opposition to terrorism by means of mass media. In Informational and Psychological Safety (pp.199-226). Moscow: Aspect Press (co-author with R.Shilko).
(2006). Psychological Aspects in Research of Terrorism. In Security, Terrorism and Privacy in Information Society (pp.123-126). Bielefeld: W. Bertelsmann Verlag (co-author with R.Shilko).
(2006). Classification of psychological disorders. In Psychological lexicon: encyclopedia in 6 vol., V.1 (pp.15-18). Moscow: Per Se (co-author with R.Shilko).
(2006). Philosophical and methodological issues of psychology. In Philosophy of social sciences and humanities (pp.523-567). Moscow: Academitchesky project.
(2003). Clinical Psychology as a tool of study of sexual disorders. Bulletin of Ministry of Industry, Science and Technologies (pp.49-55). Moscow.
(2001). Pathopsychological aspects of PTSD. In Psychologists on Migrants and Migration in Russia. Information and Analytical Bulletin of the Russian Red Cross, №3 (pp.10-18). Moscow.
(1993). Sexualité en psychanalyse . In Archives de Psychanalyse (pp.21-25). Paris: Eolia.
(1992). Evolution of Concept "Symptom". In Unconscious: its manifestation and forms (pp.41-49). Moscow.